Yannis Pitsiladis

Yannis Pitsiladis
University of Brighton

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413
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Publications

Publications (413)
Article
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Introduction Scientific and public interest in the potential ergogenic effects of sodium alginate added to a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage has increased in the last ~ 5 years. Despite an extensive use of this technology by elite athletes and recent research into the potential effects, there has been no meta-analysis to objectively elucidate the effec...
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In mammals, trait variation is often reported to be greater among males than females. However, to date, mainly only morphological traits have been studied. Energy expenditure represents the metabolic costs of multiple physical, physiological, and behavioral traits. Energy expenditure could exhibit particularly high greater male variation through a...
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Lower ambient temperature (Ta) requires greater energy expenditure to sustain body temperature. However, effects of Ta on human energetics may be buffered by environmental modification and behavioral compensation. We used the IAEA DLW database for adults in the USA (n = 3213) to determine the effect of Ta (-10 to +30°C) on TEE, basal (BEE) and acti...
Article
Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) abuse by athletes threatens the integrity of sport. Due to the overlap in physiological response to rHuEpo and altitude exposure, it remains difficult to differentiate changes in hematological variables caused by rHuEpo or altitude, and therefore, other molecular methods to enhance anti-doping...
Article
How mechanical stress affects physical performance via tendons is not fully understood. Piezo1 is a mechanosensitive ion channel, and E756del PIEZO1 was recently found as a gain-of-function variant that is common in individuals of African descent. We generated tendon-specific knock-in mice using R2482H Piezo1 , a mouse gain-of-function variant, and...
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Due to the high-velocity collision-based nature of elite rugby league and union, the risk of sustaining a concussion is high. Occurrence of and outcomes following a concussion are probably affected by the interaction of multiple genes in a polygenic manner. This study investigated whether suspected concussion-associated polygenic profiles of elite...
Article
Objective: It remains unknown whether myonuclei remain elevated post anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) usage in humans. Limited data exist on AAS-induced changes in gene expression. Design: Cross-sectional/longitudinal. Setting: University. Participants: Fifty-six men aged 20 to 42 years. Independent variables: Non-resistance-trained (C) o...
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There is growing evidence of genetic contributions to tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence and severity of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby, we studied whether 13 gene polymorphisms previously associated with tendon/ligament injury were associated with elite athlete status. Participants from the RugbyGene project wer...
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Objective: Concussions are common match injuries in elite rugby, and reports exist of reduced cognitive function and long-term health consequences that can interrupt or end a playing career and produce continued ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between elite rugby status and 8 concussion-associated risk polymorp...
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Sports nutrition is a relatively new discipline; with ~100 published papers/year in the 1990s to ~3,500+ papers/year today. Historically, sports nutrition research was primarily initiated by university-based exercise physiologists who developed new methodologies that could be impacted by nutrition interventions (e.g., carbohydrate/fat oxidation by...
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The introduction of carbon fiber plate shoes has triggered a plethora of world records in running, which has encouraged shoe industries to produce novel shoe designs to enhance running performance, including shoes containing conductor elements or “grounding shoes” (GS), which could potentially reduce the energy cost of running. The aim of this stud...
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PurposeThe purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of adding sodium alginate and pectin to a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage on exogenous glucose (ExGluc) oxidation rate compared with an isocaloric CHO beverage.Methods Following familiarization, eight well-trained endurance athletes performed four bouts of prolonged running (105 min; 71 ± 4% of...
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The IOC recently published its framework on fairness, inclusion and non-discrimination based on gender identity and sex variations. This framework is drafted mainly from a human rights perspective, with less consideration for medical/scientific issues. The framework places the onus for gender eligibility and classification entirely on the Internati...
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Low total energy expenditure (TEE, MJ/d) has been a hypothesized risk factor for weight gain, but repeatability of TEE, a critical variable in longitudinal studies of energy balance, is understudied. We examine repeated doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements of TEE in 348 adults and 47 children from the IAEA DLW Database (mean ± SD time interval:...
Article
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The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide an updated analysis, including the use of more robust methods, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral density in men. Randomised Control Trials of > 24 weeks and published in English up to 01/05/20 were retrieved from 3 electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review....
Article
Full-text available
The pervasiveness of doping and findings of anti-doping corruption threaten weightlifting’s position at the 2024 Olympic Games. Analysing the practices of doping in weightlifters could identify patterns in doping that assist in future detection. We analysed publicly available data on sanctioned athletes/support personnel from the International Weig...
Article
Full-text available
RNA-seq has matured and become an important tool for studying RNA biology. Here we compared two RNA-seq (MGI DNBSEQ and Illumina NextSeq 500) and two microarray platforms (GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 and Illumina Expression BeadChip) in healthy individuals administered recombinant human erythropoietin for transcriptome-wide quantificatio...
