# Yevgeniy DodisNew York University | NYU · Department of Computer Science

Yevgeniy Dodis

PhD

## About

183

Publications

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14,311

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Citations since 2017

Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (183)

Key Transparency (KT) systems allow end-to-end encrypted service providers (messaging, calls, etc.) to maintain an auditable directory of their users’ public keys, producing proofs that all participants have a consistent view of those keys, and allowing each user to check updates to their own keys. KT has lately received a lot of attention, in part...

Forward-secure encryption (FSE) allows communicating parties to refresh their keys across epochs, in a way that compromising the current secret key leaves all prior encrypted communication secure. We investigate a novel dimension in the design of FSE schemes: fast-forwarding (FF). This refers to the ability of a stale communication party, that is “...

Continuous Group Key Agreement (CGKA) is the basis of modern Secure Group Messaging (SGM) protocols. At a high level, a CGKA protocol enables a group of users to continuously compute a shared (evolving) secret while members of the group add new members, remove other existing members, and perform state updates. The state updates allow CGKA to offer...

We consider the streaming variant of the Bounded Storage Model (BSM), where the honest parties can stream large amounts of data to each other, while only maintaining a small memory of size n. The adversary also operates as a streaming algorithm, but has a much larger memory size m≫n. The goal is to construct unconditionally secure cryptographic sch...

Multicast Key Agreement (MKA) is a long-overlooked natural primitive of large practical interest. In traditional MKA, an omniscient group manager privately distributes secrets over an untrusted network to a dynamically-changing set of group members. The group members are thus able to derive shared group secrets across time, with the main security r...

We build the first sub-linear (in fact, potentially constant-time) public-key searchable encryption system:
server can publish a public key PK.
anybody can build an encrypted index for document D under PK.
client holding the index can obtain a token \(z_w\) from the server to check if a keyword w belongs to D.
search using \(z_w\) is almost as fast...

Forward security (FS) ensures that corrupting the current secret key in the system preserves the privacy or integrity of the prior usages of the system. Achieving forward security is especially hard in the setting of public-key encryption (PKE), where time is divided into periods, and in each period the receiver derives the next-period secret key f...

In this paper, we study forward secret encrypted RAMs (FS eRAMs) which enable clients to outsource the storage of an n-entry array to a server. In the case of a catastrophic attack where both client and server storage are compromised, FS eRAMs guarantee that the adversary may not recover any array entries that were deleted or overwritten prior to t...

In the backdoored random-oracle (BRO) model, besides access to a random function \(\mathsf {H}\), adversaries are provided with a backdoor oracle that can compute arbitrary leakage functions f of the function table of \(\mathsf {H}\). Thus, an adversary would be able to invert points, find collisions, test for membership in certain sets, and more....

Secure messaging (SM) protocols allow users to communicate securely over untrusted infrastructure. In contrast to most other secure communication protocols (such as TLS, SSH, or Wireguard), SM sessions may be long-lived (e.g., years) and highly asynchronous. In order to deal with likely state compromises of users during the lifetime of a session, S...

One approach toward basing public-key encryption (PKE) schemes on weak and credible assumptions is to build “stronger” or more general schemes generically from “weaker” or more restricted ones. One particular line of work in this context was initiated by Myers and Shelat (FOCS ’09) and continued by Hohenberger, Lewko, and Waters (Eurocrypt ’12), wh...

We revisit the well-studied problem of extracting nearly uniform randomness from an arbitrary source of sufficient min-entropy. Strong seeded extractors solve this problem by relying on a public random seed, which is unknown to the source. Here, we consider a setting where the seed is reused over time and the source may depend on prior calls to the...

International Association for Cryptologic Research 2020. We revisit the well-studied problem of extracting nearly uniform randomness from an arbitrary source of sufficient min-entropy. Strong seeded extractors solve this problem by relying on a public random seed, which is unknown to the source. Here, we consider a setting where the seed is reused...

