Yrjo Majanne

Yrjo Majanne
Tampere University | UTA · Department of Automation Science and Engineering

About

64
Publications
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285
Citations

Publications

Publications (64)
Book
Full-text available
This eBook is a unique scientific journey to the changing frontiers of energy transition in Cuba focusing on technological challenges of the Cuban energy transition. The focus of this milestone publication is on technological aspects of energy transition in Cuba. Green energy transition with renewable energy sources requires the ability to identify...
Book
Full-text available
Este libro electrónico es un viaje científico único a las fronteras cambiantes de la transición energética en Cuba, centrándose en los desafíos tecnológicos de dicha transición. La transición a la energía verde con fuentes de energía renovable requiere la capacidad de identificar oportunidades en todas las industrias y servicios, y aplicar las tecn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introducción El sistema de producción de electricidad en Cuba se basa, en un 95 %, en la generación con combustibles fósiles en centrales de condensación a vapor (termoeléctricas), y en centrales de motores de combustión interna (MCI) alimentadas con fuel oíl y diésel. Sin embargo, la política de cambio climático global establece requisitos también...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nowadays, the renewable energies have emerged like an important energy source in the entire world. They have a quick growth and diverse factors triggered it, particularly in the electric sector. The Electric Union (Unión Eléctrica de Cuba) has the challenge to change Cuban energy matrix with the introduction of renewable energy, by the acquisiti...
Chapter
This chapter demonstrates how various part-solutions can be combined in different scenarios for a more climate-neutral electric energy system. The case study is the Finnish electric energy system, and 2018 is taken as a reference year owing to the conditions it afforded for the emerging weather-dependent, variable wind and solar power generation an...
Article
In this work, the operating cost of the CHP production is reduced by creating optimization model to schedule the operation of the heat storage. The objective function of the model targets to minimize heat production costs and maximize profits of electricity production. To implement the optimization model in practice and automate the operation, the...
Book
Full-text available
University of Turku, Finland Futures Research Centre organized the 19th Futures Conference on 13–14 2018 in Tampere, Finland, under the title “Energizing Futures – Sustainable Development and Energy in Transition’’. This publication is the proceedings of the Energizing Futures 2018 conference. To understand the challenges of the ongoing energy tra...
Article
Micro-size hydro power plants are commonly used at remote areas to supply islanded AC micro-grids. A typical way to control grid frequency is to manipulate active power dissipated in ballast loads by AC/AC converters. However, conventional asymmetrically switched thyristor controlled converters consume reactive power degrading the power factor at t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The article describes possible scenarios for the future development of the Cuban electricity system. The plans of increasing electricity supply from intermittent energy sources like solar and wind power create challenges in balancing the supply-demand in the context of varying load curve. Different scenarios for future electricity demand are constr...
Article
Since 2013, the biggest Caribbean island, Cuba, has been undertaking an energy matrix change. There is a strong political intention to replace fossil fuels by renewable energy and improve efficiency and security of the national energy system. By 2030, 24% of electric power shall be produced from renewable sources. Transition from centralized fossil...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and global economic pressures are strong drivers for energy economies to transition towards climate-neutrality, low-carbon economy and better energy and resource efficiencies. The response to these pressures, namely the increased use of renewable energy, creates a set of new challenges related to supply-demand balance for energy poli...
Article
New emission regulations will increase the need for inexpensive NOx emission monitoring solutions also in smaller power plants. The objective in this study is to find easily maintainable and transparent but still valid models to predict NOx emissions in natural gas fired hot water boilers utilizing existing process instrumentation. With a focus on...
Article
Due to increasing amount of intermittent and uncontrollable renewable energy production and reducing amount of stabilizing inertia in power systems, requirements for improved dynamic performance of controllable steam boilers will increase remarkably. Load tracking capacity of steam boilers consists of utilization of fast responding energy storages...