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Millions of consumer sport and fitness wearables (CSFWs) are used worldwide, and millions of datapoints are generated by each device. Moreover, these numbers are rapidly growing, and they contain a heterogeneity of devices, data types, and contexts for data collection. Companies and consumers would benefit from guiding standards on device quality a...
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Introduction: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration studies involving transcriptomic approaches have demonstrated a gene expression signature that could aid blood doping detection. However, current anti-doping testing does not involve collecting whole blood into tubes with RNA preservative. This study investigated if whole blood...
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IntroductionSince 2004, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) store all samples collected at summer Olympic Games (OG) for retrospective re-analysis with more advanced analytical techniques to catch doping athletes.Methods All announced Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) from IOC re-tests of the 2004, 2008 and 2012 OG (via IOC, International F...
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Sports medicine is a medical specialty that supports the performance of professional and amateur athletes while maintaining their health. Sports medicine professionals need to ensure the safe participation of athletes in sports activities achieved through a periodical preparticipation evaluation (PPE) and a regular medical monitoring of the athlete...
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Background: Physical activity may be a way to increase and maintain fat-free mass (FFM) in later life, similar to the prevention of fractures by increasing peak bone mass. Objectives: A study is presented of the association between FFM and physical activity in relation to age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, FFM was analyzed in relation t...
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Τα παγκόσμια ρεκόρ τόσο στους άνδρες όσο και στις γυναίκες από το αγώνισμα των 5 km μέχρι και τον μαραθώνιο δρόμο έχουν καταρριφθεί μετά την εισαγωγή στην παραγωγή του παπουτσιού με την πλάκα του άνθρακα (CFP) το 2016. Αυτή η σταδιακή βελτίωση της επίδοσης, συμπίπτει με τις πρόσφατες εξελίξεις στην τεχνολογία παπουτσιών που αυξάνουν τις ελαστικές ι...
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A lifetime of change Measurements of total and basal energy in a large cohort of subjects at ages spanning from before birth to old age document distinct changes that occur during a human lifetime. Pontzer et al . report that energy expenditure (adjusted for weight) in neonates was like that of adults but increased substantially in the first year o...
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Background Since only few longitudinal studies with appropriate study designs investigated the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and overweight, the degree PA can prevent excess weight gain in children, remains unclear. Moreover, evidence is limited on how childhood overweight determines PA during childhood. Therefore...
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Understanding the impacts of activity on energy balance is crucial. Increasing levels of activity may bring diminishing returns in energy expenditure because of compensatory responses in non-activity energy expenditures.1, 2, 3 This suggestion has profound implications for both the evolution of metabolism and human health. It implies that a long-te...
Preprint
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Skeletal muscle fiber composition and capillary density influence physical performance and whole-body metabolic properties. ~45% of the variance in fiber type is heritable, which motivated us to perform a genome-wide association study of skeletal muscle histology from 656 Swedish men. Four independent variants were associated ( p < 5x10 − 8 ) with...
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Sport is historically designated by the binary categorization of male and female that conflicts with modern society. Sport’s governing bodies should consider reviewing rules determining the eligibility of athletes in the female category as there may be lasting advantages of previously high testosterone concentrations for transwomen athletes and cur...
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The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedent impact on the world of sport and society at large. Many of the challenges with respect to integrity previously facing competitive sport have been accentuated further during the pandemic. Threats to the integrity of sporting competition include traditional doping, issues of technolog...
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Rapid advances in wearable technologies and real-time monitoring have resulted in major inroads in the world of recreational and elite sport. One such innovation is the application of real-time monitoring, which comprises a smartwatch application and ecosystem, designed to collect, process and transmit a wide range of physiological, biomechanical,...
Article
Purpose: Genetic polymorphisms have been associated with the adaptation to training in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). However, the genotype distribution of selected polymorphisms in athletic cohorts is unknown, with their influence on performance characteristics also undetermined. This study investigated whether the genotype distributions of 3 po...
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The inclusion of transwomen into elite female sport has been brought into question recently with World Rugby banning transwomen from the elite female competition, aiming to prioritise safety over fairness and inclusion, citing the size, force and power-producing advantages conferred to transwomen. The same question is being asked of all Olympic spo...
Preprint
Full-text available
RNA-seq has matured and become an important tool for studying RNA biology. Here we compared two RNA-seq (Illumina sequencing by synthesis and MGI DNBSEQ™) and two microarray platforms (Illumina Expression BeadChip and GeneChip™ Human Transcriptome Array 2.0) in healthy individuals administered recombinant human erythropoietin for transcriptome-wide...
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Objectives: This document aimed to summarise the key components of exertional heat stroke (EHS) prehospital management. Methods: Members of the International Olympic Committee Adverse Weather Impact Expert Working Group for the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 summarised the current best practice regarding the EHS prehospital management. Results: Spor...
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The Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games is expected to be among the hottest Games in modern history, increasing the chances for exertional heat stroke (EHS) incidence, especially in non-acclimatised athletes/workers/spectators. The urgent need to recognise EHS symptoms to protect all attendees’ health has considerably accelerated research examining the most e...
