Yehouda Enzel

Yehouda Enzel
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · Fredy and Nadine Herrmann Institute of Earth Sciences

Prof.

About

301
Publications
66,453
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
11,982
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 1992 - present
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor (Full)
February 1992 - December 2015
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1992 - December 2015
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
January 1986 - January 1990
University of New Mexico
Field of study
  • Geology
October 1980 - July 1984
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Field of study
  • Physical Geography
October 1978 - August 1980
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Field of study
  • Geology and Physical Geography

Publications

Publications (301)
Article
Full-text available
In-depth understanding of the reorganization of the hydrological cycle in response to global climate change is crucial in highly sensitive regions like the eastern Mediterranean, where water availability is a major factor for socioeconomic and political development. The sediments of Lake Lisan provide a unique record of hydroclimatic change during...
Article
This research provides insights into the formation of the coastal cliffs comprising the staircase morphology along the western coast of the Dead Sea as a result of its anthropogenic, regressive modern (last ~50 years) lake-level fall. The analysis of this morphology is based on observations and measurements of the impact of seasonal lake-level rise...
Article
Professor Kenneth J. Gregory was a major contributor to fluvial palaeohydrological research. Beginning in the early 1980s, under his influence, rapid international growth of the discipline was accompanied by major advances in research methods and techniques. Current research emphases include applications of quantitative modeling and meta‐analysis;...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy precipitation events (HPEs) can lead to deadly and costly natural disasters and are critical to the hydrological budget in regions where rainfall variability is high and water resources depend on individual storms. Thus, reliable projections of such events in the future are needed. To provide high‐resolution projections under the RCP8.5 scena...
Article
Full-text available
Annual and decadal-scale hydroclimatic variability describes key characteristics that are embedded into climate in situ and is of prime importance in subtropical regions. The study of hydroclimatic variability is therefore crucial to understand its manifestation and implications for climate derivatives such as hydrological phenomena and water avail...
Article
Full-text available
Storm waves transport and sort coarse gravel along coasts. This fundamental process is important under changing sea-levels and increased storm frequency and intensity. However, limited information on intra-storm clast motion restricts theory development for coastal gravel sorting and coastal management of longshore transport. Here, we use ‘smart bo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Heavy precipitation events (HPEs) can lead to deadly and costly natural disasters and are critical to the hydrological budget in regions where rainfall variability is high and water resources depend on individual storms. Thus, reliable projections of such events in the future are needed. To provide high-resolution projections under the RCP8.5 scena...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The sedimentary record of the endorheic Dead Sea and its precursors comprises aragonite laminae that make up an environmental archive extending into the Pleistocene, partially in annual resolution. Nevertheless, despite the importance of resolving the conditions that facilitate aragonite precipitation in the Dead Sea, contradictions exist between r...
Article
Long-term relationships between climate and dust emission remain unclear, with two prevailing but opposite hypotheses for effects of climate shifts: (1) increased dust emission due to increasing aridity imposing a vegetation change, or (2) decreased dust emission due to increasing aridity which imposes less stormy climate and reduced sediment suppl...
Article
Carbonate minerals are common in marine and lacustrine records, and are frequently used for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The sedimentary sequence of the endorheic Dead Sea and its precursors contain aragonite laminae that provide a detailed sedimentary archive of climatic, hydrologic, limnologic and environmental conditions since the Pleisto...
Article
Full-text available
The history and mechanisms of dust storms in northern China remain unclear owing to the paucity of reliable long-term, high-resolution geological records. In this study, we reconstructed the dust storm history of the last ~500 years in northern China, based on sedimentary coarse fraction (>63 µm) of a well-dated core from Lake Daihai, Inner Mongoli...
Preprint
Determining sediment discharge out of watersheds is a global, long-term challenge. In the vast, usually data-poor, hyperarid regions of the world, this is a greater challenge. Here, we present a unique, decades-long dataset of individual floods and their respective sediment discharge out of Nahal Yael, an experimental, well-instrumented, hyperarid...