The need for high-quality randomness in cryptography makes random-number generation one of its most fundamental tasks.

We consider the problem of Non-Interactive Two-Party Secure Computation (NISC), where Rachel wishes to publish an encryption of her input x, in such a way that any other party, who holds an input y, can send her a single message which conveys to her the value f(x, y), and nothing more. We demand security against malicious parties. While such protoc...

Signal is a famous secure messaging protocol used by billions of people, by virtue of many secure text messaging applications including Signal itself, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Skype, and Google Allo. At its core it uses the concept of “double ratcheting,” where every message is encrypted and authenticated using a fresh symmetric key; it has ma...

Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPNs) refer to a family of constructions which build a wn-bit block cipher from n-bit public permutations (often called S-boxes), which alternate keyless and “local” substitution steps utilizing such S-boxes, with keyed and “global” permutation steps which are non-cryptographic. Many widely deployed block ciphers...

Non-malleable codes provide a useful and meaningful security guarantee in situations where traditional error-correction (and even error-detection) is impossible, for example, when the attacker can completely overwrite the encoded message. Informally, a code is non-malleable if the message contained in a modified codeword is either the original mess...

Motivated by typo correction in password authentication, we investigate cryptographic error-correction of secrets in settings where the distribution of secrets is a priori (approximately) known. We refer to this as the distribution-sensitive setting.

Random number generators (RNGs) play a crucial role in many cryptographic schemes and protocols, but their security proof usually assumes that their internal state is initialized with truly random seeds and remains secret at all times. However, in many practical situations these are unrealistic assumptions: The seed is often gathered after a reset/...

In a seminal paper, Dolev et al. [15] introduced the notion of non-malleable encryption (NM-CPA). This notion is very intriguing since it suffices for many applications of chosen-ciphertext secure encryption (IND-CCA), and, yet, can be generically built from semantically secure (IND-CPA) encryption, as was shown in the seminal works by Pass et al....

Non-malleable codes, introduced by Dziembowski, Pietrzak and Wichs [DPW10], provide a useful message integrity guarantee in situations where traditional error-correction (and even error-detection) is impossible; for example, when the attacker can completely overwrite the encoded message. Informally, a code is non-malleable if the message contained...

We provide a formal treatment of backdoored pseudorandom generators (PRGs). Here a saboteur chooses a PRG instance for which she knows a trapdoor that allows prediction of future (and possibly past) generator outputs. This topic was formally studied by Vazirani and Vazirani, but only in a limited form and not in the context of subverting cryptograp...

We study random number generators (RNGs) with input, RNGs that regularly update their internal state according to some auxiliary input with additional randomness harvested from the environment. We formalize the problem of designing an efficient recovery mechanism from complete state compromise in the presence of an active attacker. If we knew the t...

We study the classical problem of privacy amplification, where two parties Alice and Bob share a weak secret X of min-entropy k, and wish to agree on secret key R of length m over a public communication channel completely controlled by a computationally unbounded attacker Eve. Despite being extensively studied in the literature, the problem of desi...

We revisit the classical problem of converting an imperfect source of randomness into a usable cryptographic key. Assume that we have some cryptographic application P that expects a uniformly random m-bit key R and ensures that the best attack (in some complexity class) against P(R) has success probability at most δ. Our goal is to design a key-der...

In studying how to communicate over a public channel with an active adversary, Dodis and Wichs introduced the notion of a nonmalleable extractor. A nonmalleable extractor dramatically strengthens the notion of a strong extractor. A strong extractor takes two inputs, a weakly random x and a uniformly random seed y, and outputs a string which appears...

Let \(\mathbb{G}\) be a group of prime order q, and let g1,…,gn be random elements of \(\mathbb{G}\). We say that a vector x = \((x_1,\ldots,x_n)\in \mathbb{Z}_q^n\) is a discrete log representation of some some element \(y\in\mathbb{G}\) (with respect to g1,…,gn) if \(g_1^{x_1}\cdots g_n^{x_n} = y\). Any element y has many discrete log representat...