Preprint
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Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide an updated analysis, including the use of more robust methods, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral density in men.Methods: Randomised Control Trials of >24 weeks and published in English up to 01/05/20 were retrieved from 3 electronic databases, cross-referencing, a...
Article
Rationale: The traditional method to measure 13CO2 enrichment in breath involves isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and has several limitations such as cost, extensive training and large space requirements. Here we present the validity and reliability data of an isotope ratio infrared spectrometer (IRIS) based method developed to combat these...
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Every women’s and men’s world records from 5 km to the marathon has been broken since the introduction of carbon fibre plate (CFP) shoes in 2016. This step-wise increase in performance coincides with recent advancements in shoe technology that increase the elastic properties of the shoe thereby reducing the energy cost of running. The latest CFP sh...
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The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures total energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living subjects. Several equations are used to convert isotopic data into TEE. Using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) DLW database (5,756 measurements of adults and children), we show considerable variability is introduced by different equations. The...
Preprint
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Introduction: The issue of integrating transgender athletes into sport is becoming more prominent with the rising numbers of those identifying as transgender in society. Whether it is fair for transgender athletes to be included in their affirmed gender category across all levels of sport from grassroots to elite is the crux of the debate. Previous...
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"Without rules that are perceived as fair, sport will not engage the younger generation and likely negatively impact future participation rates in the female category, particularly with self-identification at the elite level."
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In an effort to reduce transmission and number of infections of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) virus, governments and official bodies around the world have produced guidelines on the use of face masks and face coverings. While there is a growing body of recommendations for healthcare professionals and t...
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Athletes, sponsors and sport organisations all have a vested interest in upholding the values of clean sport. Despite the considerable and concerted efforts of the global anti-doping system over two decades, the present system is imperfect. Capitalising upon consequent frustrations of athletes, event organisers and sponsors, alternative anti-doping...
Article
Purpose: Few data exist on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) adaptation to exercise-related stress. The aim of the study was to investigate on serum DHT and other androgens' responses to acute aerobic exercises, and to verify if a long-acting phosphodiesterase's type 5 inhibitors could influence these responses, as previously observed for salivary testost...
Article
The specific recommendations shown in the present infographic (figure 1) have been generated by a panel of interna- tional experts and represent a compila- tion of the numerous approaches used to inform resumption of regular sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the different regulations around the world and the particular characteristics of...
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Background Previous evidence has demonstrated that serum leptin is correlated with appetite in combination with, but not without, modest exercise. Aim The present experiments investigated the effects of exogenous adrenaline and α/β adrenoceptor blockade in combination with moderate exercise on serum leptin concentrations, appetite/satiety sensatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The pervasiveness of doping and findings of anti-doping corruption threaten weightlifting’s position at the 2024 Olympics. Analysing the practices of doping weightlifters could identify patterns in doping that assist in future detection. Methods We analysed publicly available data on sanctioned athletes/support personnel from the Interna...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The pervasiveness of doping and findings of anti-doping corruption threaten weightlifting’s position at the 2024 Olympic Games. Analysing the practices of doping in weightlifters could identify patterns in doping that assist in future detection. Methods: We analysed publicly available data on sanctioned athletes/support personnel from t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The pervasiveness of doping and findings of anti-doping corruption threaten weightlifting’s position at the 2024 Olympic Games. Analysing the practices of doping in weightlifters could identify patterns in doping that assist in future detection. Methods: We analysed publicly available data on sanctioned athletes/support personnel from t...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we argue that whilst protecting clean sport is critically important to all stakeholders, alternative anti-doping protocols that put athletes in disadvantageous positions and/or pose risks to their professional and personal lives lack legitimation. We discuss the issues arising from naïve and inexpert use of anti-doping data and scient...
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In this viewpoint we make specific recommendations that can assist and make the return to sport/exercise as safe as possible for all those impacted – from the recreational athlete to the elite athlete. We acknowledge that there are varying rules and regulations around the world, not to mention the varying philosophies and numerous schools of though...
Preprint
Introduction: Exercise is a cost-effective, widely available intervention that has been reported to help maintain optimal bone mineral density (BMD) in men, however, consideration of exercise modality is needed if the aim is to promote skeletal health. A previous meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials observed a moderate benefit on femoral n...
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Background: The associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and bone health may be differentially affected by weight status during growth. This study aims to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA, SB and bone stiffness index (SI) in European children and adolescents, taking the weight status i...
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October 2019 saw Eliud Kipchoge run the marathon distance unofficially in under 2 h, and Brigid Kosgei break Paula Radcliffe’s 16 yr-old marathon record both in carbon fiber plate (CFP) shoes. Current men’s and women’s world records in the half- and full-marathon have all been broken by Nike athletes in CFP shoes, raising concerns that the introduc...