Yannick Stephan

Yannick Stephan
Université de Montpellier | UM1 · EuroMov-Digital-Health-in-Motion (U Montpellier et IMT Mines Ales)

PhD

About

208
Publications
50,061
Reads
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5,610
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2008 - August 2012
University of Grenoble
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2008 - August 2012
University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2005 - August 2008
Université Paris-Sud 11
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (208)
Article
Full-text available
Five-factor model personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness) are thought to be relatively impervious to environmental demands in adulthood. The coronavirus pandemic is an unprecedented opportunity to examine whether personality changed during a stressful global event. Surprisingly, two previous studie...
Article
There is substantial evidence for the association between higher early life IQ and better cognition in late life. To advance knowledge on potential pathways, the present study tested whether Five-Factor Model personality traits in adulthood mediate the association between adolescent IQ and later-life cognition. Participants were from the Graduate s...
Article
A greater sense of purpose in life is an aspect of well-being associated with markers of cognitive health across adulthood, including subjective cognition. The current research extends this work to examine how purpose is associated with cognitive failures, which are momentary lapses in cognitive function, whether this association varies by age, sex...
Article
Objectives Falls are a common and serious health problem. The present study examined the association between subjective age (i.e., feeling younger or older than one’s chronological age) and falls in two large national samples. Method Participants, aged 65 to 105 years old, were drawn from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and the...
Article
This study tested the prospective associations and potential mediators between subjective aging, indexed by subjective age and self-perceptions of aging (SPA), and a range of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive proteins (CRP) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines among older adults. Participants (N = 6099, 59% women, age range = 50 to 94,...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the five major personality traits and fatigue. Participants were adults aged 16–104 years old (N > 40,000 at baseline) from the Health and Retirement Study, the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study graduate and sibling s...
Article
Objective: To examine the association between Five-Factor Model personality traits and grip strength. Method: Adults aged 16 to 104 years old (N > 40,000) were from the Health and Retirement Study, the Midlife in the United States Study, The English Longitudinal Study of Aging, the National Health and Aging Trends Survey, the United Kingdom Hous...
Article
Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is related to personality functioning and risk of subsequent objective cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness-resilient personality traits-protect against conversion from SCD to objective cognitive impairment in tw...
Article
Objective : To examine the association between personality traits, defined by the Five-Factor Model, and the initiation and termination of physical activity across adulthood. Design : Longitudinal analysis of participants from nine samples (N > 28,000). Main Outcome Measures : Physical activity status at follow-up Results : A random-effect meta-...
Article
Objectives There is evidence that loneliness is detrimental for cognitive health. Most studies, however, do not consider the association between loneliness and cognition in the context of close relationships, such as a spouse or romantic partner. This study examines loneliness, experienced by both the individual and their romantic partner, and cogn...
Article
This study examines whether behavior problems reported by the self and others are associated prospectively with executive function in adolescence and whether these behaviors mediate the association between family and neighborhood socioeconomic status and executive function. Participants (N=4,164) from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (...
Article
Objectives Life satisfaction is increasingly viewed as an asset associated with better general health, but its association with cognitive health and risk of dementia is less examined. We tested the hypothesis that higher life satisfaction would be associated with lower risk of dementia. Method Participants were a nationally representative sample o...
Article
Background Sense of purpose, the feeling that one's life is goal-oriented and driven, tends to be protective for psychological health. Less is known about its relation with social health, particularly loneliness. We test whether the cross-sectional association between purpose and loneliness is replicable and whether purpose protects against the dev...
Article
Conscientiousness is related to a lower risk of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a pre-dementia syndrome characterized by slow gait speed and cognitive complaints. The present study examines which facets of conscientiousness are related to concurrent and incident MCR. Participants were dementia-free older adults aged 65–99 years (N = 6001) fr...
Article
Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age. Participants (N > 31,000) were from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the National Health and Agi...
Article
Lower perceived control (PC) is related to maladaptive psychological responses to stressful events, yet it is unclear whether longer-term situations are associated with PC change over time. This study examined PC change during the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic and whether trajectories varied by age and personality. Personality was assessed...
Article
The discrepancy between subjective memory rating and objective memory performance is the tendency to misestimate one’s memory. For example, better self-rated memory compared to performance on memory tasks reflects an overestimation of one’s memory. This discrepancy may shape how individuals cognitively age: Overestimating one’s memory could mask in...
