• Home
  • Yohann Meynadier
Yohann Meynadier

Yohann Meynadier
Aix-Marseille Université, Aix-en-Provence, France · Laboratoire Parole et Langage

Professor
During 2022, I am working on ePGG at the LPP, CNRS-U. Paris Sourbonne Nouvelle

About

61
Publications
29,591
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
126
Citations
Introduction
The main line of my research is the study of the links between the physical act of speech and the representations of sound structures, namely phonological and lexical, by analysing the physiological, acoustic and perceptive mecanisms and information involved in the lexical recognition processes. My current topics concern (i) the production, perception and recognition of voicing contrast in 'altered' voice: whispered, laryngectomized, apraxic speech ; (iii) the aerodynamics of nasality (Southern French and speech disorders) and of trills (speech sound emergence).

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Full-text available
Objective and hypothesis: Vocal effort in loud voice is produced with increased subglottal pressure during vowels and increased supraglottal pressure during consonants. In the paper, our main objective is to check whether it was supported by a parallel increase in the airflow resistance of the laryngeal articulator and of the supralaryngeal articu...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whether listeners use acoustic correlates of voicing to resolve lexical ambiguities created by whispered speech in which a key feature, the voicing, is missing. Three associative priming experiments were conducted. The results showed a priming effect with whispered primes that included an intervocalic voiceless consonant (/petal/ “petal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study focuses on the recognition of the voicing-feature in whispered speech. Our previous works (Dufour & Meynadier 2019) show a later recognition of the feature [+voiced] probably based on a pre-lexical processing of acoustic information, other than the laryngeal vibration, extracted from the whispered signal and used in lexical access. Via a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interplay between duration and word position in voicing perception of whispered fricatives - This study focuses on the recognition of the voicing-feature in whispered speech. Our previous works (Dufour & Meynadier 2019) show a later recognition of the feature [+voiced] probably based on a pre-lexical processing of acoustic information, other than t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Phonology of Southern French nasal vowels in the light of aerophonometry. Our objective is to study the nasal vowels (Vn) of southern French using aerodynamic methods, which prove to be more effective in measuring the mechanisms of nasality than the acoustic analysis. We propose the calculation of a nasal quotient, which measures from the nasal ai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Before evaluating the variability of the nasality according to speech pathologies, the mechanisms involved can be very different depending on the regional origin of the speaker and therefore the phonology of his dialect. As such, the production of nasal vowels in southern French would highlight a specific pattern with an initial denasalisation phas...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with the phonetic realization of the voicing contrast by two Spanish speakers with surgery-related apraxia of speech and two matched control speakers. Specifically, it examines whether speakers with AOS, widely reported to have a deficit in laryngeal control, use nasal leak as a compensatory mechanism aimed at facilitating t...
Poster
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with the phonetic realization of the voicing contrast by two Spanish speakers with surgery-related apraxia of speech and two matched control speakers. Specifically, it examines whether speakers with AOS, widely reported to have a deficit in laryngeal control, use nasal leak as a compensatory mechanism aimed at facilitating t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
'Temporary ambiguity of voiced obstruantes in whispered speech' - Meynadier & Dufour (2016) have studied how French listeners resolve voicing ambiguities in whispered speech. Visual targets were presented at the offset of auditory semantically-associated primes. A similar priming effect to that observed with modal primes was found only with whisper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
RESUME Cette étude exploratoire examine le débit d'air nasal dans la production de consonnes plosives chez une locutrice apraxique hispanophone, dans le but de déterminer si elle utilise la nasalité comme mécanisme compensatoire pour faciliter l'initiation du voisement. Les résultats mettent en évidence que les plosives initiales identifiées comme...
Presentation
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with the phonetic realization of the voicing contrast by two Spanish speakers with surgery-related apraxia of speech and two matched control speakers. Specifically, it examines whether speakers with AOS, widely reported to have a deficit in laryngeal control, use nasal leak as a compensatory mechanism aimed at facilitating t...
Article
Introduction: The objective was to study the behavior of the larynx during shouted voice production, when the larynx is exposed to extremely high subglottic pressure. Materials and methods: The study involved electroglottographic, acoustic, and aerodynamic analyses of shouts produced at maximum effort by three male participants. Results and dis...
Poster
Full-text available
Le conditionnement physiologique vs phonologique des durées corrélatives au trait de voisement des obstruantes et des voyelles préconsonantiques est testé en comparant cinq phonations normales et laryngectomisées différentes : voix modale vs chuchotée vs Tucker vs œsophagienne vs pseudo-chuchotée. La durée acoustique (i) des obstruantes voisées vs...
