Xuesong Gao

Xuesong Gao
UNSW Sydney | UNSW · School of Education

Doctor of Philosophy

About

192
Publications
82,992
Reads
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3,628
Citations
Citations since 2017
108 Research Items
2773 Citations
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Introduction
I am a teacher educator at the School of Education, University of New South Wales Australia. I have been involved in language teacher education in a variety of contexts. My research interests include international students’ educational experiences, language learner autonomy, language education policy and language teacher education.
Additional affiliations
September 2017 - December 2021
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2011 - August 2017
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2008 - August 2011
The Education University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • I worked as an assistant professor there.
Education
January 2004 - December 2007
The University of Hong Kong
Field of study
  • Applied Linguistics
September 2002 - July 2003
KU Leuven
Field of study
  • Social and cultural anthropology
September 2001 - September 2002
The University of Warwick
Field of study
  • English Language Studies and Methods

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
In recent years, there has been a growing body of research on student voice in the context of higher education, generating significant insights for pedagogical improvement. This systematic literature review aims to examine studies on student voice from 2011 to 2022, specifically those concerned with assessment and feedback in higher education. The...
Article
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This paper reports on an inquiry that explored how a group of Nepali secondary school students discursively reconstructed and interpreted their English learning in Hong Kong. In the study we collected data from 30 participants through participatory observation, in-depth unstructured interview and taking field notes in two secondary schools. The ana...
Article
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This study, drawing on the theoretical model of investment, explores what motivates and encourages international students studying Chinese as a second language (CSL) to invest in their Chinese learning using Q sorting and interview data collected from 15 international undergraduate students studying in mainland China. The results reveal that: (1) C...
Article
This paper reports on an exploratory study examining parental involvement in preschool-level English language learners’ use of smartphone apps in a Chinese context. The study aimed at understanding the challenges that Chinese parents experienced, and how they responded to these in their engagement with their children’s mobile-assisted language lear...
Article
Returnee scholars are regarded as key agents to advance internationalisation in many non-Anglophone countries where internationalisation through the medium of English has raised concerns about the preservation of national language, culture, and identity. This study investigated how eight Chinese returnee scholars used their linguistic repertoires i...
Article
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Collaborative learning in online contexts is emotionally challenging for language learners. To achieve successful learning outcomes, language learners need to regulate their emotions and sustain positive emotions during the collaborative learning process. This study investigated language learners’ emotion regulation and enjoyment, the most extensiv...
Chapter
This chapter reports on our inquiry into novice language teachers’ technology integration and its interaction with their professional identities during the first 2 years of teaching. In the study, we collected data through longitudinal interviews with seven Chinese language teachers in Hong Kong’s international schools. The analysis revealed that t...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine preservice Chinese language teachers’ cognition in teaching intercultural communicative competence. In the study we collected data through in-depth interviews with seven preservice teachers in a Master of Education program (Teaching Chinese as a Second Language, TCSL) at a university in Hong Kong SAR, China....
Article
The outbreak of COVID-19 generated an unprecedented global push towards remote online language teaching and learning. In most contexts, language teachers and learners underwent a rapid switch to online instruction with limited resources and preparation. Their experiences demonstrate resilience, perseverance, and creativity under highly challenging...
Article
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This paper draws on an ethnographic research that examined Taiwanese international students’ identity movements before, during, and after their overseas education in Australia. Previous studies on nonnative-English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) studying TESOL in the West focused on the formation of their professional identity before and after the comp...
Article
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Culture plays an integral role in English language teaching (ELT) and is the reading components of ELT textbooks. This study explores the issue of cultural representation in ELT textbooks in India, which has received little attention in ELT research world-wide. By incorporating 10 ELT textbooks from four states, one national board from India, and a...
Article
Mobile-assisted language learning has emerged as a valuable tool for L2 pronunciation learning as it offers ample opportunities for learners to perform authentic learning activities anytime and anywhere. However, the extent to which mobile devices may facilitate or enhance L2 pronunciation has yet to be systematically investigated. To address the r...
Article
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After the publication of World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs by UNESCO in 1990, particular attention has been devoted to the quality of students’ learning. One of the principal ways to meet this objective has been educational measures where David Carless introduced learning-oriented assessmen...
