Yizhaq Makovsky

Yizhaq Makovsky
University of Haifa | haifa · Department of Marine Geosciences

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76
Publications
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Publications

Publications (76)
Article
In this study we revisited the Cretaceous of the Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM) from IODP LEG 160 Hole 967E, updating the chronology, depositional environment, and paleobathymetry of the ESM. Our goal was also to address the spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter and, by comparison with the eastern margins of the Levant Basin, discuss basin-wi...
Article
Extensive canyons, excavated into the margins of the Levant Basin during the Oligocene–Miocene, are interesting case-studies for canyon fills in carbonate settings. The carbonate Pattish Formation, developed along the margins of the pre-evaporitic Messinian Beer Sheva Canyon in Israel, was investigated using both onshore seismic imaging and field d...
Chapter
Several oil shows have been reported from offshore and onshore wells of the Levant Basin, which promoted research and exploration as indicators for potential economic discoveries in the yet unpenetrated Mesozoic interval of the basin. In most cases, no definitive source to oil correlation has been established, advocating the need for the fingerprin...
Article
Unravelling the failure history of submarine slides and delineating its environmental controls are crucial for practical hazard assessments, but are commonly challenging and costly. Here we address this challenge in investigating the Goliath slide complex, one of the largest documented slide scars on the ~200 km long continental slope offshore Isra...
Article
To better understand the sphere of influence of seafloor hydrocarbon seepage in an oligotrophic marine environment, we evaluated the near-bottom biogeochemistry in near-seep and control locations of the ultra-oligotrophic Southeast Mediterranean Sea. We observed corrosive pH (pHTotal at 25 °C as low as 6.83) in water overlying a seepage site. The a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Polygonal, layer-bound normal faults can extend over very large areas (>2,000,000 km2) of sedimentary basins. Best developed in very fine-grained rocks, these faults are thought to form during early burial in response to a range of diagenetic processes, including compaction and water expulsion. Local deviations from this idealised polygonal pattern...
Article
Nile derived siliciclastic sediments are the main source of sedimentation along the Levant continental margins of the Mediterranean Sea. These sediments are transported along the southeastern Mediterranean coast via well-documented longshore currents, mainly operating along the shelf. However, the cross shelf component of sediment transport, respon...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) has fascinated a globally wide and multi-disciplinary array of scientists, and has been at the focus of debate ever since the first DSDP’s penetrated the top of the deep-basin salt in the 1970’s. Yet, after more than 50 years of research, the MSC stratigraphy is still controversial. These questions and debates ar...
Article
Full-text available
Seafloor geoacoustic properties are important in determining sound propagation in the marine environment, which broadly affects sub-sea activities. However, geoacoustic investigation of the deep seafloor, which is required by the recent expansion of deep-water operations, is challenging. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the seafloor...
Article
Marine methane hydrates are a huge and dynamic carbon reservoir found mainly at the continental margins, and their stability might be affected by climate-associated pressure and temperature changes on the seafloor. Reconstructing the growth history of cold-seep carbonates, which formed during seafloor methane leakage, could help to constrain methan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present a methodology and first results of seafloor compressional sound speed estimation in a compacting passive margin setting of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea, offshore Israel. The estimation was obtained through a coupled wide-angle reflection-refraction travel time analysis of standard commercial 2D multichannel seismic da...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT The methodology and results of estimations of seafloor compressional sound speed along with sound speed gradient in a compacting passive margin basin (offshore Israel) setting using standard multichannel seismic data (35 Hz peak frequency, 7200 m long array with 576 hydrophones) is presented. Geo-acoustic inversion techniq...
Article
Full-text available
Seafloor mounds are enigmatic features along many continental margins and are often interpreted as gas hydrate pingoes, seep deposits, mud volcanoes, or hydrothermal mounds. When such mounds occur in basins with past volcanic activities, they have the potential to host seafloor metalliferous deposits, which is generally overlooked. Using geophysica...
Article
Full-text available
The Eastern Mediterranean continental slope offshore Israel became a focus of exploration for, and production of, natural gas in recent years. The 2010–2011 Nautilus ROV expedition performed detailed video recordings and sampling in two areas offshore Israel: the Palmachim disturbance, southwest of Tel Aviv, and an area offshore Acre, north of Haif...
