Xinyang Zhao

Xinyang Zhao
University of Alabama at Birmingham | UAB · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

Ph.D.

About

69
Publications
7,465
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Introduction
Xinyang Zhao currently works at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Xinyang does research in Cancer Research, Genetics and Molecular Biology. Their current project is 'arginine methylation in hematopoiesis'.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Histone arginine methylation is a key post-translational modification that mediates epigenetic events that activate or repress gene transcription. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are the driving force for the process of arginine methylation, and the core histone proteins have been shown to be substrates for most PRMT family members. How...
Article
Full-text available
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are inactivated by dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), the activities of which are tightly regulated during cell differentiation. Using knockdown screening and single-cell transcriptional analysis, we demonstrate that DUSP4 is the phosphatase that specifically inactivates p38 kinase to promote megakaryoc...
Article
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are essential epigenetic and post-translational regulators in eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of PRMTs is intimately related to multiple types of human diseases, particularly cancer. Based on the previously reported PRMT1 inhibitors bearing the diamidine pharmacophore, we performed virtual screening t...
Article
Despite successful therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of arteriosclerosis, the cardiovascular complications remain a major clinical and societal issue worldwide. Increased vascular calcification promotes arterial stiffness and accelerates cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Upregulation of the Runx2 (Runt-related transcripti...
Article
This review focuses on the association between vascular calcification and arterial stiffness, highlighting the important genetic factors, systemic and local microenvironmental signals, and underlying signaling pathways and molecular regulators of vascular calcification. Elevated oxidative stress appears to be a common procalcification factor that i...
Article
TRAIL-activating therapy is promising in treating various cancers, including pancreatic cancer, a highly malignant neoplasm with poor prognosis. However, many pancreatic cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis despite their expression of intact death receptors (DRs). Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a versatile posttranslational modificatio...
Article
Protein arginine methylation is a common type of post-translational modification. PRMT1, the major type I protein arginine methyltransferase, catalyzes the formation of asymmetric dimethyl-arginine and is implicated in various cellular processes, including hematopoiesis and tumorigenesis. We have shown that PRMT1 expression is naturally low in hema...
Article
Mammalian cells metabolize glucose primarily for energy production, biomass synthesis, and posttranslational glycosylation; and maintaining glucose metabolic homeostasis is essential for normal physiology of cells. Impaired glucose homeostasis leads to hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus. Chronically increased glucose in diabetes mellitu...
Article
The presence of FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor clinical outcome. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although effective in kinase ablation, do not eliminate primitive FLT3-ITD+ leukemia cells, which are potential sources o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction IDH1 mutation has been identified as an early genetic event driving low grade gliomas (LGGs) and it has been proven to exerts a powerful epigenetic effect. Cells containing IDH1 mutation are refractory to epigenetical reprogramming to iPSC induced by expression of Yamanaka transcription factors, a feature that we employed to study earl...
Article
Introduction DNA damage repair process has been reported to be the cause of malignant cells resistance to genomic DNA-targeted chemicals. Whether DNA damage repair mediates chemo-resistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains elusive. H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) is an early event of double-strand DNA repair signaling, which can trigge...
Article
The current view is that treatment failures of AML patients are due to persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). The presence of FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) Internal tandem duplication (ITD) is associated with poor prognosis. But, FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) demonstrate transient clinical activity in FLT3-ITD+ AML patients. Persist...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic regulation of histone modification enzymes such as PRMT1 (protein arginine methyltransferase 1) determines the ordered epigenetic transitions in hematopoiesis. Sorting cells according to the expression levels of histone modification enzymes may further define subpopulations in hematopoietic lineages with unique differentiation potentials th...
Data
Western blots to confirm the establishment of MEG01 cells lines expressing TAL1s and TAL1fl respectively. Cell lysates from MEG01 cells expressing TAL1s and TAL1fl were loaded onto SDS-PAGE gel. The protein bands corresponding to TAL1s and TAL1fl were detected by western blotting with antibody against TAL1. Anti-tubulin western blot was used as a l...
Article
Full-text available
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Therapeutic agents that activate TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis have shown promising efficacy, but many pancreatic cancers are resistant to TRAIL therapy. Epigenetic regulation plays important roles in tumor pathogenesis and resistance, and a rece...
