Yan Ma

Yan Ma
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH | MPIE · Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design

Dr.-Ing.
Towards sustainable metallurgy and materials

About

48
Publications
50,559
Reads
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552
Citations
Introduction
Yan’s research focuses on sustainable metallurgy and materials, as well as the understanding of the process-structure-property relationship in metallic materials, e.g. high-strength steels, high-entropy alloys, Ni-based superalloys etc.
Additional affiliations
September 2021 - present
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • Physical Metallurgy of Sustainable Alloys
July 2020 - present
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
Position
  • Deputy Group Leader
Description
  • Mechanism-based Alloy Design
March 2020 - August 2021
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Sustainable metallurgy and materials
Education
January 2016 - December 2019
RWTH Aachen University
Field of study
  • Metallurgical Engineering
October 2013 - December 2015
RWTH Aachen University
Field of study
  • Metallurgical Engineering
September 2009 - June 2013
University of Science and Technology Beijing
Field of study
  • Metallurgical Engineering

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Full-text available
The Transformation-Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) effect is used for enhancing the formability of cold formable sheet steels. While the first observation of this phenomenon dates back to the 1930’s, the industrial usage of the TRIP steels started after 1950. First fully austenitic steels, later on multiphase steels have been developed with a meta-stable...
Thesis
Full-text available
Medium-Mn steel has drawn tremendous attention recently for automotive lightweight applications, because of its excellent combination of high strength and superior formability. The present work aims at an in-depth understanding of the process-microstructure-property relationship in medium-Mn steel. The influence of various process parameters (i.e.,...
Article
The combination of different phase constituents to realize a mechanical composite effect for superior strength-ductility synergy has become an important strategy in microstructure design in advanced high-strength steels. Introducing multiple phases in the microstructure essentially produces a large number of phase boundaries. Such hetero-interfaces...
Article
Full-text available
In the automotive industry, the current development trend of lightweight and low-emission vehicles requests for high-performance materials. Benefiting from an excellent balance of mechanical properties and production cost, medium-Mn steels have attracted extensive interest by materials scientists. Austenite-reverted-transformation annealing plays a...
Article
Full-text available
Fossil-free ironmaking is indispensable for reducing massive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is among the most attractive solutions for green ironmaking, with high technology readiness. The underlying mechanisms governing this process are characterized by a complex interaction of several che...
Article
Fundamental understanding of the oxidation behavior of O2, H2O, and CO2 in the process of oxyfuel combustion is of great significance. Extensive MD simulations with reactive force-field (ReaxFF) were performed to compare the gasification behavior under the individual influence of three oxidant molecules on a pristine and a mono-vacant graphene shee...
Preprint
Full-text available
Solid-state redox-driven phase transformation is associated with mass loss, accommodated by vacancies that develop into pores. These influence the kinetics of the redox reactions and phase transformation. We have investigated the underlying structural and chemical mechanisms in and at pores in a combined experimental-theoretical study, using the re...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of hydrogen on the surface morphology and nanomechanical properties of Ni-based Alloy 725 under solution-annealed (SA) and precipitation-hardened (API) conditions was thoroughly studied. The investigation involved in situ nanoindentation testing, microscopy characterization, statistical analysis, and numerical simulation approaches. The...
Preprint
Fe- and steelmaking is the largest single industrial CO2 emitter, accounting for 6.5% of all CO2 emissions on the planet. This fact challenges the current technologies to achieve carbon-lean steel production and to align with the requirement of a drastic reduction of 80% in all CO2 emissions by around 2050. Thus, alternative reduction technologies...
Article
To successfully transition from fossil-fuel to sustainable carbon-free energy carriers, a safe, stable and high-density energy storage technology is required. The combustion of iron powders seems very promising in this regard. Yet, little is known about their in-process morphological and microstructural evolution, which are critical features for th...
Article
Full-text available
In conventional processing, metals go through multiple manufacturing steps including casting, plastic deformation, and heat treatment to achieve the desired property. In additive manufacturing (AM) the same target must be reached in one fabrication process, involving solidification and cyclic remelting. The thermodynamic and kinetic differences bet...
Article
The reduction of iron ore with carbon-carriers is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the industry, motivating global activities to replace the coke-based blast furnace reduction by hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR). Iron oxide reduction with hydrogen has been widely investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The...
Article
Full-text available
Steel production causes a third of all industrial CO2 emissions due to the use of carbon-based substances as reductants for iron ores, making it a key driver of global warming. Therefore, research efforts aim at replacing these reductants with sustainably produced hydrogen. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is an attractive processing technolo...
Article