Article
Volcanic atolls host exceptionally important marine ecosystems in the modern oceans. Yet, due to limited exposures, fossil atolls are poorly constrained. Multiple drowned Cretaceous volcanic atolls have been reported in the Pacific, but less information exists regarding those in the Tethys. Here we report on two early Cenomanian age volcanic atolls...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring and forecasting changes in coastal and deep-water ecosystems and climates requires sustained long-term measurements from marine observation systems. One of the key considerations in analyzing data from marine observatories is quality assurance (QA). The data acquired by these infrastructures accumulates into Giga and Terabytes per year, n...
Article
Oil shows from wells in the Levant Basin and Egypt are suggestive of potential economic discoveries within unpenetrated Mesozoic reservoirs in the Eastern Mediterranean. Analysis of some of these oils indicate a non-marine source of mixed deltaic-terrestrial or lacustrine origin for the organic matter. Data from Barremian-Aptian sediments from the...
Poster
The poster is available online at EGU website: https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2020/EGU2020-19782.html | Particle flows animations are available at SaRoCy's website: http://sarocy.cut.ac.cy/news/particles-flow-animations/ | Maritime connectivity between Cyprus and other Eastern Mediterranean coastal regions on the mainland constitutes a...
Article
Large national programs in the United States and several Asian countries have defined and characterised their marine methane hydrate occurrences in some detail, but European hydrate occurrence has received less attention. The European Union-funded project “Marine gas hydrate – an indigenous resource of natural gas for Europe” (MIGRATE) aimed to det...
Article
Chemosymbiotic micro- and macro-fauna related to cold-seep sites were recovered in the Palmahim Disturbance (PD), offshore Israel, during EU EUROFLEETS2 SEMSEEP Cruise, by box-coring and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives. No live macrofauna was identified in the collected sediments, with the exception of the seep-related crustacean Calliax loba...
Article
Full-text available
Jellyfish locomotion and orientation have been studied in the past both in the laboratory, testing mostly small jellyfish, and in the field, where it was impossible to control the seawater currents. Utilizing an outdoor water flume, we tested the locomotion of jellyfish when swimming against and with currents of up to 4.5 cm s−1. We used adult jell...
Conference Paper
Mass transport complexes (MTCs) are products of staggered episodes of margin instability forming major components of deep-water systems. However, these deposits are not well understood as most deep-water borehole penetrating them, especially in the overburden, are seldom logged since they are generally considered barren for exploration and notoriou...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding continental‐slope morphological evolution is essential for predicting basin deposition. However, separating the imprints and chronology of different seafloor shaping processes is difficult. This study explores the utility of bathymetric spectral decomposition for separating and characterizing the variety of interleaved seafloor imprin...
Article
Seafloor video surveys were carried out with the ROV Max Rover in the Palmahim Disturbance (PD) area, offshore Israel, in September 2016 during the EUROFLEETS2 SEMSEEP cruise on board the R/V AEGAEO. Preliminary observations of distribution and frequencies of bivalve accumulations show that they are mostly composed by Lucinoma kazani shells. Valves...
Article
Full-text available
To estimate the potential inventory of natural gas hydrates (NGH) in the Levant Basin, southeastern Mediterranean Sea, we correlated the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), modeled with local thermodynamic parameters, with seismic indicators of gas. A compilation of the oceanographic measurements defines the >1 km deep water temperature and salinity...
Article
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.97–5.33 Ma) is considered an extreme environmental event driven by changes in climate and tectonics, which affected global ocean salinity and shaped the biogeochemical composition of the Mediterranean Sea. Yet, after more than 50 years of research, MSC stratigraphy remains controversial. Recent studies agree th...