Article
Objective To examine whether five-factor model personality traits at age 16 are associated with risk of metabolic syndrome 30 years later at age 46 and whether adolescent personality mediates the association between childhood social class and midlife metabolic health. Methods Participants were from the British Cohort Study 1970, a birth cohort stu...
Article
Objectives. Subjective aging is consistently related to a range of health-related outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with sensory functioning. The present prospective study tested whether subjective age and self-perceptions of aging (SPA) are associated with objective hearing function. Method. Participants were 7,085 individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing how personality plays out in a pandemic can provide guidance to improve public health messaging. In a sample of 2066 participants (Mage = 51.42; 48.5% female), we examined whether personality is associated with concerns, precautions, preparations, and duration estimates of the COVID-19 pandemic. Personality traits were measured before the p...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study examined change in perceived control (PC) across the first four months of the global coronavirus pandemic and whether change varied significantly by age and personality traits during the first four months of the pandemic. Methods: Personality was assessed prior to the pandemic in a large national sample of 2,455 American adult...
Article
Introduction: A sense of purpose in life is a psychological resource that is associated with healthier outcomes. The present research examines whether a greater sense of purpose in life is associated with subjective and objective markers of hearing health and whether hearing acuity contributes to the association between purpose and episodic memory...
Article
Background Higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, but the underlying neuropathological correlates remain unclear. Our aim was to examine whether personality traits are associated with amyloid and tau neuropathology in a new sample and meta-analyses. Methods Participants from B...
Article
Objective Subjective age is consistently related to memory performance and global cognitive function among older adults. The present study examines whether subjective age is prospectively related to specific domains of cognitive function. Method Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2549, Mean Age = 69.66, SD = 7.3...
Article
Objectives This study aimed to examine the relation between subjective age and verbal fluency in five large samples of older adults to advance knowledge on the role of subjective age in a complex cognitive function that is an intermediate marker of cognitive impairment and dementia risk. Methods Participants (N > 27,000), aged 32 to 99 years old,...
Article
Objective This study investigates the association between childhood socioeconomic status (cSES) and risk of cognitive impairment in older adulthood, and whether Five Factor Model personality traits mediated this association. Methods A sample of 9,995 participants (mean age = 67.01 years) from the Health and Retirement Study were followed every two...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Previous research on subjective age (SA), that is, how young or old a person feels relative to their chronological age, has shown that older adults tend to feel younger than they are (by about 15-20%), but the extent of this effect depends, in part, on their health. However, as most of the studies have been conducted in Western countrie...
Article
There are individual differences in the phenomenological re-experiencing of autobiographical memories. We examine whether sense of purpose in life and cognitive function are associated with the phenomenology of a recent memory related to the coronavirus pandemic. Participants reported on their sense purpose and completed tasks that measured process...
Article
Objective To identify facets of Conscientiousness associated with objective cognitive performance, informant-rated cognitive decline, and informant-rated affect and activities implicated in cognitive health. Method Health and Retirement Study participants (N=2,516) reported on their personality, completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment, and...
Article
This prospective study examined the association between self-rated health and incident dementia in two large cohorts of middle-aged and older adults. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N= 13,839, Mean Age= 64.32, SD= 9.04) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA, N=4649, Mean Age = 64.44, SD= 9.97). Self-r...
Article
Background: A sense of purpose in life has been associated with healthier cognitive outcomes across adulthood, including risk of dementia. The robustness and replicability of this association, however, has yet to be evaluated systematically. Objective: To test whether a greater sense of purpose in life is associated with lower risk of dementia i...
Article
Meaning in life is associated consistently with greater self-reported physical activity. The present research sought to replicate this association with the largest sample to date with objectively measured physical activity. Participants between the ages of 40 and 70 years old from the UK Biobank (N = 67,038) wore an accelerometer for up to seven da...
Article
Purpose in life is associated with greater engagement in physical activity. The present research ( N = 3473) addresses whether motivations and barriers to physical activity mediate this relation concurrently and prospectively early in the coronavirus pandemic. Higher purpose was associated with greater intrinsic, identified, and external motivation...
Article
Objectif : Cette étude visait à examiner l’effet d’un contexte de menace du stéréotype sur la force de préhension des seniors et le rôle modérateur des traits de personnalité. Méthode : Cent soixante-dix-huit personnes âgées de 60 à 100 ans (M = 77 ans) ont été aléatoirement réparties dans trois conditions expérimentales distinctes : un groupe en...