A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a deterministic algorithm that produces numbers whose distribution is indistinguishable from uniform. A formal security model for PRNGs with input was proposed in 2005 by Barak and Halevi (BH). This model involves an internal state that is refreshed with a (potentially biased) external random source, and a...

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the most widely used block cipher. The high level structure of AES can be viewed as a (10-round) key-alternating cipher, where a t-round key-alternating cipher KAt
consists of a small number t of fixed permutations P
i
on n bits, separated by key addition:
$$ \text{KA}_t(K,m)= k_t\oplus P_t(\dots k_2\oplus...

Recently, there has been renewed interest in basing cryptographic primitives on weak secrets, where the only information about the secret is some non-trivial amount of (min-) entropy. From a formal point of view, such results require to upper bound the expectation of some function f(X), where X is a weak source in question. We show an elementary in...

In this note we revisit the famous result of Shannon [Sha49] stating that any encryption scheme with perfect security against computationally unbounded attackers must have a secret key as long as the message. This result motivated the introduction of modern encryption schemes, which are secure only against a computationally bounded attacker, and al...

If we have a problem that is mildly hard, can we create a problem that is significantly harder? A natural approach to hardness amplification is the “direct product”; instead of asking an attacker to solve a single instance of a problem, we ask the attacker to solve several independently generated ones. Interestingly, proving that the direct product...

Software-based attacks (e.g., malware) pose a big threat to cryptographic software because they can compromise the as-sociated cryptographic keys in their entirety. In this paper, we investigate key-insulated symmetric key cryptography, which can mitigate the damage caused by repeated attacks against cryptographic software. To illustrate the feasib...

The hash-and-sign RSA signature is one of the most elegant and well known signatures schemes, extensively used in a wide variety of cryptographic applications. Unfortunately, the only existing analysis of this popular signature scheme is in the random oracle model, where the resulting idealized signature is known as the RSA Full Domain Hash signatu...

We initiate a study of randomness condensers for sources that are efficiently samplable but may depend on the seed of the condenser. That is, we seek functions Cond : {0,1}n
×{0,1}d
→ {0,1}m
such that if we choose a random seed S ← {0,1}d
, and a source \(X={\mathcal A}(S)\) is generated by a randomized circuit \(\mathcal A\) of size t such that X...

Traditionally, symmetric-key message authentication codes (MACs) are easily built from pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In this work we propose a wide variety of other approaches to building efficient MACs, without going through a PRF first. In particular, unlike deterministic PRF-based MACs, where each message has a unique valid tag, we give a numbe...

In this work we revisit the question of basing cryptography on imperfect randomness. Bosley and Dodis (TCC’07) showed that if a source of randomness \(\mathcal {R}\) is “good enough” to generate a secret key capable of encrypting k bits, then one can deterministically extract nearly k almost uniform bits from \(\mathcal {R}\), suggesting that tradi...

We show that the second iterate H
2(M) = H(H(M)) of a random oracle H cannot achieve strong security in the sense of indifferentiability from a random oracle. We do so by proving that indifferentiability for H
2 holds only with poor concrete security by providing a lower bound (via an attack) and a matching upper bound (via a proof requiring new te...

We consider the question of how to store a value secretly on devices that continually leak information about their internal state to an external attacker. If the secret value is stored on a single device from which it is efficiently retrievable, and the attacker can leak even a single predicate of the internal state of that device, then she may lea...

The famous Leftover Hash Lemma (LHL) states that (almost) universal hash functions are good randomness extractors. Despite its numerous applications, LHL-based extractors suffer from the following two limitations:
Large Entropy Loss: to extract v bits from distribution X of min-entropy m which are ε-close to uniform, one must set v ≤ m − 2log(1/ε),...

Given an n-bit to n-bit MAC (e.g., a fixed key blockcipher) with MAC security ε against q queries, we design a variable-length MAC achieving MAC security O(εq,poly(n)) against queries of total length qn. In particular, our construction is the first to break the “birthday barrier” for MAC domain extension from noncompressing
primitives, since our se...