Article
Full-text available
Fluctuating power production in combined heat and power (CHP) plants may cause unwanted disturbances in district heating (DH) systems. DH -systems are often automated, however, supply temperature (ST) is still primarily chosen manually by the operator because of uncertain heat demand in near future and uncertain delay from heat supplier to consumer...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy production in power systems will remarkably increase the need of flexible and controllable power generation. As numerous existing thermal power generation units have been closed down, all the possible flexibility available in power systems should be harnessed to stabilize the power systems. Co...
Article
This paper introduces an application of simultaneous nonlinear data reconciliation and gross error detection for power plants utilizing a complex but computationally light first principle combustion model. Element and energy balances and robust techniques introduce nonlinearity and the consequent optimization problem is solved using nonlinear optim...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The article presents a new Express Cross-Impact Technique (EXIT) which is especially suitable for use in participatory expert workshops. The new cross-impact method calculates the interactions of variables through multinodal impact chains. The method can be used for evaluation of the relative importance of each variable or item on each other in the...
Article
The overall objective of the study is to improve usability and efficiency of desulphurization processes by providing assistance for plant operators by indicating arising issues. This paper introduces an indirect method to monitor spraying in semi-dry desulphurization processes, which is based on energy balance and first principle models. The method...
Article
Due to new emission regulations, coverage of monitoring requirements extends to new boiler classes. In Europe, Industrial Emission Directive brings new 15-50 MW boilers under the directive in special cases, so inexpensive NOx emission monitoring tools are appreciated. This paper presents models to estimate NOx emission in two similar natural gas fi...
Article
Today total environmental impacts of power production are a subject of emerging interest. Operation of power plants presents direct and indirect impacts to the environment. Direct impacts consist of instant emissions due to the operation of power plants and indirect impacts are originated from the production and transportation of fuels and waste ha...
Chapter
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are one of the main pollutants produced by combustion processes. New European emission regulations (IED) extent emission monitoring requirements to smaller boilers. Heating grid operators may have a notable number of such boilers and therefore appreciate affordable monitoring solutions. This paper studies several types of regr...
Conference Paper
European Commission has set new regulations for the third Emission Trading System period (2013-2020) that increased requirements for risk assessment, uncertainty estimation and continuous accuracy surveillance for CO2 monitoring system. The objective of this paper is to describe and discuss three independent methods to determine CO2 emissions in po...
Article
This special issue contains article on fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control methods applied to different aspects of modern power grids, both for detection, isolation and accommodating faults in the power grid, and for detection, isolation and accommodation of faults in power generating units. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons,...
Article
This paper introduces an online monitoring application for flue gas emission measurements. The monitoring is conducted by analytical redundancy by estimating the monitored measurement variables. The estimated variables are CO2, H2O, flue gas flow and combustion air flow. Additionally, SO2 content in the flue gas can be estimated with certain limita...
Conference Paper
Operational characteristics and efficiency of the generation of electricity in combined heat and power (CHP) plants are discussed. CHP power plants produce both electric and heat power and the amount of the electric power can be adjusted by sliding the backpressure level in steam headers. The minimum back pressure level giving the maximum electric...
Article
Boiler models are often very complex nowadays. This has been facilitated by the growth of the calculation effect of computers. The complexity of the models brings the challenge to the modelling and maintenance of models. In this paper, the wide and complex model of the steam power plant is presented. The dynamic model represents the supercritical c...
Conference Paper
The fast pyrolysis process is developed to produce liquid bio oil from biomass. In the discussed process the required thermal energy is extracted from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) as hot sand fed into the pyrolysis reactor. Residual char and uncondensed gases from the pyrolysis process are fed back and combusted in the boiler. Thus, the...
Conference Paper
A dynamic model for a solid fuel fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) is presented. The model consists of the air-flue gas and the water-steam systems combined together. The Air-flue gas system includes a furnace model describing combustion in a circulating fluidized bed and a convection section describing heat transfer from hot flue gases...
Conference Paper
Increased unit sizes, utilization of non-homogeneous fuels, and requirements of smooth and efficient operation during load transients has increased the importance of a dynamic system analysis both in process and control design of industrial power plants. The dynamic analysis is needed to define the load balancing buffer capacity and control perform...