Article
Background: Neuroticism is linked to mood disorders and Alzheimer's disease, but fewer studies have tested the prospective association with Parkinson's disease (PD). Objectives: To examine the association between neuroticism and risk of PD in a large cohort and a meta‐analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods: Participants from the UK Biobank...
Article
This study examines whether neuroticism is differentially associated with risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using a prospective study design. Participants from the UK Biobank (N = 401,422) completed a self-report neuroticism scale in 2006-2010 and incident all-cause dementia, AD, VD...
Article
Objectives The motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome, characterized by cognitive complaints and slower gait speed, is a pre-dementia syndrome associated with dementia and mortality risk. The present study examined whether subjective age, that is how old or young individuals feel relative to their chronological age, is related to concurrent and inci...
Article
The present study examined the prospective association between subjective age and epigenetic clock in 2,253 adults (Mean age = 67.40, SD = 8.17) from the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age and demographic factors were assessed in 2008/2010 and epigenetic clock was assessed in 2016 using the DNA methylation (DNAm) PhenoAge. Regression analy...
Article
Objectives Feelings of purpose and meaning in life are protective against consequential cognitive outcomes, including reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Purpose and meaning are likely to also be associated with cognitive functions on the pathway to dementia. The objective of the current research was to test whether both purpose in li...
Article
This study provides a quantitative synthesis of the prospective associations between personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness) and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. We conducted five separate meta-analyses with 8-12 samples (N = 30,036 to 33,054) that were identified thr...
Article
Background Models of personality and health suggest that personality contributes to health outcomes across adulthood. Personality traits, such as neuroticism and conscientiousness, have long-term predictive power for cognitive impairment in older adulthood, a critical health outcome. Less is known about whether personality measured earlier in life...
Article
Five-factor model (FFM) personality traits are related to basic cognitive functions and risk of cognitive impairment in late life. The present study addresses whether FFM traits are also associated with a more complex cognitive function, reasoning, across adulthood. We used seven samples to examine the relation between personality and verbal (total...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has shown that personality traits are associated with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To advance research on the psychological factors related to aging-related functional limitations, this study examined the relation between personality traits and both concurrent and incident fun...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the prospective association between physical activity and subjective age across adulthood and factors that mediate this association. Participants were adults aged from 20 to 90 years (N > 10,000) drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study graduates and siblings samples, the Health and Retirement Study and the Midlife in...
Article
Objective Subjective age has been implicated in a range of health outcomes but its associations with Fear of Falling (FoF) are unknown. The present study examined the relation between subjective age and FoF in large national sample. Methods Participants were drawn from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, 2011–2017). 1,679 participan...
Article
Objective: The present study examined the association between personality traits and concurrent and incident headaches. Methods: Participants (N = 34,989), aged 16 to 107 years old, were from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS), the Midlife in Japan Study (MIDJA), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study...
Article
Personality traits are associated with memory in older adulthood: Individuals higher in conscientiousness and openness and lower in neuroticism tend to perform better on memory-recall tasks. We conducted a preregistered study to replicate these associations in a large, multinational cohort and test whether the associations varied by national-level...
Article
Objective: To examine the trajectory of psychological distress and well-being across the coronavirus pandemic by body mass index (BMI) category and weight discrimination. Methods: Participants (N=1,590) were assessed three times: early February 2020 before the coronavirus crisis in the United States and again in mid-March and late April 2020. Pa...
Article
Background/objectives: Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is characterized by cognitive complaints and slow gait speed in the absence of dementia. Consistent evidence indicates that it predicts dementia and premature mortality. Less is known about its antecedents, particularly the role of psychological function. Purpose in life is an aspect of...
Article
The present study examined the relation between personality and changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the acute phase of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Personality was assessed prior to the coronavirus crisis in the Understanding America Study (UAS, N = 6,702) and the Psychological, Behavioral, and Social Re...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid spread of the coronavirus and the strategies to slow it have disrupted just about every aspect of our lives. Such disruption may be reflected in changes in psychological function. The present study used a pre-posttest design to test whether Five Factor Model personality traits changed with the coronavirus outbreak in the United States. Pa...
Article
Background There is growing evidence that five-factor model personality traits are associated with self-reported sleep. We test whether these associations extend to objective sleep measures in older adulthood and whether measures of objective sleep mediate the relation between personality and subjective sleep. Methods A random subsample of partici...