Article
Full-text available
Projections of extreme precipitation based on modern climate models suffer from large uncertainties. Specifically, unresolved physics and natural variability limit the ability of climate models to provide actionable information on impacts and risks at the regional, watershed and city scales relevant for practical applications. Here we show that the...
Article
Meandering channels and valleys are dominant landscape features on Earth. Their morphology and remnants potentially indicate past base‐level fluctuations and changing regional slopes. The prevailing presence of meandering segments in low‐slope areas somewhat confuses the physically‐based relationships between slope and channel meandering. This rela...
Preprint
Full-text available
Annual and decadal-scale hydroclimatic variability is a key characteristic embedded into climate insitu. It is therefore crucial to study hydroclimatic variability in order to understand its effects on climate derivatives such as hydrological processes and water availability. However, the study of this variability from modern records is limited due...
Article
Following the termination of the Messinian salinity crisis ∼5.3 million years ago, massive sedimentation in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea formed the huge Nile Delta. Alongside delta propagation, a continental shelf was accreted along the Levant margin. For several decades it was assumed that these two sedimentary structures were closely connected....
Preprint
Full-text available
We show that the interaction of precipitating systems with local features can constrain the statistical description of extreme precipitation. These observational constraints can be used to project local extremes of low yearly exceedance probability (e.g., 100-year events) using synoptic-scale information from climate models without requiring climat...
Article
Full-text available
As the only deep hypersaline, halite-precipitating lake on Earth today, the Dead Sea is the single modern analog for investigating the mechanisms by which large-scale and thick salt deposits, known as ‘salt giants’ have accreted in the geological record. We directly measure the hydroclimatic forcing and the physical limnologic processes leading to...
Article
Full-text available
Many halite sequences in the geological record accumulated in deep hypersaline basins. However, modern analogs of active halite deposition were studied in shallow hypersaline environments and then applied in interpreting halite sequences. Recently, halite deposition in the deep, hypersaline Dead Sea has been studied together with its coeval environ...
Article
Current dust storms, originating from afar, are common in Israel and the eastern Mediterranean, and thus most dust sources are considered to be distal. However, recent studies suggest that the latest Quaternary loess accreted in the Northern Negev can also serve as a proximal source of dust. These sources were mostly neglected in past discussions a...
Article
The carbonate mountainous landscape around most of the Mediterranean is karstic, is almost barren, and has thin soils. Erosion of preexisting thicker soils is a common hypothesis used to explain this bare terrain. An alternative hypothesis is that in the Mediterranean region, thin soils are attributed to long-distance transport of very fine, silty...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Meandering rivers and valleys are dominant landscape features on Earth and Mars, and central to a geomorphological debate: do sinuous channels actively develop during steepening of regional slope or whether they inherited the sinuosity of an ancient meandering channel through vertical incision? This and related questions were studied by field-scale...
Article
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97–5.33 Ma) is one of the most dramatic sea level change events in the global geological record. During this event, marine connection between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea was restricted, and episodically blocked. While division of the Messinian Salinity Crisis to three major stages is well establishe...
Article
Full-text available
Water volume estimates of shallow desert lakes are the basis for water balance calculations, important both for water resource management and paleohydrology/climatology. Water volumes are typically inferred from bathymetry mapping; however, being shallow, ephemeral and remote, bathymetric surveys are scarce in such lakes. We propose a new, remote‐s...
Article
The long-term bedrock incision of streams in the northeastern Negev has been dictated, since the Early Pliocene, by the subsidence of the Dead Sea basin. However, this incision is accompanied by very long intervals of sediment aggradation. Here, we document the Quaternary-scale fluvial response to changing base-level, lithology, structure, and clim...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy precipitation events (HPEs) can lead to natural hazards (e.g. floods and debris flows) and contribute to water resources. Spatiotemporal rainfall patterns govern the hydrological, geomorphological, and societal effects of HPEs. Thus, a correct characterisation and prediction of rainfall patterns is crucial for coping with these events. Inform...
