Young-Moo Choo

Young-Moo Choo
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Ph.D.

About

82
Publications
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1,370
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2011 - July 2013
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca2+-binding receptor that modulates diverse target proteins and biological processes in all eukaryotes. CaM-binding proteins have been extensively studied in yeast, plants and animals, but little is known regarding CaM target proteins in the filamentous fungi. Recently, our studies have shown that CaM plays an impo...
Article
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Treatment with F-Pbl-E (3 days) had a synergistic anti-fibrosis effect in LX-2 and HepG2 cells compared to F-Pbl-E (0 day). F-Pbl-E (3 days) more effectively inhibited TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation and gene expression in LX-2 cells. Moreover, F-Pbl-E (3 days) more adequately reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), aspartate aminotra...
Article
Yeast MAP kinase (Hog1) plays an important role in the signaling system to overcome such situations in response to various environmental changes. Hog1 works in conjunction with the Ca2+/calmodulin signaling under environmental stresses. Hog1 participates in ATP regulation to detect and cope with environmental stresses such as osmotic stress.
Article
In this study, we isolated and characterized Gastrodia elata Blume-derived vanillyl alcohol (GEVA) to elucidate biomedical efficacies in improving memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay revealed that GEVA has an inhibitory activity against AChE. In addition, GEVA inhibited amyloid β-peptide (Aβ25-35)-induced caspase (CASP)-3/7 activit...
Article
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Even though Chaenomeles sinensis is extensively used as a medicinal product to cure coughs, little is known about the biomedical efficacies of C. sinensis. In this study, we report the novel efficacy of C. sinensis extract (Cs-E01). Our 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and superoxide anion scavenging assays revealed that Cs-E...
Article
Nanoplasmonic paper holds considerable promise as an effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for sensitive detection of small molecules. In this study, we report the development of a low cost, flexible, high-performance SERS substrate based on cellulose nanofiber/gold nanoparticle (CNF/AuNP) nanocomposites via vacuum-assisted f...
Article
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Although the edible alga Petalonia binghamiae is extensively consumed as a health-promoting food by Northeast Asians, little is known about the biomedical efficacies of P. binghamiae. In this report, we investigated the novel efficacy of P. binghamiae extract (Pb-E01) using LX-2 and HepG2 cells. Pb-E01 inhibited TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation an...
Article
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In this study, Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) extract (AAE) had potent antioxidant activity in vitro and promoted the biosynthesis of procollagen, a precursor of collagen in HaCaT cells. In addition, the expression of HAS-3 (hyaluronic acid synthase), which is a moisturizing factor, was increased in HaCaT cells in response to AAE. Therefore, th...
Article
Serine proteases and serine protease homologs are involved in the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system leading to melanization. The Bombyx mori serine protease homolog BmSPH-1 regulates nodule melanization. Here, we show the dual role of BmSPH-1 in the development and immunity of B. mori. BmSPH-1 was expressed in hemocytes after molting and d...
Article
We have previously found that mycelia culture broth of eight kinds of traditional herbal extracts fermented with Phellinus linteus (previously named as 8-HsPLCB) not only inhibited melanin and tyrosinase activity, but also reduced the contents of melanogenesis-related proteins including tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor...
Article
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Pheromones and other semiochemicals play a crucial role in today's integrated pest and vector management strategies. These semiochemicals are typically discovered by bioassay-guided approaches. Here, we applied a reverse chemical ecology approach; that is, we used olfactory proteins to lead us to putative semiochemicals. Specifically, we used 7 of...
Research
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Gravid female mosquito probes on water surface containing 4-ethylphenol, one of the oviposition stimulants, and then she starts to lay eggs.
Article
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Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects' survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional " antenna " has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the l...
Article
Full-text available
As opposed to humans, insects rely heavily on an acute olfactory system for survival and reproduction. Two major types of olfactory proteins, namely, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs), may contribute to the selectivity and sensitivity of the insects' olfactory system. Here, we aimed at addressing the question whether OBPs...
Article
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Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smel...
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Article
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The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, has one of the most acute and eclectic olfactory systems of all mosquito species hitherto studied. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to identify olfactory genes expressed predominantly in antenna, mosquito's main olfactory organ. Less than 50% of the trimmed reads generated by high-quality librar...
Article
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The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus - a vector of West Nile virus - is equipped with 130 odorant receptors (ORs), which enable young females to locate plants and blood-meal sources and older females to find suitable sites for oviposition. In our attempts to de-orphanize ORs expressed in female antennae, we identified CquiOR37 and Cq...
Article
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The Southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus has the largest repertoire of odorant receptors (ORs) of all mosquitoes and dipteran species whose genomes have been sequenced to date. Previously, we have identified and de-orphanized two ORs expressed in female antennae, CquiOR2 and CquiOR10, which are sensitive to oviposition attractants. In vie...
Article
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Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes - the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and...
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Article
Spider toxins have great potential in the development of biopesticides. Here, we report the molecular cloning and characterization of two peptide toxins from the spider Araneus ventricosus. Two cDNAs encoding peptide toxins were cloned from A. ventricosus. Analysis of the cDNA sequence shows that the mature peptides of AvT-39 and AvT-48 consist of...
