Yoram Koren

Yoram Koren
University of Michigan | U-M · Department of Mechanical Engineering

Distinguished University Professor of Manufacturing

About

272
Publications
216,752
Reads
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23,141
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1996 - June 2016
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States
Position
  • Distinguished University Professor
Description
  • From 1996 to 2012 Koren was the Director of the NSF-ERC for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems. Total funding: $47 million (NSF $33M; industry $10M; DoE, DoD, Michigan $4M).
January 1986 - June 2014
University of Michigan
Position
  • Distinguished University Professor of Manufacturing

Publications

Publications (272)
Article
This paper discusses the rationale and history of inventing the Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) in the last decade of the 20th Century. The RMS enables creating “live factories” that can be rapidly changed to respond to new market conditions. This paper is focused on the pioneering RMS patents (1997 to 2006) that legally defined the RMS i...
Article
The benefits of Industry 4.0 are limited by the large computational requirements of ever-larger digital models of complex production systems. A complementary learning paradigm is thus proposed to cultivate knowledge in a team of machines and humans that represents the key to a high-performance manufacturing system. Two types of knowledge are create...
Article
The forthcoming paradigm of Mass-Individualisation will combine the low-cost advantage of the Mass-Production paradigm with the buyer’s individual need of a specific product. The buyers will initiate the product and its features that fit their explicit taste and individual needs, and the manufacturer will build it at low cost in a local factory, wh...
Article
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My vision for 21st century innovation in the manufacturing industry is the establishment of a new type of factory for producing individualized products for a single customer at an affordable price. Such factories will be located close to customers and designed for cost-effective, large-scale production of a variety of individual products. Two key t...
Article
Emergencies, and efforts to address them, create disruptions to local and global supply chains and surges in demand of emergency resources, which substantially affect global production. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems are promising solutions to improve flexibility and to reduce the effort needed to adapt supply chains and production networks t...
Article
Smart manufacturing is built on complex decision-making in real-time based on data from networked machines and sensors. As a potential enabler of smart manufacturing, reconfigurability enhances adaptability to demands and enriches the utility of the collected data. This study focuses on a synergistic combination of advanced manufacturing technologi...
Chapter
The reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) was introduced in the last decade of the twentieth century as a novel engineering response to volatile global markets that instigated large uncertainty in product demand. Today, most automotive engines and powertrain components in Europe and in the USA are produced on RMS. The RMS has matrix-type system...
Preprint
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Personalized production poses new challenges on reconfigurable manufacturing systems due to a dramatic increase in the variety and stochasticity of the manufacturing demand. This paper proposes a connected autonomous reconfigurable manufacturing system with a decentralized management of individual autonomous lines that can be reconfigured for diver...
Article
Globalization and social networks are dramatically changing the producer-buyer landscape. Consumers have an increasing desire to buy unique products that precisely reflect their individual preferences and needs. Therefore, approaching the era of mass-individualization in which Market-of-One products are manufactured economically is inevitable. This...
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To be profitable and to generate sustainable value for all stakeholders, next generation manufacturers must develop capabilities to rapidly and economically respond to changing market needs while at the same time minimizing adverse impacts on the environment and benefiting society. 6R-based (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover, Redesign and Remanufactu...
Article
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Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), which possess the advantages of both dedicated serial lines and flexible manufacturing systems, were introduced in the mid-1990s to address the challenges initiated by globalization. The principal goal of an RMS is to enhance the responsiveness of manufacturing systems to unforeseen changes in product de...
Article
When designing a new large manufacturing system with high throughput, the corporation should weigh several factors: the capital investment cost, the system’s responsiveness to future varying market demand, the production losses due to disruptive events, and the product quality. These performance metrics depend heavily on the system configuration. I...
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With increasing product personalization and open innovation, the manufacturing paradigm has been transforming to a more decentralized and socialized one. Social manufacturing was proposed as a new paradigm for industry. It extends the crowdsourcing idea to the manufacturing area. By establishing cyber–physical–social connection via decentralized so...