In studying how to communicate over a public channel with an active
adversary, Dodis and Wichs introduced the notion of a non-malleable extractor.
A non-malleable extractor dramatically strengthens the notion of a strong
extractor. A strong extractor takes two inputs, a weakly-random x and a
uniformly random seed y, and outputs a string which appea...

We study the design of cryptographic primitives resistant to a large class of side-channel attacks, called “memory attacks”, where an attacker can repeatedly and adaptively learn information about the secret key, subject only to the constraint that the overall amount of such information is bounded by some parameter ℓ. Although the study of such pri...

We design the first Leakage-Resilient Identity-Based Encryp- tion (LR-IBE) systems from static assumptions in the stan- dard model. We derive these schemes by applying a hash proof technique from Alwen et al. (Eurocrypt '10) to variants of the existing IBE schemes of Boneh-Boyen, Waters, and Lewko-Waters. As a result, we achieve leakage-resili...

In this chapter we will study a recent cryptographic primitive called concealment
, which was introduced by Dodis and An [75, 76] because of its natural applications to authenticated encryption
.

We say that a cryptographic scheme is Continuous Leakage-Resilient (CLR), if it allows users to refresh their secret keys, using only fresh local randomness, such that: 1. The scheme remains functional after any number of key refreshes, although the public key never changes. Thus, the “outside world" is neither affected by these key refreshes, nor...

A cryptographic primitive is leakage-resilient, if it remains secure even if an adversary can learn a bounded amount of arbitrary information about the computation with every invocation. As a consequence, the physical implementation of a leakage-resilient primitive is secure against every side-channel as long as the amount of information leaked per...

We describe a simple, but powerful local encoding technique, implying two surprising results: 1. We show how to represent a vector of n values from using dn log2 e bits, such that reading or writing any entry takes O(1) time. This demonstrates, for instance, an \equivalence" between decimal and binary computers, and has been a central toy problem i...

We describe a simple, but powerful local encoding technique, implying two surprising results: 1. We show how to represent a vector of n values from some alphabet S using ceiling(n * log2 |S|) bits, such that reading or writing any entry takes O(1) time. This demonstrates, for instance, an "equivalence" between decimal and binary computers, and has...

We construct public-key cryptosystems that remain secure even when the adversary is given any computationally uninvertible function of the secret key as auxiliary input (even one that may reveal the secret key information-theoretically). Our schemes are based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and the Learning with Errors (LWE) problems.
As an...

We describe the first domain extender for ideal ciphers, i.e. we show a construction that is indifferentiable from a 2n-bit ideal cipher, given a n-bit ideal cipher. Our construction is based on a 3- round Feistel, and is more efficient than first building an-bit random oracle from a n-bit ideal cipher (as in (6)) and then a 2n-bit ideal cipher fro...

Consider two parties holding samples from correlated distributions $W$ and $W^{prime}$, respectively, where these samples are within distance $t$ of each other in some metric space. The parties wish to agree on a close-to-uniformly distributed secret key $R$ by sending a single message over an insecure channel controlled by an all-powerful adversar...

This survey paper studies recent advances in the field of Leakage- Resilient Cryptography. This booming area is concerned with the design of cryp- tographic primitives resistant to arbitrary side-channel attacks, where an attacker can repeatedly and adaptively learn information about the secret key, subject only to the constraint that the overall a...

Protocols for deniable authentication achieve seemingly paradoxical guarantees: upon completion of the protocol the receiver is convinced that the sender authenticated the message, but neither party can convince anyone else that the other party took part in the protocol. We introduce and study on-line deniability, where deniability should hold even...

We study the design of cryptographic primitives resilient to key-leakage attacks, where an attacker can repeatedly and adaptively learn information about the secret key, subject only to the constraint that the overall amount of such information is bounded by some parameter ℓ. We construct a variety of leakage-resilient public-key systems including...

