Yiyuan Xu

Yiyuan Xu
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa | UH Manoa · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

37
Publications
28,031
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1,719
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August 2004 - present
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (37)
Article
The current study examined psychometric properties, as well as convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders (HTKS) task with a sample of Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian kindergartners from a rural community in Hawaiʻi. There were 120 (58 girls, 62 boys; 71 Native Hawaiian, 49 non-Hawaiian) participants (M = 59...
Chapter
There is increasing evidence to suggest that shyness is a multidimensional phenomenon in childhood across cultural contexts. This chapter reviews the recent theory development and empirical evidence related to differentiation of three forms of childhood shyness, including shyness toward strangers, anxious shyness, and regulated shyness. Drawing fro...
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Objectives: The current studies examined measurement invariance and prototypical symptoms when comparing social anxiety between Japanese and European Americans. Methods: Study 1 investigated configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and their respective short forms...
Article
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Objective: Abundant research has shown that Asian Americans tend to score higher on standardized social anxiety measures than do European Americans. The current study explored how this cultural difference in social anxiety may be explained by cultural differences in self-construals and threat appraisal between Asian Americans and European American...
Article
SYNOPSIS: Objective. The current study examines how aspects of the home literacy environment were related to Asian immigrant children’s early literacy skills. Design. One hundred and thirty-nine Asian immigrant families and their children (69 girls; mean age = 62.93 months; standard deviation = 3.82) were recruited from kindergarten classrooms at s...
Article
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The authors explored the differential emergence and correlates of racial stereotyping in 136 children ages 4-11 years across two broad social contexts: Hawai'i and Massachusetts. Children completed measures assessing race salience, race essentialism, and in-group and out-group stereotyping. Results indicated that the type of racial stereotypes emer...
Article
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There have been over 30 studies and two meta-analyses comparing social anxiety between Asian Americans and European Americans. However, few have investigated the invariance of social anxiety measures that would make these comparisons appropriate. In the current study, we systematically examined psychometric properties and configural, metric, and sc...
Article
This article first defines and compares the concepts of temperament and personality. Second, it discusses contextual variations of temperament and personality, and the distinction between continuous and categorical views of these two concepts. Third, the article focuses on development of temperament and how temperament contributes to development of...
Article
In this commentary on Ding et al. (Brit. J. Dev. Psychol., 2015; doi:10.1111/bjdp.12081), we focus on the following: (1) the authors' use of vignettes portraying various prototypes of withdrawn children and (2) the cultural interpretation of their findings. We end with some suggestions for future research. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Article
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There is increasing evidence to suggest an ethnic difference in social anxiety between Asian-heritage (AH) and European-heritage (EH) individuals. However, it is unclear whether the AH–EH difference in social anxiety was robust and what factors may account for this ethnic difference. The current meta-analytical review intended to fill this gap by e...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief review on child rearing practices in Chinese culture, with a particular emphasis on three practices that are related to development of shyness in Chinese children: shaming, overprotective/intrusive parenting, and encouragement of modesty. Drawing upon LeVine’s model of culture and parenting, the cha...
Article
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Three studies were conducted to examine the impact of being a numeric majority or minority in Hawai'i and U.S. mainland on the ethnic identity and self-esteem of Asian and European Americans. Results of Study 1 (N = 214, M age = 19.85 years) and Study 2 (N = 215, M age = 18.20 years) showed that Asian Americans who grew up on the U.S. mainland, whe...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxious shyness and regulated shyness, initially identified in Asian cultures, can be differentiated in Asian American children and to explore how these two forms of shyness were related to children's temperament, parents' acculturation, and children's psychosocial functioning. Participants were 155...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxious shyness and regulated shyness, initially identified in the Chinese culture, is found in South Korean children, and to explore whether these two forms of shyness were differentially related to children's psychosocial functioning. Participants were 544 fourth to sixth grade children (251 girls,...
Article
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The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations betwe...
Article
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Abundant research conducted in Western contexts has shown that biological risk factors such as low resting heart rate (HR) might be related to childhood aggression. However, it was unclear (1) how resting HR, as well as other markers of cardiac functions such as resting vagal tone, may be related to subtypes of aggression such as reactive and proac...
Article
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This study examined children's early literacy skills in both English and Spanish at entry to preschool to investigate the pattern of association among these skills and their families' home language and literacy practices. The participants were 392 primarily Latino immigrant (85%) families and their children. Mothers completed questionnaires about t...
Article
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This study examined subtypes of nonsocial play and their relation to psychosocial adjustment in Malaysian preschool children (N = 141, 72 boys, M age = 4.65 years). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a three‐factor model that distinguished social reticence, solitary‐active play, and solitary‐passive play fit the data reasonably well, and al...