Article
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Relational agency is pivotal for understanding how language teachers seek and utilize relational resources in different contexts and grow to be agents of change amid various educational challenges. This study explored how three university teachers of Chinese as a second language (CSL) enacted their relational agency to enhance their research capaci...
Article
This report reviews studies on language teachers as materials developers in language education, particularly focusing on how language teachers act as materials users, materials analysts, and materials designers when engaging with language learning and teaching materials. We contend that the three dimensions of materials development – that is, mater...
Article
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The advocates of multi-competence theory argue that the L2 learners’ language system is unique because of the crosslinguistic influences of both languages. However, the influence of a foreign language on the learner’s L1 has not been extensively investigated. In order to address the gap, the present study sought to investigate the effects of EFL le...
Article
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Book Review: Individual differences in language learning: A complex systems theory perspective. Authors: Carol Griffiths, Adem Soruç. Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. ISBN: 978-3-030-52900-0. Pages: 220.
Book
This Element aims to elucidate the concept of language teacher agency by exploring the 'what' question, offering major conceptualisations of agency and explaining how they shape the way we approach teacher agency. The authors then continue with the 'why' question, and elaborate on the reasons that language teacher agency matters, based on a discuss...
Article
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Pedagogical translanguaging has emerged as an important strategy facilitating the sustainable use of English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) in educational settings. This mixed-method study, conducted in an EMI finance classroom at an international school in Shanghai, China, investigates the translanguaging practices of students in classroom inter...
Article
This article reports on a case study of Miho, a Japanese high school teacher, exploring her efforts to bridge research and practice in her use of motivational strategies. Drawing on Emirbayer and Mische’s conceptualisation of agency and Connelly and Clandinin’s theorisation on teachers’ personal knowledge, the study examined how this language teach...
Article
This paper reports on our inquiry into how language teachers’ identities relate to their efforts to teach intercultural communicative competence. In the study, we collected data through in-depth interviews with and observations of 16 Chinese language teachers in Hong Kong’s international schools. The analysis revealed that the participants simultan...
Article
Ushioda’s book advances an ethical agenda for research by posing a number of critical questions, not only for researchers of language learning motivation, but also for researchers in the field of applied linguistics. In this review, we share our interpretation of what the ethical research agenda advanced by Ushioda means for applied linguists and d...
Article
In this review of System's scholarship on the learning and teaching of languages other than English (LOTEs), we focus on 12 articles on language pedagogy and language learners, selected from a total of 208 relevant articles published in the journal (until 2020). The review affirms the journal's commitment to the dissemination of scholarship for lan...
Article
This article reports on an ethnographic study that investigated language practice in a multilingual workplace, a Confucius Institute in Macau. In the study we collected multiple data from five staff members through participatory observations, open-ended interviews, and field notes, to examine their language practice in the Institute. The analysis r...
Article
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Learner agency refers to the feeling of ownership and sense of control that students have over their learning. Agentive learners are motivated not only to learn but also to take responsibility for managing the learning process. Learner agency emerges, grows, and is expressed through meaningful interactions within a community of stakeholders which...
Article
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Research has shown that the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) on writing performance depends on learners’ engagement with WCF and its associated motivational state. However, little research has examined the inner causal relationships between motivation, learner engagement with WCF, and writing performance. The current study fills t...
Article
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Textbooks are an important source of knowledge input on which the transmission of academic knowledge often relies, especially in the early stages of academic learning. Adopting a corpus-based approach, this study evaluates the text difficulty of science textbooks used in secondary English-medium instruction schools in Hong Kong, with a focus on the...
Article
This longitudinal study draws on family language policy (FLP) research to examine a group of Chinese parents' ideological beliefs, practices, and management efforts related to their children's learning of multiple languages, including Chinese, English, and Spanish in an international boarding school in China. Based on data analysis, including inter...
Article
In this editorial introduction we present what motivated us to organise this collection of studies on international students in the Chinese context. As a follow-up to the 2006 special issue entitled ‘The Chinese Learner in Higher Education’ in this journal, this collection of studies problematise the domination of studies on international students...
Article
We start this coda with a discussion of the impact of the pandemic on higher education in our contexts. We then highlight the focus of this special issue, namely international students’ language learning and intercultural encounters in Chinese universities. Reflecting on the relevant findings reported in this collection of studies, we relate indivi...
Article
The rising popularity of the Chinese language as a subject for study has motivated research on international students' cultural adaptation and language learning during periods of study abroad in China. This inquiry examined the challenges that a group of New Zealand students encountered and the strategic responses they adopted in relation to cultur...