Article
The work-culture of an industrial firm has a profound impact on the selection of the right production system configuration when cost, throughput, and maintenance capability are weighted in the analysis. We present a novel mathematical analysis that computes the optimal system configuration that fits the culture at the workplace. The analysis is bas...
Article
Rapid and cost-effective scalability of the throughput of manufacturing systems is an invaluable feature for the management of manufacturing enterprises. System design for scalability allows the enterprise to build a manufacturing system to supply the current demand, and upgrade its throughput in the future, in a cost-effective manner, to meet poss...
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This paper suggests that Mass-Individualization, which is based on a consumer product that consists of an open hardware platform and multiple modules that are interfaced with the platform, will constitute the next paradigm in product design. Customers will be able to adapt the open platform to their needs by integrating modules of their choice into...
Article
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Unexpected disruptive events in manufacturing systems always interrupt normal production conditions and cause production loss. A resilient system should be designed with the capability to suffer minimum production loss during disruptions, and settle itself to the steady state quickly after each disruption. In this paper, we define production loss (...
Article
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In this issue, "25 Years Ago" revisits the article "Applications of Adaptive Control to Machine Tool Process Control" by A. Galip Ulsoy and Yoram Koren, IEEE Control System Magazine, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 33-37, June 1989. Below are excerpts from the article.
Article
The paper covers the main design, management and operational aspects of scalability in manufacturing systems (MS). It promotes scalability as an area of research of MS theory and practice in order to enhance techniques and methodologies in existing MS paradigms using advanced and emerging design and management approaches and ICT, and meet challenge...
Article
This paper defines open-architecture products (OAPs), a new class of products comprising a fixed platform and modules that can be added and swapped. Customers can adapt OAPs to their needs by integrating modules into the platform. Manufacturers will produce these platforms, while new small companies and customers will develop the modules, thus incr...
Article
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Manufacturing enterprises are facing in the last decades unpredictable market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these enterprises must possess new types of manufacturing systems that can rapidly respond to market changes. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), which were invented in the mid-1990s, are characterised by...
Article
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Decreasing product life cycles and reduced product development times have led to a need for new strategies for coping with the rapid rate of product family design changes. In this paper, assembly system reconfiguration planning (ASRP) is introduced as a method for cost effectively designing several generations of assembly systems in order to produc...
Article
To achieve high precision and high productivity in machining sculptured surfaces, a new architecture for a five-axis CNC interpolator for machining ruled surfaces was developed and demonstrated on a milling machine. The objective of the five-axis interpolator is to continuously maintain the milling cutter axis in parallel with the straight lines of...
Article
Sequence planning is an important problem in assembly line design. It is to determine the order of assembly tasks to be performed sequentially. Significant research has been done to find good sequences based on various criteria, such as process time, investment cost, and product quality. This paper discusses the selection of optimal sequences based...
Article
Scalability is a key characteristic of reconfigurable manufacturing systems, which allows system throughput capacity to be rapidly and cost-effectively adjusted to abrupt changes in market demand. This paper presents a scalability planning methodology for reconfigurable manufacturing systems that can incrementally scale the system capacity by recon...
Article
Assembly is the capstone process for product realization where component parts and subassemblies are integrated together to form the final products. As product variety increases due to the shift from mass production to mass customization, assembly systems must be designed and operated to handle such high variety. In this paper we first review the s...
Article
We consider the assembly system of modular products in the remanufacturing environment subject to used module returns with uncertainties in terms of timing, quantity and quality. n customer demand classes of remanufactured products are classified by l=1,…,n levels of product quality. Returned modules arrive according to a compound Poisson process a...
Article
In redundant manipulation of machine tools the number of actuators (motors) exceeds the number of degrees of freedom of the end-effector motion. As a result, the end-effector path does not completely determine the trajectories of all the individual degrees of freedom. The redundancy can be used to enhance the performance in a desired sense, e.g. ma...