Article
A dynamic model for a solid fuel fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) is presented. The model consists of the air-flue gas and the water-steam systems combined together. The Air-flue gas system includes a furnace model describing combustion in a circulating fluidized bed and a convection section describing heat transfer from hot flue gases...
Article
Increased unit sizes, utilization of non-homogeneous fuels, and requirements of smooth and efficient operation during load transients has increased the importance of a dynamic system analysis both in process and control design of industrial power plants. The dynamic analysis is needed to define the load balancing buffer capacity and control perform...
Article
Fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control applications require that the structure of the target process contains certain redundancy in system observability and controllability. Usually the analysis of the existence of these properties is based on the laborious state space model of the process. However, the state space model is not necessary needed...
Conference Paper
Industrial power plant is a large scale system. During every day operation the plant is exposed to large load disturbances caused by trips and start ups of steam consuming processes. Pressure stability of the plant must be maintained also during the disturbances in order to ensure the trouble free and efficient operation of the production system. T...
Article
The control scheme of industrial power plants leads typically to a complex multivariable control structure with active constraints to be taken care of. Then Model Predictive Control method (MPC) handles multivariate control problems naturally and optimal control result is calculated considering actuator limitations and constraints of process variab...
Article
The control task of the industrial power plants typically leads to a complex multivariable control structure with active constraints to be taken care of. Model Predictive Control, MPC, is applied to control pressure stability in a multilevel steam network. The system is demonstrated in a simulator environment. Besides the ability to control the pow...
Article
This paper presents a new open automation system concept where process control and diagnostics are integrated into the common environment. In the field of fault diagnosis and real time condition monitoring, the goal is to develop a flexible and modular system, which exploits different software and programming tools. The monitored process is a pilot...
Article
The goal of the project is to define and develop a condition monitoring and diagnostic system for the solid fuel gasification process and implement the system in a standard digital automation system. The monitoring system is based on static non-linear models and statistical properties of measured signals. The system includes monitoring displays and...
Article
The goal of the project is to define and develop a condition monitoring and diagnostic system for the solid fuel gasification process and implement the system to a standard digital automation system. Monitoring system is based on static non-linear models and statistical properties of measured signals. The system includes monitoring displays and par...
Conference Paper
It has proved to be difficult to apply model based diagnosis methods to process industry because of high development and maintenance efforts and real time requirements (Al applications). Hierarchical structure is one way to make model based systems easier to apply by decomposing the system into small and simple submodels. This paper presents the re...
Article
A scheme for a diagnostic autonomous control strategy of a power plant feed water process is discussed. The control system is based on Model Predictive Control strategy. MPC, applying diagnostic information to optimise the control result and the availability of the process. In this paper condition monitoring and diagnostics are carried out by diagn...
Article
A scheme for a diagnostic autonomous control strategy of a power plant feed water process is discussed. The control system is based on Model predictive Control strategy. MPC, applying diagnostic information to optimise the control result and the availability of the process. In this paper condition monitoring and diagnostics are carried out by diagn...
Chapter
On-line diagnosis system for power plant components and subprocesses is presented. The system is based on fault selective diagnosis algorithms applied to on-line process measurements. The algorithms calculate specific characteristics from monitored components in order to determine their operating state. User interface, system updating and system co...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to present some possibilities of fault detection of a filter. The study is based on process measurements in a chemical plant. By using on-line measurements the characteristic features of normal and damaged filter are studied and the degradation model of the filter is presented. The possibilities to on-line fault diagnos...
Article
On-line diagnosis system for power plant components and subprocesses is presented. The system is based on fault selective diagnosis algorithms applied to on-line process measurements. The algorithms calculate specific characteristics from monitored components in order to determine their operating state. User interface, system updating and system co...
Article
Energy production is one of the largest sources of air pollution. A feasible method to reduce some of the emissions is to improve the control strategies of existing power plants. In existing boilers staged combustion strategy will decrease the NOx emissions 20 - 40 % depending on the combustion system and even more if the process itself is improved...