Article
Background and objectives: To examine change in subjective age with the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Two competing hypotheses were tested: (a) people felt increasingly older due to the stress generated by the pandemic; (b) people felt increasingly younger due to psychological distancing from older age, a vulnerability to COVID...
Article
This systematic review examined the associations of personality traits with cognitive failures and cognitive complaints across the adult lifespan. We first present three conceptual models (cognitive abilities, mental processes, and reporting bias) that could explain why personality is related to such behaviors. We then conducted five separate meta‐...
Article
This study examined the associations between personality traits and psychological and behavioural responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. Personality was assessed in January/February 2020 when the public was not aware of the spread of coronavirus in the USA. Participants were reassessed in late March 2020 with four sets of qu...
Article
The present study examined whether subjective age is related to informant-rated cognition. Participants were adults (N = 2,337, mean age = 69.84 years, SD = 7.45) from the Health and Retirement Study who provided subjective age and demographic factors in 2008/2010 and informant-rated cognition in 2016 as part of the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment...
Article
Rationale There is substantial evidence for the predictive value of single-item selfrated health measures for a range of health outcomes. Past research has found an association between personality traits and self-rated health. However, there has not been a multi-cohort large-scale study that has examined this link, and few studies have examined the...
Article
Objectives: Subjective aging, including subjective age and self-perceptions of aging (SPA), predicts health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite its association with cardiovascular risk factors, little is known about the association between subjective aging and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the present study examined whe...
Article
This research uses the Health and Retirement Study to identify psychological and social factors that prospectively predict new reports of perceived weight discrimination among individuals who measure in the obese weight category. Participants (Mage=66.89, SD=8.33; 58% women) reported on their personality and social isolation, had a body mass index...
Article
Evidence for the relationship between personality and dementia risk comes mainly from American samples. We tested whether personality-dementia links extend to populations from England and Australia. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; N = 6,887; Follow-up mean: 5.64 years) and the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Austr...
Article
Personality traits are associated with risk of diabetes, but most research to date has relied on participants reported diagnosis rather than objective markers of glycaemia. The present study examined the association between the five major domains of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and haemoglob...
Article
Objectives: Personality traits have been related to concurrent memory performance. Most studies, however, have focused on personality as a predictor of memory; comparatively less is known about whether memory is related to personality development across adulthood. Using 4 samples, the present study tests whether memory level and change are related...
Preprint
The rapid spread of the coronavirus and the strategies to slow it have disrupted just about every aspect of our lives. Such disruption may be reflected in changes in psychological function. The present study used a pre-posttest design to test whether Five Factor Model personality traits changed with the coronavirus outbreak in the United States. Pa...
Article
Objective To examine whether body mass index (BMI) and weight discrimination are associated with psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal responses to the coronavirus pandemic. Methods Using a prospective design, participants (N=2,094) were first assessed in early February 2020 before the coronavirus crisis in the United States and again in mi...
Article
Objectives: Being a caregiver of an older adult is often associated with poor psychological outcomes and stress. Individual differences, such as personality, may moderate responses to caregiving. In this study, we examined (a) personality and psychological health of family caregivers compared to non-caregivers and (b) tested interactions between ca...
Article
Objective: The present study examined whether physical activity, personality, cognition, education, and depressive symptoms mediate the association between polygenic scores (PGS) for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and the corresponding phenotypic adiposity measures. Design: Participants were 9,139 individuals aged 50 to 107 years (57...
Article
Unfair treatment on the basis of a physical characteristic, such as body weight, is associated with unhealthy dieting behaviors in adolescence and adulthood and has also been implicated in substance use. Peer victimization is likewise associated with these health-risk behaviors. It is unclear, however, whether body discrimination is associated with...
Article
Objectives To test whether loneliness is associated with risk of cognitive impairment up to 11 years later in a European sample of middle‐aged and older adults. The study examines whether this association is independent of measures of social isolation, depression and other risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Methods Participants (N...
Article
Background A meaningful and purpose-driven life is associated with better health outcomes. We test whether meaning in life is associated with risk of cognitive impairment using data from a large, multi-national study. Methods Participants (N = 22,514) were from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Participants from 14 cou...
Article
Neuroticism, a broad trait measure of the tendency to experience negative emotions and vulnerability to stress, is consistently related to poor sleep quality. Less is known about potential pleiotropy in the genetic risk for high neuroticism and poor sleep. Therefore, the present study examined whether polygenic score (PGS) for neuroticism is relate...