Article
We consider the production and admission control decisions for a two-stage manufacturing system where intermediate components are produced to stock in the first stage and an end-product is assembled from these components through a second stage assembly operation. The firm faces two types of demand. The demand for the end-product is satisfied immedi...
Conference Paper
The need to cost effectively introduce new generations of product families within ever decreasing time frames have led manufacturers to seek product development strategies with a multigenerational outlook. Co-evolution of product families and assembly systems is a methodology that leads to the simultaneous design of several generations of product f...
Article
a b s t r a c t This paper explains the rationale for the development of reconfigurable manufacturing systems, which possess the advantages both of dedicated lines and of flexible systems. The paper defines the core characteristics and design principles of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) and describes the structure recommended for practi...
Article
We consider the production and admission control of a two-stage manufacturing system where intermediate components are produced to stock in the first stage and an end-product is assembled from these components through a second stage assembly operation which may allow backorders. The manufacturing firm faces two types of demand. The one directed at...
Chapter
Globalization is the integration and interdependency of world markets and resources in producing consumer goods and services Globalization has created a new, unprecedented landscape for the manufacturing industry, one of fierce competition, short windows of market opportunity, frequent product introductions, and rapid changes in product demand. Ind...
Article
The concrete tools manufacturing enterprises need to thrive in today's global environment. For a manufacturing enterprise to succeed in this current volatile economic environment, a revolution is needed in restructuring its three main components: product design, manufacturing, and business model. The Global Manufacturing Revolution is the first boo...
Chapter
A combination of five core elements may be the winning combination for sustained growth in global manufacturing. These elements form a remarkably appropriate acronym that is useful to remember-PRIDE: P-Productivity gains; R-Responsiveness and reconfigurable technology to achieve speedy responsiveness; I-Integration of the product design, manufactur...
Chapter
The goal of mass production is low-cost manufacturing. Three enablers contribute to the achievement of this goal: (1) interchangeable parts, (2) the moving assembly line, and (3) dedicated machinery and manufacturing systems. This chapter presents an original mathematical model for mass production. The model shows that the mass production process b...
Chapter
Manufacturing companies in the twenty-first century face increasingly frequent and unpredictable market changes driven by global competition. Reconfigurability is a novel engineering technology that enables cost-effective, rapid responsiveness to market and product changes. A reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS), including reconfigurable machi...
Chapter
A reconfigurable machine (RM) is a machine whose structures can be altered to provide either alternative functionality or incremental increase in its production rate in order to meet changing demand. The primary aim of a RM is to cope with changes in the products or parts to be manufactured. The possible changes that are considered: part geometry;...
Chapter
Manufacturing companies in the twenty-first century face increasingly frequently changing and unpredictable market imperatives caused by increased competition and globalization. To stay competitive, companies must use manufacturing systems that not only produce their goods with high productivity but also allow for rapid response to market pressures...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the relationships between product variety and mass customization business models. The goal of mass customization is to increase customer’s value of a product by adding a range of product variations that fit specific customer’s taste and needs while maintaining low prices. Any business model for mass customization must offer so...
Chapter
Companies recognize three drivers that motivate new product ideas: (1) technology-driven products; (2) customer-driven products; and (3) competition-driven products. Technology-driven products are those made possible by applying new technology that, in many cases, originated within the company. Identifying consumer’s needs and translating those nee...
Chapter
Half Title Wiley Series Page Title Copyright Dedication Contents Preface Acknowledgments
Chapter
Globalization enables all enterprises to operate at an international level. Globalization can increase the per capita earning potential in developing countries. This can boost the purchasing power of their population, thereby growing the customer base for new products. Products designed for one country may be completely inappropriate for sale in an...