Preprint
Full-text available
To estimate the potential inventory of natural gas hydrates (NGH) in the Levant Basin, southeastern Mediterranean Sea, we correlated the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), modeled with local thermodynamic parameters, with seismic indicators of gas. A compilation of oceanographic measurements defines the >1 km deep-water temperature and salinity to...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster is focused on recent seafloor activity and geohazards associated with the Dor Disturbance, north central Israel. The Disturbance morphology combines substantial sub-seafloor thin skin faulting, acute bathymetric steps and a dense array of submarine slide scars. Surveying utilized our 48 channels, 3.125 m group interval, Geo Marine Surve...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive summary This work aims to map the regional (km-scale) trends of the top most sand layer along the coast of southern and central Israel, and where possible to characterize the sand in this layer focusing on its relevance for coastal preservation. The research area stretches from the Gaza border in the south to Hadera region in the north, a...
Article
The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) is perceived as an environmental crisis governed by climatic and tectonic controls, affecting global oceans’ salinity and shaping the Mediterranean Sea’s biochemical composition. Recently drilled offshore wells in the Levant Basin retrieved a sedimentary record of the deep-basin Mediterranean MSC salt deposits an...
Article
The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) is perceived as an environmental crisis governed by climatic and tectonic controls, affecting global oceans' salinity and shaping the Mediterranean Sea's biochemical composition. Recently drilled offshore wells in the Levant Basin retrieved a sedimentary record of the deep-basin Mediterranean MSC salt deposits an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Low sea level characterizing the last glacial maxima (LGM) allowed the establishment of shallow-water reefs at positions currently deeper than 100 m. Some of these reefs, like those of the Gulf of Eilat (Aqaba) and Hawaii, initiated during photic conditions and demised as sea level rose. Others, like in southern Australia, were initiated by changes...
Article
Mass transport deposits (MTDs) are commonly regarded as motionless evidences of past mass wasting events. 3D seismic surveys acquired offshore central Israel reveal continued long lasting and even current deformation of >1.5 Myr old MTDs, now buried hundreds of meters beneath and still impacting the seafloor. Faulting and folding of the Messinian-P...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant and dynamic mechanism that control coastal environmental through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continenta...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mass transport complexes (MTCs) are significant constituents of the post-evaporitic overburden in the Levant Basin, offshore Israel. Analysis of a new 3D seismic dataset offshore central Israel reveals that the Israel Slump Complex (ISC) consists of three stacked mass transport deposits (MTDs). The MTDs vary in lateral extent from between ~351 and...
Article
Recent giant gas discoveries within deeply buried structural highs in the middle of the Levant basin have attracted the attention of the industrial and academic communities striving to understand the origin of such structures, their relations to the tectonic history of the basin, and their evolution through time. Here we focus on the Jonah high, wh...
Article
A new high resolution bathymetric map of the Levant Basin between Israel and the Eratosthenes Seamount reveals previously undetected folds, faults and channels. The map facilitates a regional map-view analysis of structures that were previously examined only in cross section. The systematic mapping of morpho-structural elements in the entire basin...
Article
Full-text available
The northern Gulf of Elat/Aqaba is located in the transition between the deep marine basins of the gulf and the shallow onland basins of the Arava Valley. Interpretation of 500 km of high-resolution seismic reflection data collected across the northern shelf reveals the tectonic structure and evolution of this transition. Six NNE-trending faults an...
Article
Full-text available
Quaternary reef development and demise have been shown to correspond to worldwide sea-level fluctuations and related environmental changes, yet the mechanisms and rates affecting this relationship are not well resolved. A set of high-resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data was interpreted. Six distinct systems of relict fringin...
Article
During the 2011 exploration season of the EV Nautilus in the Mediterranean Sea, we conducted a multidisciplinary study, aimed at exploring the microbial populations below the sediment-water interface (SWI) in the hydrocarbon rich environments of the Levantine basin. Two ~1000 m deep locations were sampled: sediments fueled by methane seepage at the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Methane (CH4) is the most abundant hydrocarbon and one of the most important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. CH4 bubble growth and migration within muddy aquatic sediments are closely associated with sediment fracturing. We present the finite element modelling results of buoyancy-driven CH4 bubble growth in fine-grained muddy aquatic sediment p...