Poster
Full-text available
The relation between phonetic properties and phonological features has been the object of many theoretical suggestions which attempt to link the acoustic signal and linguistic representations. Phonetic redundancy and covariation in phonological contrasts are central points in this questioning. A correlation between consonant durations and voicing h...
Poster
Full-text available
This study focuses on the perception of the voicing feature in whispered words in French. A voiced consonant in whispered voice is produced without vibration of the vocal folds, i.e. the main property of the [+voiced] feature in this language. In French, some studies show that the [+voice] whispered obstruents retain some phonetic properties of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lexical acces and recognition of voicing in whisper The recognition of the voicing feature of whispered obstruant consonants was examined in a cross modal semantic priming paradigm. A priming effect of similar magnitude to that observed in modal voice was found only when the whispered prime includes a voiceless obstruant (e.g. dessert primes CHOCOL...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Produced and perceived effort according to the voicing in French Laryngeal and articulatory muscles are involved in the realization of the features that distinguish phonemes. This study focuses on self-perception by the speakers and repartition of vocal and articulatory effort according to the voicing in modal speech compared to whispered speech. F...
Presentation
Full-text available
Le Laboratoire Parole et Langage situé à Aix-en-Provence (Aix-Marseille Université & CNRS UMR7309) conserve les appareils de mesures utilisés depuis 1950 dans le cadre des travaux de recherche qu’il mène sur les mécanismes impliqués dans la production, la perception et la compréhension du langage oral et du langage écrit. La collection comporte une...
Presentation
Full-text available
The intelligibility of whispered speech could be supported, at least in part, (1) by maintaining the voicing contrast at the phonetic level where C[+voice] > noisy glottal source C[-voice] > glottal silence. (2) by increasing the intensity of speech, e.g. the articulatory frication noise, by a vocal effort without any laryngeal forcing.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Medumba consonant inventory includes plain and prenasalized bilabial trills /ʙ, mʙ/, which contrast with bilabial stops. The trills occur most often before the central vowels / ə/, while they are not attested before /u/. The central vowel / / has a vowel posture that is particularly conducive to trilling of the lips: it does not form a circular...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper addresses the question of the phonetic implementation of phonological voicing in French. It is investigated by means of aerodynamic measures made at the subglottal, glottal and supraglottal stages of the production of fricatives in modal voice and in soft and loud whisper for one speaker. The results show that the [±voice] feature is syst...
Presentation
Full-text available
Cliniquement, la voix chuchotée est soit la conséquence de pathologies touchant le vibrateur laryngé (laryngite, dysphonie, paralysie laryngée), soit une phonation supplétive à la voix modale utilisée en rééducation orthophonique, notamment après chirurgie laryngée. Cependant, le chuchotement est parfois prescrit (1 ci-après) , parfois proscrit par...
Presentation
L’effort vocal dans la parole a été étudié lors de la production de voyelles notamment sous l’angle de l’élévation de la pression sous-glottique (PSG) et de la Résistance Laryngée (RL=PSG divisée par le débit d’air phonatoire DAB) [1] [2]. Mais peu d’études ont été consacrées à l’étude des mêmes phénomènes lors de la réalisation des consonnes qui s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents analyses on the phonological voicing contrast in whispered speech, which is characterized by the absence of vocal fold vibrations. In modal speech, besides glottal vibration, the contrast between voiced and unvoiced consonants is realized by other phonetic correlates: e.g. consonant and pre-consonantal vowel durations, intraoral...
Poster
Full-text available
Corpus-Reading in modal vs whispered voice-Lexical and nonsense isolated words-12 voiced vs unvoiced obstruents: p-b, t-d, k-g, f-v, s-z, S-Z in median unstressed position-4 French speakers (2 M & 2 F)-5 repetitions Production Analysis-Acoustical durations of C (steady-state T, offset R) and of the pre-consonantal V-Repeated-measure Anovas on durat...