Article
This study reports on our examination of local Chinese residents’ identity performance and language policing in Hong Kong’s media. In the study, we explored how local Chinese residents police the use of written Chinese in a context where the clash between traditional Chinese characters (associated with Hong Kong) and simplified Chinese characters (...
Article
In this editorial introduction, we present what motivated us to organise this collection of studies on family language policy and planning (FLPP) in the Chinese contexts. In order to better understand why ethnic minority languages and fangyans (also known as dialects or regionalects) are challenged by the official Chinese language, Putonghua, the i...
Article
In this book, Marr and English raise and address many of the most significant questions that English language teaching professionals have been asking regarding the TESOL profession and TESOL teacher education for many years. The book invites readers, English language teachers and English language teacher educators alike to reflect on what constitut...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a new instrument that taps into learners’ self-image as a means of exploring language motivation, which plays a pivotal role in sustaining language learners’ efforts. A critical review of the literature revealed that the current measures of the second language (L2) self-guide instruments in l...
Article
Research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes has yielded mixed results regarding their impact on students’ language learning, drawing attention to the role of CLIL teachers. This study draws on teacher language awareness research to explore secondary subject content teachers’ language-related pedagogical practices when tea...
Article
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This paper reports on a study that used an ecological approach to explore family language policy and practice among Miao families in China. In the study, we surveyed 900 Miao families and interviewed 20 parents with regard to their language practices, ideologies, and management efforts, to identify what mediated their family language policy decisio...
Article
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In this opening commentary, we highlight the development of the teaching and learning of Chinese as a second or foreign language (CSL/CFL), which has attracted much attention from researchers, language educators, and other stakeholders worldwide. To contribute to this ongoing examination and discussion, this special issue documents the collective e...
Article
As multilingual language teachers ourselves, we believe that this book brings an end to the ongoing debate regarding native speakers versus non-native speakers in language teaching research with a single, well-aimed blow. Nevertheless, situated in a complex, ecological context, the idea of being multilingual instructors as recommended by Kramsch an...
Article
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Despite the growing importance of Chinese in many contexts, the ideological orientations towards the Chinese language and its speakers embedded in the wider socio-political context remain under-researched. This study intends to bridge this gap by interpreting media representations of ‘Chinese’ in Irish print media. A combination of corpus linguisti...
Article
This review involved 60 articles chosen from 336 empirical studies identified in five leading journals on the learning and teaching of Chinese as a second or foreign language in mainland China during the period 2014-2018. The selected studies document Chinese researchers' efforts to improve the teaching and learning of the Chinese language in terms...
Article
This paper explores the beliefs, attitudes, and efforts of parents with regard to the use and preservation of regional Chinese varieties including Cantonese in the region of Guangzhou, China. The study relied on a sequential mixed method approach, involving 771 parents who completed a parental questionnaire in an online survey on Chinese parents’ l...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation is considered an important impetus driving and sustaining individuals’ efforts to fulfill their goals. Against the backdrop that university academics worldwide are increasingly expected to produce research output in prestigious journals for both individual and institutional development, it is necessary to understand academics’ research m...
Book
This volume examines the agency of second/foreign language teachers in diverse geographical contexts and in both K-12 and adult education. It offers new understandings and conceptualizations of second/foreign language teacher agency through a variety of types of empirical data. It also demonstrates the use of different methodologies or analytic too...
Article
In this review of System's contributions to language teacher education research, we focus on 10 articles on language teachers, language teachers' learning and professional development, language teacher cognition, and language teachers' pedagogical practice, selected from a total of 147 relevant articles published in the journal (up to 2018). The re...
Article
Medium of instruction (‘MOI’) issues have long been identified as the most important decisions in the internationalization of higher education (HE) (Hamid, Nguyen & Baldauf, 2013). The adoption of internationally influential languages as MOIs may attract international students who aspire to undertake higher education in these languages, which in tu...
Article
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There have been widespread concerns over the decline of modern languages and waning interest in learning languages other than English (LOTEs) around the world, thought to be partly due to recent political events including Brexit and Trump’s aggressive isolationism in the United States. By contrast, governments in Greater China have energetically re...