Article
Documenting hillslope response to hydroclimatic forcing is crucial to our understanding of landscape evolution. The evolution of talus‐pediment sequences (talus flatirons) in arid areas was often linked to climatic cycles, although the physical processes that may account for such a link remain obscure. Our approach is to integrate field measurement...
Conference Paper
Hillslope aspect has a prominent global influence on slope morphology. However, the relative role of micro-climatic factors in escarpment evolution and retreat pattern is still unknown. Here, we quantify aspect-dependent cliff retreat, clast transport rates, and slope and rill dynamics based on high-resolution (0.5 m2) LiDAR-derived topographic dat...
Article
Flood-fed aquifers along the sandy lower reach of the Kuiseb River sustain a 130-km-long green belt of lush oases across the hyperarid Namib desert. This oasis is a year-round source for water creating dense-tall woodland along the narrow corridor of the ephemeral river valley, which, in turn, supports human activity and fauna including during the...
Article
Full-text available
The circum-Nile deformation belt (CNDB) demonstrates the interaction between a giant delta and a giant salt body. The semi-radial shape of the CNDB is commonly interpreted as the product of salt squeezing out from under the Nile Delta. We demonstrate, however, that this is not the dominant process, because the delta and its deep-sea fan do not reac...
Article
While CMIP5 models robustly project drying of the subtropics and more precipitation in the tropics and subpolar latitudes by the end of the century, the magnitude of these changes in precipitation varies widely across models: for example, some models simulate no drying in the Eastern Mediterranean while others simulate more than a 50% reduction in...
Article
In the comment on “Varves of the Dead Sea sedimentary record.” Quaternary Science Reviews 215 (Ben Dor et al., 2019): 173–184. by R. Bookman, two recently published papers are suggested to prove that the interpretation of the laminated sedimentary sequence of the Dead Sea, deposited mostly during MIS2 and Holocene pluvials, as annual deposits (i.e....
Preprint
Full-text available
Heavy precipitation events (HPEs) can lead to natural hazards (floods, debris flows) and contribute to water resources. Rainfall patterns govern HPEs effects. Thus, a correct characterisation and prediction of rainfall patterns is crucial for coping with HPEs. Information from rain gauges is generally limited due to the sparseness of the networks,...
Article
The Sahara was significantly greener 11-5 kya and during multiple earlier interglacial periods. But the mechanisms related to the greening of the Sahara remain uncertain as most climate models severely underestimate past wet conditions over north Africa. The variations in the African monsoon related to the greening of the Sahara are thought to be a...
Article
The Dead Sea sedimentary fill is the basis for interpreting limnological conditions and regional paleo-hydrology. Such interpretations require an understanding of present-day hydroclimatology to reveal the relative impact of different atmospheric circulation patterns on water and sediment delivery to the Dead Sea. Here we address the most important...
Article
The sedimentary record of the Dead Sea provides an exceptional high-resolution archive of past climate changes in the drought-sensitive eastern Mediterranean-Levant, a key region for the development of humankind at the boundary of global climate belts. Moreover, it is the only deep hypersaline lake known to have deposited long sequences of finely l...
Article
Global eustatic lowstands can expose vast areas of continental shelves, and occasionally the shelf edge and the continental slope. The degree of fluvial connectivity to receding shores influences the redistribution of sediments across these emerging landscapes. Shelf and slope emergence in the Dead Sea since the middle of the 20th century, offers a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Heavy precipitation events (HPE) are a significant hydrometeorological phenomenon in the highly variable climate of the eastern Mediterranean (EM). They can cause flash-floods, and are closely-related to water availability. The formation of a HPE requires specific atmospheric conditions that result in relatively high precipitation efficiency, and c...