Chapter
It is no wonder that industry, especially manufacturing industry, and the military have quite similar organizational structures. Both of these enterprises represent a considerable investment of money, material, and human resources. This chapter explores how military command and industrial organization have informed and inspired each other, and how...
Chapter
The system design is an iterative process that iterates among the above eight points until converging gradually to the optimal economic solution. This chapter starts by defining some basic economics terms. The dedicated manufacturing line (DML) is an ideal solution when a part design is fixed, the change in its design is not imminent, and demand is...
Chapter
Globalization has created a new landscape for industry-one of fierce competition, abrupt changes in product demand, and short windows of market opportunity for new products. Manufacturing company must deploy responsive business models that can rapidly align their strategic resources and supply chains to quickly respond to customer’s changing needs...
Chapter
Mass customization started in the late 1980s when companies, faced with increased competition in the marketplace, started to look for alternatives to the mass production. Mass-customized products can be produced at low cost if the product design is done with the set of options and product variations in mind. The evolution of mass customization has...
Chapter
The configuration of a system can facilitate or impede the system’s productivity, responsiveness, convertibility and scalability, and also impact its daily operations. This chapter offers a method for classification of configurations. The configurations are classified as either symmetrical or asymmetrical. The symmetric configurations may further b...
Article
When planning for a new manufacturing system to produce several products over a planning horizon, firms usually face an important decision regarding how to select the optimal quantity and portfolio of product-dedicated and flexible capacities. Flexible systems may alleviate the unfavorable effects of demand uncertainties, however they require highe...
Article
Mixed-model assembly systems and modular supply chains are enablers to high product variety. However, as variety gets very high, the assembly and supply processes can become very complex. In assembly systems, the complexity may cause human errors and in turn impacts system performance. The complexity also impacts supply chain configuration and inve...
Article
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Mixed-model assembly lines have been recognized as a major enabler to handle product variety. However, the assembly process becomes very complex when the number of product variants is high, which, in turn, may impact the system performance (quality and productivity). The paper considers the variety induced manufacturing complexity in manual, mixed-...
Chapter
Full-text available
The arch-type reconfigurable machine tool (RMT) is a full-scale reconfigurable machine tool, designed to provide customised flexibility in milling and drilling operations for a part family, i.e. V6 and V8 engine cylinder heads. The designed machine not only has to achieve the required kinematic task, but should also exhibit similar dynamic characte...
Conference Paper
Reconfigurable Machines form a new class of machines that are designed around a specific part family of products and allow rapid change in their structure. They are designed to allow changes in production requirements by changes in the machine mechanical configuration and structure. Reconfigurable machines might be designed for various types of pro...
Conference Paper
This paper studies the complexity of assembly supply chains in mass customization environment. The high product variety from mass customization increases the complexity of assembly supply chains. The paper identifies the factors causing supply chain complexity and defines a complexity measure of an assembly supply chain based on these factors and t...
Conference Paper
Due to increased competition, the rate at which manufacturers introduce new product families to the market is increasing. However, the cost of changing manufacturing facilities to produce new product families can outweigh the benefits obtained from increased revenue. Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs) have been proposed as a cost effective...
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the production and assembly control in a two-stage assemble-to-order (ATO) manufacturing system. An ATO manufacturing system keeps inventory only at the component level, and products are assembled only after a customer order is received. ATO systems have a widespread use in various industries where mass customization is popula...
Conference Paper
Build sequence scheduling is an important topic in mixed-model production. It is to determine the order of products being built in the assembly line. Significant research has been conducted to determine good sequences based on various criteria. For example, in Just-In-Time production systems, optimal sequences are searched to minimize the variation...
Article
To cope with the intense global competition that is characterized by high product variety and short life cycles, manufacturers need to share manufacturing systems across products and product generations. Co-evolution of product families and assembly systems is proposed as a novel methodology for the joint design and reconfiguration of product famil...