Conference Paper
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Article
Full-text available
a b s t r a c t The Karakoram fault (KKF) is the 1000 km-long strike-slip fault separating the western Himalaya from the Tibetan Plateau. From geologic and geodetic data, the KKF is argued either to be a lithospheric-scale fault with hundreds of km of offset at several cm/a, or to be almost inactive with cumulative offset of only a few tens of kilo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Subsurface salt deformation is known to affect the circulation of hydrocarbon fluids on continental margins. The tectonic quiescence of the Central and Western Mediterranean extensional basins has not been considered until now to generate salt-fluid interaction other than the one deriving from de-watering of the post Messinian clastic wedges. Durin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Methane seepages are prominent throughout the Nile delta, but so far have not been observed north of Gaza. In the course of 2010 and 2011 E/V Nautilus collaborative cruises we collected high definition video and hand and short core samples utilizing state-of-the-art ROV operations at water depths of 500 to 1700 m of the Israeli Mediterranean. RO...
Article
Following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) lowstand, global sea-level rose by ~ 120 m flooding previously exposed continental shelves worldwide with water and sediments. In these drowned environments sediment accumulation patterns are dictated by a superposition of vertical tectonic motion, sea-level change and sediment supply rates, which are hard t...
Article
Full-text available
The northern shelf of the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba (GEA) is an ideal location for the study of fringing reef generation and mortality in response to changes in sedimentation and sea level. It is an oligotrophic marine environment surrounded by an arid region with a limited supply of sediments, and continued growth of fringing reefs. In this study we inv...
Article
The autumn 2008 cruise of the Charney School of Marine Sciences (CSMS) focused on investigation of the outer continental shelf (50 to 85 m depth) offshore Haifa Bay, Israel. The cruise combined the collection of oceanographic CTD and water samples transect with measurements every about 5 km, and subsequently (over a duration of about 12 hours) the...
Article
The autumn 2008 cruise of Charney School of Marine Sciences (CSMS) was focused on high resolution geological and geophysical investigation of the outer continental shelf (50 to 85 m seafloor depth) offshore Haifa Bay, Israel. The cruise corroborated collection of an oceanographic transect, acquisition of a grid of 2 km long high resolution (~1-2.5...
Article
The Hula basin is a transform basin located on the Dead Sea Fault system (DSFS) in northern Israel. Gravity mapping and standard exploration seismic reflection profiles were recently interpreted to suggest that the major strand of the DSFS crosses the Hula basin from SSE to NNW. However, locating the active surface trace of this fault is an elusive...
Article
Full-text available
On 12 May, a great earthquake (Ms = 8.0) on the Longmenshan thrust fault rumbled through China's Sichuan province, killing more than 69,000 people and injuring 374,000. The Longmenshan thrust is part of the eastern border of the Tibetan Plateau, but it is not the plateau's only restless margin. An even larger earthquake (Ms = 8.1) on the Kunlun fau...
Article
Full-text available
DOI = 10.3126/hjs.v5i7.1274 Himalayan Journal of Sciences Vol.5(7) (Special Issue) 2008 p.76-77
Article
The Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) steps-over at the northern head of the Gulf of Aqaba (GOA), crossing the evolving continental shelf. We report detailed processing and interpretation of high resolution sub-bottom profiles of the north western tip of the GOA down to a depth of about 120 m. Our data reveal stepping seafloor morphology comprising a se...
Article
Since 1992, INDEPTH has acquired active and passive seismic data in three major experiments from south of the High Himalaya to the Qiangtang terrane, north of the Banggong suture. Phase IV of Project INDEPTH is focussed on delineating deep crustal and mantle structure beneath the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, thought by many to represent...
Article
In June of 2007, project INDEPTH IV conducted a 260 km controlled source seismic refraction/reflection experiment across the Kunlun suture in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau from the Qumarlai area to the Qaidam Basin. Approximately 950 PASSCAL "Texan" seismographs were deployed, together with a conventional 1000- channel cabled seismometer system (Se...
Article
Full-text available
The wide-angle seismic experiment of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas) focused on the structure of the India-Asia continental collision suture (Yarlung Zangbo suture) in southern Tibet. Three-component portable seismographs recorded the explosive sources of the INDEPTH seismic reflection profile across the su...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic bright spots are commonly interpreted to mark fluid concentrations, but their nature (melt or aqueous) is usually inferred only from circumstantial evidence of the geologic setting. A band of bright spot reflections has been imaged by Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas) at about 15 km depth along 150 km...