Article
Bumblebee venom contains serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In this study, we characterized whether the bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom serine protease inhibitor (Bi-KTI) inhibits B. ignitus venom serine protease (Bi-VSP) or phospholipase A2 (Bi-PLA2). Bi-KTI did not inhibit Bi-VSP activity at pH 5.4 or 7.4, whereas Bi-KTI slightly i...
Conference Paper
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We have previously cloned an aldehyde oxidase 2 from antennae of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella. We report here the expression characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase 2, AtraAOX2. The AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and consists of 1,270 amino acid residues. Analysis of activity from male tissues showed that AtraAOX2 is expre...
Article
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Because insect visitors was different depending on decomposition stage, dipterans occurred on chicken carcasses depending on postmortem intervals were compared by abandoned sites and decomposition from a serial study on arthropod occurrence from carcasses as forensic indicator. Species occurrence and decomposition of carcasses were different depend...
Article
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The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones,...
Article
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Although several bee venom serine protease genes have been previously described, fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of these serine proteases has been reported for only two bumblebees to date, Bombus ignitus and B. terrestris. Here, we cloned venom serine proteases from the other bumblebee species, B. hypocrita sapporoensis and B. ardens ardens. The venom...
Article
Three major components of bumblebee venom are bombolitin, phospholipase A2, and a serine protease, with bombolitin being the most abundant. Here, we describe the molecular cloning of bombolitin isolated from the venom of a bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and demonstrate its antibacterial activity. The B. terrestris bombolitin gene consists of 2 exons...
Article
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The size of infective juveniles is variable and ranges from 724 to 1408 . Effects of harvest time and infective juvenile size on pathogenicity, development, and reproduction were examined in the last instar of the great wax moth, . Harvest time of infective juveniles (IJs) of affected pathogenicity. IJs harvested at the 10th day from trapping were...
Article
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Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active substances. In this study, we identified a bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (Bi-KTI) that acts as a plasmin inhibitor. Bi-KTI showed no detectable inhibitory effect on factor Xa, thrombin, or tissue plasminogen activator. In contrast, Bi-KTI strongly inhibi...
Article
We previously reported that bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom serine protease (Bi-VSP) acts as a prophenoloxidase-activating factor in arthropods and a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme in mammals. In the present study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of Bi-VSP purified from B. ignitus venom. The 34-kDa active form of Bi-VSP was purified from the...
Article
Although, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) envelope glycoprotein E2 subunit vaccine has been developed using the baculovirus expression system, the expression of viral antigens in baculovirus-infected insect cells is often ineffective. Therefore, an alternative strategy to the traditional baculovirus expression system is needed that is more produ...
Data
Predicted amino acid sequence and structure of Bi-VSP. (A) The deduced amino acid sequence of Bi-VSP (GenBank accession no. FJ159443). The cleavage site for the predicted signal sequence (open triangle) is indicated. Cleavage of the catalytic serine protease domain between Arg113 and Val114 (solid triangle) was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid se...
Data
Purified recombinant Bi-proVSP. SDS-PAGE (left) and western blot (right) of recombinant Bi-proVSP purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells. The anti-Bi-proVSP antibody was produced in mice injected with recombinant Bi-proVSP. (0.64 MB TIF)
Data
Viability of B. mori larvae injected with Bi-VSP. The viability of day 2 fifth-instar B. mori larvae injected with 1-10 µg of Bi-VSP per larva was surveyed at 24 h p.i. The data are expressed as the mean ± SD of assays performed in triplicate (n = 33). (0.62 MB TIF)
Data
Purified recombinant B. mori proPOs expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. SDS-PAGE (left) and western blot (right) of purified recombinant B. mori proPO-I (BmPPO-I) and proPO-II (BmPPO-II). His-tagged recombinant BmPPO-I and BmPPO-II were identified using an anti-His antibody. Lane 1, purified BmPPO-I; lane 2, purified BmPPO-II. (0.66...
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The mortality of S. exigua larvae injected with Bi-VSP. Day 2 fifth-instar S. exigua larvae were injected with Bi-VSP (1 µg or 2 µg per larva). (A) Fifth-instar S. exigua larvae and the collected hemolymph were photographed at various time points p.i. Scale bar, 0.5 cm. (B) The accumulated mortality was surveyed at various time points p.i. The data...
Data
Proposed pathway for PO activation and the fibrin(ogen)olytic nature of Bi-VSP. The injection of bee venom via the sting apparatus results in the activation of proPO via Bi-VSP in the target insect. Elevated PO activity induces the death of target insects via melanization. In mammals, Bi-VSP not only activates prothrombin, it also degrades fibrinog...
Data
Amino acid sequence alignment of Bi-VSP with known PPAFs. Identical residues are shown in solid boxes. The dashes represent gaps that were introduced to preserve the alignment. The conserved cysteine residues in the SP domain are marked (solid squares), and the residues in the catalytic triad of the SP domain [His (H), Asp (D), and Ser (S)] are ind...