Article
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Is self-enhancement culturally universal or relativistic? This article highlights a nuanced dynamic in East Asian culture. Modesty is a prevailing norm in China. The authors hypothesized that because of socialization practices and prohibitive cultural pressures, modesty would be associated with and lead to low explicit self-enhancement but high imp...
Article
This study attempted to validate distinctions between popularity and social acceptance in the cultural context of Hong Kong. We recruited 280 Chinese children (132 girls, 148 boys, mean age = 9.5) from Hong Kong primary schools. These children completed a peer nomination inventory assessing popularity, social acceptance, social rejection, aggressio...
Article
This study reports two separate cross-sectional investigations that focus on bully/victim problems among Hong Kong school children. Study 1 included 1361 children (670 boys, 691 girls; mean age = 12.6 years) and Study 2 included 288 children (153 boys, 135 girls; mean age = 9.6 years). Children's social and academic functioning was assessed with da...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted to further differentiate 3 forms of shyness previously identified in Chinese children--shyness toward strangers, anxious shyness, and regulated shyness--by examining the relation of the 3 forms of shyness to children's inhibited behavior, physiological reactivity (measured by heart period [HP]), and effortful control. In...
Article
This paper reports on two exploratory studies of situations that elicit shyness in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 100; Mage = 10.42) interviews with Chinese children identified three kinds of shyness-eliciting situations: social novelty; negative social evaluation; and public attention. In Study 2 (N = 162, Mage = 10.19), children's sel...
Article
This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M age = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The results showed t...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies were conducted to explore Chinese children’s understanding of shyness. In Study 1 (N = 174, M age = 10.18) interviews with Chinese children revealed a group of diverse attributes that characterized their conceptions of shyness. In Study 2 (N = 273, M age = 10.19) a rating procedure was used to identify attributes that were prototypica...
Article
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This study examined proactive and reactive aggression and their relation to psychosocial adjustment in three samples (N = 767, 368 girls, M age = 10.03) of Chinese school age children. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor model which distinguished both proactive and reactive aggression fit the data reasonably well, and also fit t...
Article
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This paper reports on three studies of shy behavior in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 [N = 107, M age = 10.05), a Chinese Shyness Scale (CSS) was developed based on Chinese teachers' open-ended descriptions of children's shy behavior. In Study 2 (N = 388, M age = 10.80) and Study 3 (N = 198, M age = 10.20), the construct validity of the two...
Article
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Currently, little is known about how child-rearing beliefs change as immigrant families adapt to the host culture and about the extent to which these beliefs begin to approximate the American mainstream. This study examined how parents' child-rearing beliefs were associated with the psychological well-being of 360 (180 Asian Indian and 180 European...
Article
This study examined the moderating role of positive peer relationships in the relation between behavioral or academic risk factors and victimization in Asian children's peer groups. We recruited 296 children (161 boys, 135 girls) from Tianjin, China (mean age of 11.5 years) and 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls) from Seoul, South Korea (approximate m...
Article
This exploratory study examined the relations among characteristics of children's home environments and two school readiness skills: their oral language and social functioning. Low SES Latino mothers of 122 (65 girls; 57 boys) preschoolers (39–49 months (M = 45.00; S.D. = 5.40) completed questionnaires about their family demography, their home envi...
Article
In most cultures, the family setting provides children with an initial set of experiences that will allow them to become productive adults, express their individual differences, form and maintain social contacts with others, and learn how to cope with daily hassles and major life stressors. Predominant beliefs or “parental ethnotheories” (Harkness...
Article
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Parenting styles and mother–child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age 1/4 29.64 years, SD 1/4 3.64) and their young children (M 1/4 24.30 months, SD 1/4 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support...
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This study examined the relations among family conflict, community violence, and young children's socioemotional functioning and explored how children's social cognition and mothers' psychological functioning may mediate the outcomes associated with this exposure. Mothers of 431 Head Start preschoolers completed questionnaires about their family de...
Article
This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children’s social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific pe...
Article
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The authors present a model of adolescents' peer relations in the classroom that integrates 3 social processes involving the adolescent students, the classroom teacher, and peers. One of the hypotheses was that teacher liking of students mediated the relation between students' social behaviors (e.g.. antisocial disruption and prosocial leadership)...
Article
This study investigated the behavioural profiles and psychosocial adjustment of aggressive victims in Chinese children’s peer groups. Participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, PR China (mean age 11.5 years). Peers’ nominations and teachers’ ratings were combined to form composite scores of aggression and victimisation. A comparis...

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Projects (2)
Project
This research program seeks to quantify and statistically model cultural differences in social anxiety between individuals of East Asian cultural heritage and European cultural heritage. We began with a meta-analytic review of the field, continued to examine the possibility of measurement artifacts through psychometric research, and finally identified mediating factors, modeling them through sequential mediation analyses and testing them through quasi-experimental designs.