Iron- and steelmaking cause ∼7% of the global CO2 emissions, due to the use of carbon for the reduction of iron ores. Replacing carbon by hydrogen as the reductant offers a pathway to massively reduce these emissions. However, the production of hydrogen using renewable energy will remain as one of the bottlenecks at least during the next two decade...
Preprint
Full-text available
Iron- and steelmaking cause ~7% of the global CO2 emissions, due to the use of carbon for the reduction of iron ores. Replacing carbon by hydrogen as the reductant offers a pathway to reduce emissions. However, production of hydrogen using renewable energy will remain a bottlenecks, because making the annual crude steel production of 1.8 billion to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fossil-free ironmaking is indispensable for reducing massive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is among the most attractive solutions for green ironmaking, with high technology readiness. The underlying mechanisms governing this process are characterized by a complex interaction of several che...
Preprint
Full-text available
The reduction of iron ore with carbon-carriers is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the industry, motivating global activities to replace the coke-based blast furnace reduction by hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR). Iron oxide reduction with hydrogen has been widely investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of hydrogen effect on the fatigue crack growth behavior of medium-Mn steels via in-situ hydrogen plasma charging in an environmental scanning electron microscope, Abstract Fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were conducted on a medium-Mn steel annealed at two intercritical annealing temperatures, resulting in different austenite (γ) to ferr...
Article
Zinc alloys have become one of the most promising material groups for biodegradable medical implants due to their desirable degradability, excellent biocompatibility, unique atherosclerotic resistance, and modest mechanical performance. Grain refinement is an important strengthening mechanism for such an alloy system to improve the mechanical prope...
Article
Full-text available
Austenitic high manganese steels exhibit outstanding mechanical properties, such as high energy absorption, owing to various deformation-mechanisms such as dislocation slip, twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP). Here, we show a novel thermomechanical treatment to manufacture a high manganese steel Fe–18Mn-...
Article
Full-text available
The near-surface structural and chemical changes were investigated for pure copper against a tungsten carbide (WC) sphere during high tribological loading. Fundamental stages are identified in the Cu-WC tribo-system: (i) high tribological stress promotes grain refinement to the ultra-fine grains regime in the very beginning; (ii) nucleation of extr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Steel is the most important material class in terms of volume and environmental impact. While it is a sustainability enabler, for instance through lightweight design, magnetic devices, and efficient turbines, its primary production is not. Iron is reduced from ores by carbon, causing 30% of the global CO 2 emissions in manufacturing , qualifying it...
Article
Full-text available
Iron- and steelmaking is the largest single industrial CO2 emitter, accounting for 6.5% of all CO2 emissions on the planet. This fact challenges the current technologies to achieve carbon-lean steel production and to align with the requirement of a drastic reduction of 80% in all CO2 emissions by around 2050. Thus, alternative reduction technologie...
Article
Steel is the most important material class in terms of volume and environmental impact. While it is a sustainability enabler, for instance through lightweight design, magnetic devices, and efficient turbines, its primary production is not. Iron is reduced from ores by carbon, causing 30% of the global CO2 emissions in manufacturing, qualifying it a...
Article
Full-text available
Medium-Mn steels have attracted immense attention for automotive applications owing to their outstanding combination of high strength and superior ductility. This steel class is generally characterized by an ultrafine-grained duplex microstructure consisting of ferrite and a large amount of austenite. Such a unique microstructure is processed by in...
Preprint
With 1.85 billion tons produced per year, steel is the most important material class in terms of volume and environmental impact. While steel is a sustainability enabler, for instance through lightweight design, magnetic devices, and efficient turbines, its primary production is not. For 3000 years, iron has been reduced from ores using carbon. Tod...
Article
Nickel-based superalloys have attracted immense attention in the oil and gas industry due to their outstanding combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In corrosive service environment, hydrogen embrittlement is a severe issue. In the present work, the susceptibility of two precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys, i.e., All...
Article
Full-text available
The third-generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS 3. Gen.) have been developed in order to meet the requirements of the automotive industry for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and CO2 mitigation. The alloy design of AHSS 3. Gen., their microstructure characteristics, mechanical properties, potential applications as well as the ne...
Article
Precipitation behavior and austenite stability of the warm-rolled medium-Mn steels with different Nb/Mo additions annealed at different temperatures were investigated. The Nb or Nb–Mo additions decrease the volume fraction of retained austenite, but increase its mechanical stability. The Mo addition to the Nb-bearing steels can lead to a higher den...
Article
Full-text available
The ultrafine-grained (UFG) duplex microstructure of medium-Mn steel consists of a considerable amount of austenite and ferrite/martensite, achieving an extraordinary balance of mechanical properties and alloying cost. In the present work, two heat treatment routes were performed on a cold-rolled medium-Mn steel Fe-12Mn-3Al-0.05C (wt.%) to achieve...