Poster
Ce travail porte sur la production du contraste de voisement en parole de substitution après une laryngectomie partielle de Tucker emportant la totalité de la partie vibrante des deux cordes vocales (Giovanni 2008). La production des sons voisés est dès lors particulièrement difficile : le larynx résiduel produit une voix apériodique avec une F0 in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Les grands corpus oraux constituent des ressources scientifiques essentielles et de plus en plus centrales dans l'élaboration des théories sur la parole et le langage, à tous les niveaux du fonctionnement et de la structuration linguistiques et du comportement verbal : pragmatique, sémantique, syntaxique, morphologique, phonologique, phonétique, et...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Voicing contrast in whispered speech This paper presents analyses on the phonological voicing contrast in whispered speech, which is characterized by a semi-open configuration of the vocal folds preventing them from vibrating. In modal speech, in addition to vocal fold vibration, the contrast between voiced and unvoiced consonants is realized by ot...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article traite de la syllabe comme unité théorique et comme objet physique à travers un état des lieux des travaux en phonologie et en phonétique la concernant. Malgré l’abondance des travaux sur la syllabe1 - de loin le constituant prosodique le plus étudié - les recherches actuelles continuent de soulever plusieurs questions sur sa nature exa...
Presentation
La voix chuchotée est caractérisée par la production d’un bruit laryngé intelligible en l’absence de vibration des plis vocaux. Deux types de voix chuchotée ont été décrits dans la littérature : la voix chuchotée « silencieuse » et la voix chuchotée « forcée » [1]. Notre hypothèse de travail est que la voix chuchotée « forcée » partage avec l’effor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Direct Static Palatography is an efficient way to study interactions between tongue and palate. This method is based on the observation of the tongue print on the palate. The print features (surface, location) helps to understand the articulation achievement. We propose a tool which automatically processes digital pictures of the tongue prints. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work deals with the phenomenon of vowel reduction in spontaneous speech. Automatic and manual analyses have been conducted on a large conversational speech corpus (CID) to study the extra-short vowels (less than 30 ms), generally excluded from the automatic analyses. A strong reduction in the vocalic system and very short durations are observe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An experiment was carried out to examine the possibility of word-final F0 rise without lengthening in French. The results show that, although a variability is observed depending on speaker, syllable structure and syllable number, the final rise can be unaccompanied by vowel lengthening in the phrasemedian final syllable of a noun, in difference to...
Presentation
Palatography has been widely used to investigate consonants articulation. This technique has however some drawbacks since its records the linguo-palatal contact pattern and most often does not take into account the shape of the palatal vault. This makes difficult to compare palatographic patterns across speakers. To alleviate this limitation, we pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Static palatography has been widely used to investigate consonant articulation. The method is based on the observation of the tongue print (a black paste is spread on the tongue before the production) either directly onto the palate (direct palatography) or onto a pseudo palate (indirect palatography). This study has two main objectives. The first...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We study the ability of sub aquatic divers to communicate by speech by means of an air regulator mouthpiece equipped with an acoustical sensor. These specific constraints on elocution led us to carry out an aerodynamic study to check phonation, an EPG study to observe the modification of articulation, and an analysis of labial forces involved with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The gradual behaviour of articulatory supralaryangeal variations as a function as an 8-level vs a 4-level prosodic hierarchy was analysed here. Comparisons between the results related to each hierarchy suggested that 4-level hierarchy was sufficient to account for prosodic-dependent articulatory changes in French. These results allowed to discuss t...
Poster
Full-text available
Many studies on various languages (English, Korean, French, Taiwanese, Estionian, Tamil) have shown that the articulation of segments in initial and final positions of prosodic constituents is strengthened and more resistant to coarticulation as a function of the hierarchical level of the prosodic. In French, studies have mainly dealt with V or C a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Segmental variations at the edges of prosodic constituents have been shown to signal the hierarchical prosodic structure of utterances. Although it is admitted that the magnitude of these variations follow the prosodic weight of the constituents, studies in several languages have revealed a great variability in the number and types of boundaries di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This EPG study of the linguopalatal articulation and coarticulation of segments at prosodic boundaries in French shows that some articulatory cues vary according to the hierarchical level of the prosodic boundaries. The stronger the boundary, (i) the larger the duration and the magnitude of linguopalatal opening of the final pre-boundary vowel; (ii...
Thesis
Full-text available
Studies in speech production have reported articulatory strengthening and coarticulatory reduction of supralaryngeal gestures that gradually follow the hierarchical level of prominence or boundary in the prosodic structure of the utterance. The work presented here concerns the effect of a four-level hierarchy of prosodic boundary on linguopalatal a...
Article
Recent studies in speech production have reported articulatory strengthening and coarticulatory reduction of supralaryngeal gestures that gradually follow the hierarchical level of prominence or boundary in the prosodic structure of the utterance. The work presented here concerns the effect of prosodic boundary on linguopalatal articulatory dynamic...
Article
Full-text available
Ce travail a pour but d'étudier les déficits de fluence de patients parkinsoniens en utilisant un logiciel permettant de détecter automatiquement les pauses silencieuses présentes dans une production orale, et de mettre en relation ces résultats avec ceux obtenus à différents tests neuropsychologiques explorant la mémoire et les fonctions exécutive...