We design an efficient mode of operation on block ciphers, SS-NMAC. Our mode has the following properties, when instantiated with a block cipher f to yield a variable-length, keyed hash function H:
(1)
MAC Preservation.
H is a secure message authentication code (MAC) with birthday security, as long as f is unpredictable.
(2)
PRF Preservation.
H is...

MD6 [17] is one of the earliest announced SHA-3 candidates, presented by Rivest at CRYPTO’08 [16]. Since then, MD6 has received a fair share of attention and has resisted several initial cryptanalytic attempts [1,11].
Given the interest in MD6, it is important to formally verify the soundness of its design from a theoretical standpoint. In this pap...

We study the question of designing cryptographic schemes which are secure even if an arbitrary function f(sk) of the secret key is leaked, as long as the secret key sk is still (exponentially) hard to compute from this auxiliary input. This setting of auxiliary input is more general than the more traditional setting, which assumes that some of info...

We study the question of basing symmetric key cryptography on weak secrets. In this setting, Alice and Bob share an n-bit secret W, which might not be uniformly random, but the adversary has at least k bits of uncertainty about it (formalized using conditional min-entropy). Since standard symmetric-key primitives require uniformly random secret key...

Many cryptographic applications of hash functions are analyzed in the random oracle model. Unfortunately, most concrete hash functions, including the SHA family, use the iterative (strengthened) Merkle-Damgård transform applied to a corresponding compression function. Moreover, it is well known that the resulting “structured” hash function cannot b...

Proofs of Retrievability (PoR), introduced by Juels and Kaliski [JK07], allow the client to store a file F on an untrusted server, and later run an efficient audit protocol in which the server proves that it (still) possesses the client’s data. Constructions of PoR schemes attempt to minimize the client and server storage, the communication complex...

Security amplification is an important problem in Cryptography: starting with a “weakly secure” variant of some cryptographic primitive, the goal is to build a “strongly secure” variant of the same primitive. This question has been successfully studied for a variety of important cryptographic primitives, such as one-way functions, collision-resista...

We construct the first public-key encryption scheme in the Bounded-Retrieval Model (BRM), providing security against various forms of adversarial “key leakage” attacks. In this model, the adversary is allowed
to learn arbitrary information about the decryption key, subject only to the constraint that the overall amount of “leakage”
is bounded by at...

We describe the first domain extender for ideal ciphers, i.e. we show a construction that is indifferentiable from a 2n-bit ideal cipher, given a n-bit ideal cipher. Our construction is based on a 3-round Feistel, and is more efficient than first building a n-bit random oracle from a n-bit ideal cipher (as in [6]) and then a 2n-bit ideal cipher fro...

We study the design of cryptographic primitives resilient to key-leakage attacks, where an at- tacker can repeatedly and adaptively learn information about the secret key, subject only to the constraint that the overall amount of such information is bounded by some parameter '. We construct a variety of leakage-resilient public-key systems includin...

This report describes and analyzes the MD6 hash function and is part of our submission package for MD6 as an entry in the NIST SHA-3 hash function competition 1 . Significant features of MD6 include: • Accepts input messages of any length up to 2 64 − 1 bits, and produces message digests of any desired size from 1 to 512 bits, inclusive, including...

This report describes and analyzes the MD6 hash function, an entry in the NIST SHA-3 hash function competition 1 . Significant features of MD6 include: • Accepts input messages of any length up to 2 64 − 1 bits, and produces message digests of any desired size from 1 to 512 bits, inclusive, including the SHA-3 required sizes of 224, 256, 384, and 5...

Canetti et al. [7] recently proposed a new framework — termed Generalized Universal Composability (GUC) — for properly analyzing concurrent execution of cryptographic protocols in the presence of a global setup, and constructed the first known GUC-secure implementations of commitment (GUCC) and zero-knowledge (GUC ZK), which suffice to implement an...