Article
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In light of China’s ‘Belt and Road’ initiative, many mainland Chinese universities have been promoting non-English foreign language degree programs at the undergraduate level. This study examines the growth of these non-English foreign language programs by collecting and analysing a variety of data on curriculum design, teachers and learners throug...
Article
In light of popular nationalism on the rise in China and Japan, this inquiry develops and validates a survey instrument to document university students’ motivation to learn Japanese in mainland China and explore how the learning of a foreign language may lead to better cross‐cultural understanding. A total number of 398 Chinese learners of Japanese...
Article
Full-text available
In this opening commentary, we draw on Ruiz’s (NABE J 8:15–34, 1984) metaphorical representations of language to outline the ideological and implementational spaces for language policy making in Greater China. In particular, we highlight how the ‘resource’ orientation allows different stakeholders to negotiate the development of language policies t...
Article
In this closing commentary, two Chinese scholars working in different contexts offer their views on the space for and prospect of different bilingual education in China. Professor Ronghui Zhao from Shanghai International Studies University contends that shifting discursive constructions of language and language-related works in national language po...
Article
This paper explores the impacts of research excellence evaluation entailed in global ranking exercises, a control strategy characteristic of new managerialism, on Chinese Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) academics. The enquiry combines the Critical Incidents Technique (CIT) and internet-based discourse analysis, drawing on mass media texts and...
Article
In this opening commentary we highlight the tension surrounding the emergence and development of bilingual education programs in mainland China, which has attracted much attention in research. Scholars have contradictory views about efforts aimed at promoting and sustaining bilingualism/multilingualism through education in different parts of China....
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews studies on teaching Chinese as a second or foreign language (CSL/CFL) inside and outside Mainland China. In the review process, we analyzed a total of 1358 Chinese language articles and 175 English language articles from CNKI (中国知网) and Web of Science, respectively, during the period from 2004 to 2016. By analyzing the frequenc...
Article
This article reports on the motivations of Chinese learners to learn Japanese in light of increasing diplomatic tensions between China and Japan over the last three decades. In the study, 35 Chinese learners of Japanese were selected, according to the time they began learning, to examine their motivations to learn Japanese as mediated by shifting s...
Article
Recent language policy studies have adopted an integrated approach to the exploration of language use, educational practice, citizenship, global mobility and so forth. While they enhanced interdisciplinary understanding of language policy, the conventional view of policies that address problems has not been explicitly challenged, especially in Chin...
Chapter
Teacher autonomy has been acknowledged as central to teachers’ efforts to promote learner autonomy. However, language teachers’ exercise of autonomy has been increasingly undermined by shifting sociocultural conditions and educational reforms. Drawing on data collected in studies on teachers’ professional vulnerability, this chapter explores how la...
Article
This study draws on life-history interview data to examine the identity construction and negotiation of eight English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teachers at a Chinese university. Informed by an adapted model of TESOL teacher identity (Pennington, 2014), the data analysis reveals that for the study participants becoming an ESP teacher is a complex...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the linguistic demands of English-language science textbooks for EFL learners in Hong Kong. The analysis focuses on the abstraction and information density of the language as reflected in the use of abstract nouns, complex lengthy nouns, and lengthy noun without verbs. The findings show that those linguistic features which are...
Article
Full-text available
Models of education delivering content teaching through learners’ second language have rapidly increased in recent decades and are thought to offer a ‘naturally’ motivating context for learners to use and learn the medium of instruction (MoI). However, the relationship between MoI and language learning motivation (LLM) specifically is under-explore...
Article
This article reports on a study that investigated the role of metapragmatic awareness of L2 learners in Hong Kong, and the impact it has on language choices when addressing requests in English. Simulated open role-plays and retrospective interviews were used to explore the ways in which mainland Chinese undergraduates assess, plan and produce their...
Article
Full-text available
This study draws on the activity theory to explore how bilingual first-year secondary school students appropriate resources strategically in response to linguistic challenges in learning science through English in Hong Kong. The study explored 12 bilingual students’ self-regulated strategy use by conducting in-depth interviews, stimulated recalls,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses how individuals can use humor, sarcasm and mockery to question the governmental policies in China regarding issues such as tradition, democracy, values of education in general and of critical thinking specifically. Drawing on research on individualization of the Chinese society (discussed later), the paper interprets the use of...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
This is a large-scale project that aims to investigate Chinese university students' motivation to learn languages other than English. Cross-sectional and longitudinal designs are used.