Article
This paper proposes a comprehensive quality prediction framework for multistage machining processes, connecting engineering design with the activities of quality modeling, variation propagation modeling and calculation, dimensional variation evaluation, dimensional variation analysis, and quality feedback. Presented is an integrated information mod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sequence planning is an important problem in assembly line design. It is to determine the order of assembly tasks to be performed sequentially. Significant research has been done to find good sequences based on various criteria, such as process time, investment cost, and product quality. This paper discusses the selection of optimal sequences based...
Conference Paper
In order to gain competitive advantage, manufacturers require cost effective methods for developing a variety of products within short time periods. Product families, reconfigurable assembly systems and concurrent engineering are frequently used to achieve this desired cost effective and rapid supply of product variety. The independent development...
Article
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The product development process involves communication and compromise among inter-acting and often competing objectives from marketing, design, and manufacturing per-spectives. Methods for negotiating these perspectives play an important role in the pro-cess. For example, design for manufacturing (DFM) analyses aim to incorporate manufacturing requ...
Article
Full-text available
The manufacturing industry today faces a highly volatile market in which manufacturing systems must be capable of responding rapidly to market changes while fully exploiting existing resources. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) are designed for this purpose and are gradually being deployed by many mid-to-large volume manufacturers. The adv...
Article
Full-text available
Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) technology enables the design of a "living," evolving factory that can be rapidly and cost-effectively reconfigured exactly when the market requires a change. The RMS is necessary for sustaining profits in the face of market fluctuations caused by global competition in the 21st Century. RMS may be applied t...
Article
Reconfigurable manufacturing systems offer quick adjustment of production capacity and functionality in response to unpredictable market changes as being systems designed at the outset for rapid change in system configuration, its machines and controls. During the production process, out-of-ordinary events occur dynamically and unpredictably both a...
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/6053/5/bac5802.0001.001.pdf http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/6053/4/bac5802.0001.001.txt
Conference Paper
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The NavChair assistive navigation system was originally conceived as an application of mobile robot obstacle avoidance to a power wheelchair. In this system, the user shares wheelchair control with obstacle avoidance and other navigation components. The philosophy of shared control has important implications for the design of these components. This...
Article
Full-text available
At the end of the 20th Century, manufacturing entered a new era in which all manufacturing enterprises must compete in a global economy. Global competition increases customers' purchasing power, which, in turn, drives frequent introduc-tion of new products and causes large fluctuations in product demand. To stay competitive, manufacturing companies...
Article
Manufacturing systems are subject to both internal and external disruptions. As a result, production sequences which appear optimal during planning might be sub-optimal or even infeasible when implemented. We therefore consider how manufacturers can trade off anticipated completion time (makespan) against customer responsiveness when making sequenc...
Article
Full-text available
Scalability is one of six key characteristics found in reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Scalable systems satisfy changing capacity requirements efficiently through system reconfiguration, and in the flexible manufacturing literature this capability is called expansion flexibility. The development of modular scalable machine tools is a necessar...
Conference Paper
An important aspect of product development is design for manufacturability (DFM) analysis that aims to incorporate manufacturing requirements into early product decision-making. Existing methods in DFM seldom quantify explicitly the tradeoffs between revenues and costs generated by making design choices that may be desirable in the market but costl...
Article
The operation of large manufacturing systems with buffers has two goals: to meet production target and minimize the work-in-process (WIP) inventory. This paper introduces a novel approach, based on optimal control theory, to achieve both goals simultaneously by on-line adjustment of the production rate of each machine. In this method the state vari...
Article
Full-text available
Using parallelism in bufferless production lines can improve productivity, with significant productivity gains achieved with crossover. However, including crossover in the line implies additional material-handling requirements that may reduce the availability of the system. This paper examines if parallel systems with crossover between the stages a...
Article
Full-text available
Computerized control systems for machine tools must generate coordinated movements of the separately driven axes of motion in order to trace accurately a predetermined path of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. However, since the dynamic properties of the individual machine axes are not exactly equal, undesired contour errors are generated...