Cascade chaining is a very efficient and popular mode of operation for building various kinds of cryptographic hash functions. In particular, it is the basis of the most heavily utilized SHA function family. Recently, many researchers pointed out various practical and theoretical deficiencies of this mode, which resulted in a renewed interest in bu...

We propose a new mode of operation, enciphered CBC, for domain extension of length-preserving functions (like block ciphers), which is a variation on the popular CBC mode of
operation. Our new mode is twice slower than CBC, but has many (property-preserving) properties not enjoyed by CBC and other
known modes. Most notably, it yields the first cons...

Consider an abstract storage device \(\Sigma(\mathcal{G})\) that can hold a single element x from a fixed, publicly known finite group \(\mathcal{G}\). Storage is private in the sense that an adversary does not have read access to \(\Sigma(\mathcal{G})\) at all. However, \(\Sigma(\mathcal{G})\) is non-robust in the sense that the adversary can modi...

A forward-secure encryption scheme protects secret keys from exposure by evolving the keys with time. Forward security has several unique requirements in Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE) scheme: (1) users join dynamically; (2) encryption is joining-time-oblivious; (3) users evolve secret keys autonomously. We define and construct a sca...

The Cryptographic and Game Theory worlds seem to have an intersection in that they both deal with an interaction between mutually distrustful par- ties which has some end result. In the cryptographic setting the multiparty interaction takes the shape of a set of parties communicating for the purpose of evaluating a function on their inputs, where e...

Feistel Network, consisting of a repeated application of the Feistel Transform, gives a very convenient and popular method for designing “cryptographically strong” permutations from corresponding “cryptographically strong” functions. Up to now, all usages of the Feistel Network, including the celebrated Luby-Rackoff’s result, critically rely on (a)...

This paper addresses the security of optimistic fair exchange in a multi-user setting. While the security of public key encryption and public key signature schemes in a single-user setting guarantees the se- curity in a multi-user setting, we show that the situation is dierent in the optimistic fair exchange. First, we show how to break, in the mul...

“Hash then encrypt” is an approach to message authentication, where first the message is hashed down using an ε-universal hash function, and then the resulting k-bit value is encrypted, say with a block-cipher. The security of this scheme is proportional to εq
2, where q is the number of MACs the adversary can request. As ε is at least 2− k
, the b...

Most cryptographic primitives require randomness (for example, to generate their secret keys). Usually, one assumes that perfect randomness is available, but, conceivably, such primitives might be built under weaker, more realistic assumptions. This is known to be true for many authentication applications, when entropy alone is typically sufficient...

We construct an intrusion-resilient symmetric-key authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol in the bounded retrieval model. The model employs a long shared private key to cope with an active adversary who can repeatedly compromise the user’s machine and perform any efficient computation on the entire shared key. However, we assume that the attacker...

In this work we initiate the question of whether quantum computers can provide us with an almost perfect source of classical randomness, and more generally, suffice for classical cryptographic tasks, such as encryption. Indeed, it was observed [SV86, MP91, DOPS04] that classical computers are insufficient for either one of these tasks when all they...

Cryptographic protocols are often designed and analyzed under some trusted set-up assumptions, namely in settings where the participants have access to global information that is trusted to have some basic security properties. However, current modeling of security in the presence of such set-up falls short of providing the expected security guarant...

This chapter presents a general approach for handling secret biometric data in cryptographic applications. The generality
manifests itself in two ways: We attempt to minimize the assumptions we make about the data and to present techniques that
are broadly applicable wherever biometric inputs are used.

Consider two parties holding correlated random variables W and W′, respectively, that are within distance t of each other in some metric space. These parties wish to agree on a uniformly distributed secret key R by sending a single message over an insecure channel controlled by an all-powerful adversary. We consider both the keyless case, where the...

Economic incentives for influencing selfish behavior in networks were studied. A model of selfish routing was considered in which the latency experienced by network traffic on an edge of the network is a function of the edge congestion, and network users are assumed to selfishly route traffic on minimum-latency paths. It was proved that in a large...