Article
Full-text available
Dans cet article destiné à un public étudiant et de linguistes peu familiarisés avec la notion de syllabe, nous nous proposons de retracer les grandes lignes des approches phonétiques et phonologiques qui ont amené à considérer la syllabe comme une unité linguistique fondamentale. Si notre intuition ou notre culture linguistique nous porte à nous c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The pseudo-palates used with the Kay Elemetrics and Reading EPG systems mainly differ according to their number of electrodes, 96 vs. 62 respectively, and the spatial repartition of the electrodes over the palate. The two pseudo-palates also greatly differ in their price according to their number of electrodes. This study compares how variations in...
Article
Full-text available
El grupo consonántico TL es un grupo heterosilábico en español peninsular. El fonema /t/ y el fonema /l/ pertenecen a dos sílabas diferentes, como en at#las. Ese mismo grupo tiende a ser homosilábico en el español americano, lo que lleva a una segmentación del tipo a#tlas. Este trabajo presenta, en primer lugar, una revisión de los orígenes del gru...
Poster
Full-text available
The dysprosody of Parkinsonian’s disease (PD) has been partly interpreted as a disorder affecting the variation of fundamental frequency (F0), the monotonous intonation of speech being the consequence of the tonal range reduction. To date, some controversial results have been reported concerning the average pitch which has been found either increas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we ask whether coarticulation patterns similarly across and within lexical units in production. We hypothesize that word onsets are more resistant to coarticulation in order to preserve the canonical form of lexical entries. We look at acoustic and articulatory (EPG) cues of coarticulation in pairs of CV where vowel is either word-ini...
Poster
Full-text available
In this study, we tested the perception and the production of intonation by parkinsonian patients with and without pharmacological treatment. Whereas no significant differences were found in the perception tasks, in production, pitch and tonal extent are significantly reduced by Parkinson’s disease and improved by L-dopa treatment. Parkinson’s dise...
Book
In this preliminary study, we tested the comprehension and the production of tonal events in a group of parkinsonian patients with and withoiut treatment in comparison with control subjects. Significant differences were found in the production task only: pitch, tonal range, and fundamental frequency variations in the parkinsonian group were reduced...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the effects on the lingual articulation and coarticulation of the position of a contrastive focal accent at the left/right edges of the four-consonant cluster /kskl/ in medial position of the bisyllabic word "exclame" in French. Considering that an accent would affect more the segments belonging to the accented syllable than to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of contrastive focal accent placement on lingual articulation and coarticulation of French [kskl] clusters in word-medial position. The EPG results show that (i) this type of accent does not systematically increase the amplitude, but the duration of linguopalatal constrictions (particularly their release); (ii) i...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this preliminary study, we tested the comprehension and the production of tonal events in a group of parkinsionian patients with and without treatment in comparison with control subjects. Significant differences were found in the production task only: pitch, tonal range, and fundamental frequency variations in the parkinsonian group were reduced...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The timing of lingual gestures in the production of /kl/ clusters in read French sentences is reported in this poster. Our data indicates that the body and tip of the tongue do not behave as independent articulators. In fact, there is a strong resistance to coarticulation from /k/ to /l/.
Article
Full-text available
The sequencing of lingual gestures for the production of /kl/ clusters in French in read sentences is reported in this poster. Our data indicates that the tongue body and tongue tip do not behave as independant articulators. There in fact a strong resistance to coarticulation from /k/ to /l/.

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
This exploratory project aims to determine whether Spanish-speaking apraxic subjects use nasality as a compensatory mechanism to facilitate the initiation of voicing of occlusive consonants. Phonetic studies on apraxia of speech ​​have revealed cross-linguistically a deficit in laryngeal control and synchronization between glottic and supraglottic articulators (Blumstein et al., 1980), that surfaces as devoicing errors, specifically in the initial position. However, due to aerodynamic constraints specific to the initial context, the initiation of vocal fold vibrations is also critical for healthy subjects who show strategies of motor adjustment to favor the voicing of the obstruants in such contexts. In Spanish in particular, frequent prenasalizations specific to the occlusive consonants have been observed at the beginning of the sentence (Solé, 2018). This maneuver helps to evacuate the intra-oral pressure and thus promote the flow of transglottic air necessary for the initiation of laryngeal vibration. Our aim in this projet is to test the hypothesis of a pre-nasalization strategy of initial voiced occlusives in Spanish-speaking apraxic subjects.