Article
Full-text available
More than 60% of myeloid dysplasia syndrome (MDS) contains mutations in genes encoding for splicing factors such as SF3B1, U2AF, SRSF2 and ZRSR2. Mutations in SF3B1 are associated with 80% cases of refractory anemia with ring sideroblast (RARS), a subtype of MDS. SF3B1 K700E is the most frequently mutated site among mutations on SF3B1. Yet the mole...
Article
The isoforms of key transcription factors in hematopoiesis such as TAL1, GATA1 and RUNX1 are generated through alternative RNA splicing regulated by the PRMT1-RBM15 axis (Zhang et al. 2015). The functions of short isoforms of GATA1 (GATA1s) and RUNX1 (RUNX1a) are well characterized, yet it is unknown how the short isoform of TAL1 (TAL1s) regulates...
Article
Metabolic reprogramming is needed not only to accommodate but also to drive leukemia progression. Yet very little is known on genetic factors other than IDH1 mutations, which can drive leukemogenesis via metabolic reprogramming. Here, we will present data to suggest that protein arginine methyltransferases 1 (PRMT1) is a driver for acute megakaryoc...
Article
Full-text available
Antisense RNAs regulate the transcription and translation of the corresponding sense genes. Here, we report that an antisense RNA, AS-RBM15, is transcribed in the opposite direction within exon 1 of RBM15 RBM15 is a regulator of megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation and is also involved in a chromosome translocation t(1;22) in acute megakaryocytic leu...
Article
RBM15, an RNA binding protein belongs to the SPEN family, which is evolutionally conserved from plant to mammals. The relevance of RBM15 to blood diseases came to spot light when RBM15 was discovered to be involved in chromosome translocation t(1;22) in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. RBM15 is indispensible for the self-renewal of hematopoietic st...
Article
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) expression level is correlated with short survival rate of acute myeloid leukemia patients. PRMT1 contributes to leukemogenesis via direct interaction with leukemic fusion proteins such as AML1-ETO and MLL-EEN. Our previous studies have shown that PRMT1 blocks megakaryocyte (MK) terminal differentiation....
Article
Full-text available
RBM15, an RNA binding protein, determines cell-fate specification of many tissues including blood. We demonstrate that RBM15 is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) at residue R578, leading to its degradation via ubiquitylation by an E3 ligase (CNOT4). Overexpression of PRMT1 in acute megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines blocks...
Article
Full-text available
RUNX1 (previously termed AML1) is a frequent target of human leukaemia-associated gene aberrations, and it encodes the DNA-binding subunit of the Core-Binding Factor transcription factor complex. RUNX1 expression is essential for the initiation of definitive haematopoiesis, for steady-state thrombopoiesis, and for normal lymphocytes development. Re...
Article
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in many biological activities, such as gene transcription, signal transduction, and RNA processing. Overexpression of PRMT1 is related to cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, and cancers; therefore, selective PRMT1 inhibitors serve as chemical probes to investigate the biological functio...
Article
Full-text available
Split End (SPEN) family proteins have three members: SPEN, RBM15, and RBM15B. SPEN family proteins contain three conserved RNA recognition motifs on the N‑terminal region and an SPOC domain on the C‑terminal region. RBM15 is fused to MKL1 in chromosome translocation t (1;22), which causes childhood acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Haploinsuf...
Article
Full-text available
Split End (SPEN) family proteins have three members: SPEN, RBM15, and RBM15B. SPEN family proteins contain three conserved RNA recognition motifs on the N-terminal region and an SPOC domain on the C-terminal region. RBM15 is fused to MKL1 in chromosome translocation t (1;22), which causes childhood acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Haploinsuf...
Article
RBM15 encodes an RNA binding protein, which regulates self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. RBM15 knock-out promotes the proliferation of Mk progenitor cells but blocks the maturation of Mk progenitor cells as measured by polyploidy. RBM15-MKL1 fusion causes pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia without Down’s syndrome....
Article
Mutations in TET2 and IDH1/2, which result in reduced conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), are observed in a significant proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Hence these mutations define a novel class of AMLs with alterations in DNA methylation. However, it has been shown that not all AML ca...
Article
Full-text available
Somatic mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and TET2 result in impaired TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The observation that WT1 inactivating mutations anticorrelate with TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) led us to hypothesize that WT1 mutations may impact TET2 function. WT1 mutant AML...