Article
Ultrafine austenite-ferrite duplex medium Mn steels often show a discontinuous yielding phenomenon, which is not commonly observed in other composite-like multiphase materials. The underlying dislocation-based mechanisms are not understood. Here we show that medium Mn steels with an austenite matrix (austenite fraction ∼65 vol.%) can exhibit pronou...
Article
Ultrafine austenite-ferrite duplex medium Mn steels often show a discontinuous yielding phenomenon, which is not commonly observed in other composite-like multiphase materials. The underlying dislocation-based mechanisms are not understood. Here we show that medium Mn steels with an austenite matrix (austenite fraction ~65 vol%) can exhibit pronoun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The third-generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS 3.Gen.) have been developed in order to meet the requirements of the automotive industry for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and CO2 mitigation. The alloy design of AHSS 3.Gen., their microstructure characteristics, mechanical properties, potential applications as well as the need...
Article
Medium-Mn steel is the newly developed steel acting as a promising candidate of the 3rd-generation advanced high strength steels. In the present study, the effect of hydrogen on the mechanical behavior and martensite transformation process in a duplex medium-Mn steel is investigated by in-situ nanoindentation test. The mechanical response of indivi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The medium-Mn steel possesses ultrafine-grained (UFG) duplex microstructure consisting of ferrite and a large amount of metastable austenite. The metastable austenite in UFG duplex microstructure is obtained by austenite reversion during intercritical annealing. The study of austenite reversion kinetics is of great importance for the heat treatment...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the development of high-strength steels, hydrogen embrittlement has been recognized as a severe problem in applications. It leads to hydrogen-induced premature failure of materials and unexpected catastrophe of structural components. To understand the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and manage this issue are significantly important for th...
Article
In the present work, isothermal lower bainitic transformation with nano‐sized cementite (θ) precipitation is simulated by means of multiphase‐field approach. In order to simulate the very fine cementite, ultra‐small grid spacing, that is, 2 nm, is applied. A faceted anisotropy model is coupled in the simulation of both bainitic ferrite (αB) and cem...
Article
The recrystallization behavior of a high-Mn high-Al lightweight steel (Fe-28.4Mn-8.3Al-1.27 C (wt%)) with 50% cold rolling deformation is investigated at the annealing temperature of 800 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C. The detailed microstructure evolution is characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter...
Article
Full-text available
Medium-Mn steels are characterized by ultrafine-grained (UFG) duplex microstructure consisting of ferrite and a large amount of retained austenite. Intercritical annealing is of great importance to achieving the UFG duplex microstructure and adjusting amount as well as stability of retained austenite. In the present work, the influence of intercrit...
Article
The bake hardening treatment shows great potential for increasing the yield strength of steel components for automotive applications. This study investigates the effects of bake hardening on the yield strength and ductility of an austenitic high-Mn steel. In order to identify a promising process window, the prestrain, the bake hardening temperature...
Article
Full-text available
The quantitative characterization of the microstructure evolution in high-Mn steel during deformation is of great importance to understanding its strain-hardening behavior. In the current study, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize the microstructure evolution in a Fe-17Mn-1.5Al-0.3C steel during a tensile...
Poster
The quantitative characterization of the deformation microstructure evolution in high-Mn austenitic TRIP/TWIP steel is of great importance for the understanding of its strain hardening behavior. Stacking fault energy (SFE) exhibits the decisive role to control the strain hardening behavior in high-Mn austenitic steels. In the present work, the in-s...
Poster
In steel research, the deep understanding of the structure-property relationship requires powerful tools to characterize nano-scale phenomena. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) makes possible to characterize nano-sized particles content of sample volume in mm3 range by means of size, size distribution and volume fraction. Synchrotron XRD (SYXRD...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This project aims at understanding the process-microstructure-property relationship in the advanced high-strength steels 2.G. & 3.G., particularly targeting high-Mn and medium-Mn steels.
Project
The goal of this project is to understand and improve the sustainability of metallic materials and the products made from it. Metals which have enabled progress over thousands of years, are now facing limits set by sustainability. Accelerated demand for structural alloys in key areas such as energy, construction, safety and transportation creates huge growth rates. Yet, most of these materials are energy, greenhouse gas and pollution intense when extracted and manufactured. This project will develop the scientific foundations and approaches to improve the sustainability of and through metallic materials.
Project
Three major topics are treated in the 3rd research phase from 2015 to 2019: Further development of methods for material- and process-development for metallic materials based on ab initio calculations. Materialdesign of a new class of structural materials with extraordinary property-combinations of strength and formability. Reduction of experimental efforts and knowledge base proceedures for material-development. I am focusing on clarifying the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms in these advanced high strength steels