Data
Amino acid sequence alignment of Bi-VSP with known snake venom serine proteases. Identical residues are shown in solid boxes. The dashes represent gaps that were introduced to preserve the alignment. The conserved cysteine residues in the SP domain are marked (solid squares), and the residues in the catalytic triad of the SP domain [His (H), Asp (D...
Data
Mortality of Bi-VSP, Bi-PLA2, and Bi-Bombolitin in S. exigua larvae. Day 2 fifth-instar S. exigua larvae were injected with 2 µg/larva of Bi-VSP, Bi-PLA2, Bi-Bombolitin, Bi-VSP + Bi-PLA2, Bi-PAP + Bi-Bombolitin, Bi-PLA2 + Bi-Bombolitin, or Bi-VSP + Bi-PLA2 + Bi-Bombolitin. The data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three assays (n = 51). (0.78 MB T...
Data
Northern blot analysis of Bi-VSP. (A) A northern blot for Bi-VSP was performed using total RNA isolated from the fat bodies, midgut, muscle, venom glands, and venom sacs of B. ignitus worker bees. (Top) Ethidium bromide staining of the RNA is shown to indicate equal loading. (Bottom) Bi-VSP transcripts. (B) A northern blot for Bi-VSP was performed...
Article
Full-text available
Bee venom contains a variety of peptides and enzymes, including serine proteases. While the presence of serine proteases in bee venom has been demonstrated, the role of these proteins in bee venom has not been elucidated. Furthermore, there is currently no information available regarding the melanization response or the fibrin(ogen)olytic activity...
Article
We cloned and characterized two peroxiredoxins (Prxs), BiPrx1 (a 1-Cys Prx) and BiTPx1 (a 2-Cys Prx) from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus. The BiPrx1 gene consists of 5 exons, encoding 220 amino acid residues with one conserved cysteine residue. The BiTPx1 gene consists of three exons, encoding 195 amino acid residues with 2 conserved cysteine residue...
Article
Proteolytic enzymes are involved in insect molting and metamorphosis, and play a vital role in the programmed cell death of obsolete organs. Here we show the expression profile of cathepsin B in the fat body of the silkworm Bombyx mori during development. We also compare the expression profiles of B. mori cathepsins B (BmCatB) and D (BmCatD) during...
Article
Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx or GPx4; EC 1.11.1.12) is an antioxidant enzyme that reduces lipid hydroperoxides in biomembranes. Here, we cloned and characterized cys-PHGPx from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus (Bi-PHGPx). The Bi-PHGPx gene consists of 4 exons, encoding 168 amino acid residues with a canonical cys-codon at re...
Article
Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) is one of the main components of bee venom. Here, we identify a venom PLA(2) from the bumblebee, Bombus ignitus. Bumblebee venom PLA(2) (Bi-PLA(2)) cDNA, which was identified by searching B. ignitus venom gland expressed sequence tags, encodes a 180 amino acid protein. Comparison of the genomic sequence with the cDNA seq...
Article
We previously reported a defensin gene from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus. Here we report sequences and their expression profile of defensin genes from three other bumblebees, B. terrestris, B. ardens ardens, and B. hypocrita sapporoensis. We compared these defensin gene structures to those previously reported from two other bees, Apis mellifera and...
Article
A novel endogenous beta-1,4-endoglucanase (EG) gene belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF 9) that is distributed throughout the digestive tract of the cricket Teleogryllus emma was cloned and characterized. This gene, named TeEG-I, consists of eight exons encoding 453 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy in the T. emma genome...
Article
Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets for insecticides. Despite the importance of the nAChR as a major target for insecticide action, modulators of nAChRs in insects remain unidentified. Here we describe the cloning and identification of a nAChR modulator gene in an insect. This gene was isolated by searching the firefly Pyr...
Article
In insects transferrin is known as an iron transporter, an antibiotic agent, a vitellogenin, and a juvenile hormone regulated protein. Here, a novel functional role for insect transferrin as an antioxidant protein is demonstrated. Stressors, such as heat shock, fungal challenge, and H(2)O(2) exposure, cause upregulation of the white-spotted flower...
Article
Four antibacterial peptide genes (apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, abaecin, and defensin) were cloned from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus, and cDNAs and their genomic structures were sequenced and characterized. Comparative analysis revealed that the four antibacterial peptides of B. ignitus had similar characteristics to other bee antibacterial peptides id...
Article
Full-text available
A full-length cDNA clone with high homology to insect transferrin genes was cloned by screening a Protaetia brevitarsis cDNA library. This gene (PbTf) had a total length of 2338 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2163 bp, and encoded a predicted peptide of 721 amino acid residues. Like known cockroach, termite, and beetle transferrins, PbTf app...
Article
A thioredoxin (Trx) gene was cloned from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The B. mori Trx (BmTrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 318 bp encoding 106 amino acid residues with a conserved active site (CGPC). Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of BmTrx transcripts in all tissues examined. The cDNA encoding BmTrx was expressed as a 12-kDa p...