Article
Full-text available
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the formation of ω-NG,N'G-symmetric dimethylarginine residues on histones as well as other proteins. These modifications play an important role in cell differentiation and tumor cell growth. However, the role of PRMT5 in human glioma cells has not been characterized. In this study, we assessed...
Article
Full-text available
Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification critical for a variety of biological processes. Misregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been linked to many pathological conditions. Most current PRMT inhibitors display limited specificity and selectivity, indiscriminately targeting many methyltransferase en...
Article
Full-text available
Defining the role of epigenetic regulators in hematopoiesis has become critically important, because recurrent mutations or aberrant expression of these genes has been identified in both myeloid and lymphoid hematological malignancies. We found that PRMT4, a type I arginine methyltransferase whose function in normal and malignant hematopoiesis is u...
Article
More than 90% of under one year old infants with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) have chromosome translocation t(1;22)(p13;q13) with RBM15 fused to MKL1. RBM15 encodes an RNA binding protein important for hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In agreement with its roles in AMKL, RBM15 is required for normal megakaryocyte...
Article
Full-text available
Somatic Addition of Sex Combs Like 1 (ASXL1) mutations occur in 10-30% of patients with myeloid malignancies, most commonly in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), and are associated with adverse outcome. Germline ASXL1 mutations occur in patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome. Here, we show that constitutive loss of Asxl1 results in developmental abnor...
Article
308 Loss-of-function somatic mutations in Addition of Sex Combs Like 1 (ASXL1) occur in a subset of patients with myeloid malignancies, most commonly in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In addition, germline mutations in ASXL1 are observed in patients with Bohring-Opitz Syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by neurologic and skeletal abno...
Article
Full-text available
The Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is a transcriptional silencer of the Ink4a-Arf locus, which encodes the cell cycle regulator p16(Ink4a) and the tumor suppressor p19(Arf). Bmi1 plays a key role in oncogenesis and stem cell self-renewal. We report that phosphorylation of human Bmi1 at Ser(316) by Akt impaired its function by triggering its dissociati...
Article
Recurrent somatic ASXL1 mutations occur in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and acute myeloid leukemia, and are associated with adverse outcome. Despite the genetic and clinical data implicating ASXL1 mutations in myeloid malignancies, the mechanisms of transformation by ASXL1 mutations are not understood. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
Fusion protein AML1-ETO, resulting from t(8;21) translocation, is highly related to leukemia development. It has been reported that full-length AML1-ETO blocks AML1 function and requires additional mutagenic events to promote leukemia. We have previously shown that the expression of AE9a, a splice isoform of AML1-ETO, can rapidly cause leukemia in...
Article
Full-text available
The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) H3K4 methyltransferase protein, and the heterodimeric RUNX1/CBFβ transcription factor complex, are critical for definitive and adult hematopoiesis, and both are frequently targeted in human acute leukemia. We identified a physical and functional interaction between RUNX1 (AML1) and MLL and show that both are require...
Article
405 Somatic mutations in ASXL1 have been identified in patients with myeloid malignancies and are associated with worsened overall survival in AML and MDS patients. However the mechanisms of myeloid transformation of ASXL1 mutations had not been delineated. We therefore performed extensive in vitro and in vivo studies to assess the functional impli...
Article
3403 RUNX1 is a transcription factor that is required for definitive hematopoietic development, and helps regulate long term hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, platelet production, and lymphocyte development during adult hematopoiesis. RUNX1 is known to be modified via phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and methylation, for example on...
Article
352 L3MBTL1 is a Polycomb group protein, commonly deleted in patients with myeloid disorders associated with the 20q- chromosomal abnormality. After crystallizing the MBT repeat domain, we demonstrated that L3MBTL1 compacts chromatin by binding mono- and di-methylated lysine residues in histones H1 (H1K26) and H4 (H4K20), ultimately leading to gene...
Article
549 RUNX1 (also known as AML1) is the DNA binding component of the Core Binding Factor (CBF)-transcriptional regulatory complex, which plays an important role in hematopoiesis. Upon binding to the common binding sequence -PyGpyGGTPy (Py = pyrimidine) in the regulatory regions of promoters and enhancers of its target genes, RUNX1 acts either as an a...
