How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
Extreme stratospheric wave activity has been suggested to be connected to surface temperature anomalies, but some key processes are not well understood. Using observations, we show that the stratospheric events featuring weaker-than-normal wave activity are associated with increased North American (NA) cold extreme risks before and near the event o...
Extreme cold events over North America such as the February 2021 cold wave have been suggested to be linked to stratospheric polar vortex stretching. However, it is not resolved how robustly and on which timescales the stratosphere contributes to the surface anomalies. Here we introduce a simple measure of stratospheric wave activity for reanalyses...
Plain Language Summary A weak polar vortex in the winter stratosphere is likely associated with cold spells at the surface, yet there are large uncertainties in predicting surface cold events based on stratospheric signals. This study introduces a new method to separate stratospheric variability into the leading modes of zonally symmetric and asymm...