Article
Large variations in moisture content and heat value of fuels (peat, bark, coal) can cause stability problems in combustion. Some computer-based methods to improve the measurement and control of solid fuel boilers have been developed. A microprocessor-based four-beam infrared moisture measurement system has been developed, which has advantages compa...
Article
Large variations in the moisture content and heat value of the fuels (peat, bark, coal, etc.) can cause stability problems in the combustion. We have developed some computer based methods to improve the measurement and control of solid fuel boilers. A microprocessor based four-beam infrared moisture measurement system has been developed, which has...
Article
Multivariable AR-signal analysis is used for energy economic modelling. Three types of energy used in the industrial sector of Finland, coal, oil and electricity, are studied. The dynamic interdependences of energy prices and consumption are modelled. Based on the MAR-model the dynamic changes in energy consumption due to changing prices are calcul...
Article
A dynamic model for a high-volatile solid fuel fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler is presented. The model consist of an air-flue gas model which includes a furnace model describing combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed and a model for a water-steam circuit describing heat transfer from hot flue gases to water and steam. The versatile furnace mode...
Article
This paper presents a dynamic model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) Benson type once-through utility (OTU) boiler. The water-steam cycle of the boiler is modelled using generalized model blocks able to handle thermodynamics of water, saturated water-steam mixture, and superheated steam under sub-and supercritical pressures. The g...
Article
The fast pyrolysis process is developed to produce liquid bio oil from biomass. In the discussed process the required thermal energy is extracted from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) as hot sand fed into the pyrolysis reactor. Residual char and uncondensed gases from the pyrolysis process are fed back and combusted in the boiler. Thus, the...
Article
CSTD85, IFAC/IFORS Conference on Control Science and Technology for Development. Peking, Kiina, 20 - 22 Aug. 1985

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Project partners: • Turku University, Finland Futures Research Center • Tampere University • Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba • Technological University of Havana, CUJAE • CIES IRIS project overview Project duration 48 months (1.1.2019 - 1.12.2022) IRIS is funded by the Academy of Finland Project objectives: 1. Develop a scenario construction tool for the analysis of future Cuban energy development and the construction of scenarios (CubaLinda) and carry out comparisons with other international energy planning models. 2. Develop planning tools for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources (wind, solar, biomass) in the Cuban electrical system and improve energy efficiency. 3. Develop planning tools for network development in Cuba to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources distributed in the system and improve system efficiency. 4. In a participatory workshop process, develop transformative future scenarios for the Cuban energy system, recognizing its social impacts in the context of inclusive and sustainable development. 5. Carry out cross-impact analysis of the interrelations of the Cuban energy system in the PESTEC framework (PESTEC = Political, Economic, Social, Technical, Environmental, Cultural) 6. Develop research capacity in the participating Cuban institutions and link them better with actors in the national energy sector and decision makers. Objectives of the IRIS project Scientific impacts of the project: - Improved planning tools for technological planning and energy policies based on new methods. - Better understanding of socio-economic and policy planning contexts and results. - Better understanding of the cross impacts of the energy system in the PESTEC framework. - Improved multidisciplinary research capacity in Cuban universities and research institutes in the field of energy systems. IRIS Project Research One of the objectives of the project is to support the research work of Cuban and Finnish researchers and doctoral students. Cuban Ph.D. researchers will carry out their Ph.D. work at their "home university" in Cuba under the supervision of the Cuban professor in accordance with Cuban guidelines. Some Cuban PhD researchers will also visit Finnish universities to familiarize themselves with the research methods and tools used and to obtain supervision from Finnish professors. Finnish PhD students will conduct their research in accordance with their Ph.D. plan
Project
1. Develop a scenario construction tool for Cuban future energy development analysis and scenario building (CubaLinda) and carry out comparison with other international energy planning models. 2. Develop planning tools for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources (wind, solar, biomass) in the Cuban electricity system and improving energy efficiency 3. Develop planning tools for grid development in Cuba in order to be able to integrate the distributed intermittent renewable energy sources in the system and to improve the system efficiency