Conference Paper
Layered halite sequences were deposited in deep hypersaline basins throughout the geological record. However, analogues of such sequences are commonly studied in shallow environments. Here we study active precipitation of halite layers from the only modern analog for deep, halite-precipitating basin, the hypersaline Dead Sea. The link between spati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seasonal limnologic and environmental controls over the modern accumulation of halite layers in the deep hypersaline Dead Sea and their relations with the thermohaline stratification were determined by direct, in situ observations and measurements. These observations established the spatiotemporal dynamics of halite deposition pointing to a new par...
Article
A multidisciplinary study was conducted in a newly discovered Paleolithic locality, named ‘Evron Landfill. This locality is a part of the Lower Paleolithic complex of ‘Evron located at the western Galilee, Israel. Examination of artifacts has enabled the cultural attribution of ‘Evron Landfill to the Early Acheulian, while detailed paleomagnetic st...
Article
Full-text available
A novel quantitative assessment of late Holocene precipitation in the Levant is presented, including mean and variance of annual precipitation and their trends. A stochastic framework was utilized and allowed, possibly for the first time, linking high-quality, reconstructed rises/declines in Dead Sea levels with precipitation trends in its watershe...
Article
The geomorphic evolution of the Jordan River in recent decades indicates that interaction between incision and high‐magnitude floods controls sinuosity changes under increasing mouth gradients during base‐level fall. The evolution of the river was analyzed based on digital elevation models, remotely sensed imagery, hydrometric data, and a hydraulic...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide stratigraphic records present thick halite layers accreted in deep hypersaline basins under dry climate conditions. The thickness and distribution of these halite units are used in basin analyses and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Recent studies have raised doubts regarding the assumption that a given halite layer's thickness is dire...
Article
Full-text available
Megalakes in the Sahara? A Review – ADDENDUM - Volume 90 Issue 2 - Jay Quade, Elad Dente, Moshe Armon, Yoav Ben Dor, Efrat Morin, Ori Adam, Yehouda Enzel
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Ephemeral rivers in dryland regions exhibit a high interannual variability of streamflow regime, mainly dominated by floods. In these environments, floods are a water resource and a potential hazard with important socioeconomic implications. The Fish River (86,600 km2) is the largest ephemeral stream in Namibia and, recently, also the focu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Floods make up a dominant hydroclimatological phenomenon in arid lands and bear significant implications for humans, infrastructure design, and landscape evolution worldwide. However, determining flood frequency during changing climate is rarely achieved because modern and paleoflood records, especially in arid regions, are often too short or disco...
Article
The Sahara was wetter and greener during multiple interglacial periods of the Quaternary, when some have suggested it featured very large (mega) lakes, ranging in surface area from 30,000 to 350,000 km ² . In this paper, we review the physical and biological evidence for these large lakes, especially during the African Humid Period (AHP) 11–5 ka. M...
Article
Full-text available
Floods comprise a dominant hydroclimatic phenomenon in aridlands with significant implications for humans, infrastructure, and landscape evolution worldwide. The study of short-term hydroclimatic variability, such as floods, and its forecasting for episodes of changing climate therefore poses a dominant challenge for the scientific community, and p...
Article
Rainfall in the Levant drylands is scarce but can potentially generate high-magnitude flash floods. Rainstorms are caused by distinct synoptic-scale circulation patterns: Mediterranean cyclone (MC), active Red Sea trough (ARST), and subtropical jet stream (STJ) disturbances, also termed tropical plumes (TPs). The unique spatiotemporal characteristi...
Article
A common spatial feature within loess deposits worldwide is a downwind decrease in thickness and grain size, trends that are powerful tools for reconstructing paleowinds and past atmospheric circulation. Although such trends have been identified, there is limited knowledge of similar trends farther downwind from the loess region, where eolian influ...
Poster
Full-text available
Floods comprise a dominant hydroclimatic phenomenon in aridlands with significant implications for humans, infrastructure, and landscape evolution worldwide. The study of short-term hydroclimatic variability, such as floods, and its forecasting for episodes of changing climate therefore poses a dominant challenge for the scientific community, and p...