Article
2822 The JAK2 V617F mutation is the most prevalent genetic abnormality in Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasia. We recently discovered that JAK2 V617F phosphorylates and inactivates PRMT5, a type II arginine methyltransferase that promotes transcriptional repression. To evaluate the PRMT5 dependent and independent effects o...
Article
Full-text available
Most cancers are characterized by multiple molecular alterations, but identification of the key proteins involved in these signaling pathways is currently beyond reach. We show that the inhibitor PU-H71 preferentially targets tumor-enriched Hsp90 complexes and affinity captures Hsp90-dependent oncogenic client proteins. We have used PU-H71 affinity...
Article
Full-text available
The chromosomal translocations found in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) generate oncogenic fusion transcription factors with aberrant transcriptional regulatory properties. Although therapeutic targeting of most leukemia fusion proteins remains elusive, the posttranslational modifications that control their function could be targetable. We found t...
Article
Somatic loss-of-function mutations in the ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) gene occur in a significant proportion of patients with myeloid malignancies. Although there are extensive genetic data implicating TET2 mutations in myeloid transformation, the consequences of Tet2 loss in hematopoietic development have not been delineated. We report here...
Article
Full-text available
The ATM kinase plays a critical role in initiating the DNA damage response that is triggered by genotoxic stresses capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we show that ELF4/MEF, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, contributes to the persistence of γH2AX DNA damage foci and promotes the DNA damage response leading to the...
Article
The JAK2V617F constitutively activated tyrosine kinase is found in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. While examining the interaction between JAK2 and PRMT5, an arginine methyltransferase originally identified as JAK-binding protein 1, we found that JAK2V617F (and JAK2K539L) bound PRMT5 more strongly than did wild-type JAK2. These onc...
Article
1014 L3MBTL1 is the human homolog of the Drosophila Polycomb Group tumor suppressor gene, lethal(3)malignant brain tumor. We demonstrated that human L3MBTL1 functions as a transcriptional repressor and after crystallizing the MBT repeat domain determined that L3MBTL1 compacts chromatin by binding mono- and di-methylated lysine residues in histones...
Article
1588 Transcription factors and histones are similarly modified through acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and methylation, which impact on the transcriptional regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. The t(8;21) associated AML1-ETO fusion protein is found in 40% of the FAB M2 su...
Article
3632 Protein arginine methyltransferase 4 is a Type I member of PRMT family, that catalyses the addition of a methyl-group to arginine residues of a wide range of proteins, including histones, transcription factors, and RNA binding proteins. PRMT4 has been shown to regulate gene expression through its interaction with various transcription factors...
Article
794 Background The cytoplasmic, non-receptor JAK2 tyrosine kinase is mutated at amino acid residue 617 (from valine to phenylalanine) in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), resulting in a constitutively activated kinase that phosphorylates STAT proteins in the absence of upstream signals. Overexpression of JAK2V617F leads to cy...
Article
Full-text available
L3MBTL1, the human homolog of the Drosophila L(3)MBT polycomb group tumor suppressor gene, is located on chromosome 20q12, within the common deleted region identified in patients with 20q deletion-associated polycythemia vera, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. L3MBTL1 is expressed within hematopoietic CD34(+) cells; thus, it may...
Article
3605 Poster Board III-541 The Polycomb group (PcG) protein Bmi1 maintains silencing of the Ink4a-Arf locus and plays a key role in stem cell self-renewal and oncogenesis. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway regulates cell survival, growth, metabolism, migration and angiogenesis. In response to acute Pten loss (which resul...
Article
In this report we review the current knowledge of the interaction of RUNX1(AML1) with serine/threonine kinases, lysine and arginine methyltransferases, lysine acetyltransferases, and histone deacetylases. We also discuss the effect of RUNX1-ETO fusion gene on DNA methylation. RUNX1 post-transcriptional modification can affect its role in influencin...
Article
In all organisms, the fundamental process of transcriptional regulation requires transcription factors, which bind to DNA in response to extra-cellular signals and regulate transcription of target genes. In eukaryotes, this process also involves epigenetic regulation, which includes DNA and histone modifications. Hematopoiesis and leukemia are exce...
Article
Full-text available
Lethal 3 malignant brain tumor 1 (L3MBTL1), a homolog of the Drosophila polycomb tumor suppressor l(3)mbt, contains three tandem MBT repeats (3xMBT) that are critical for transcriptional repression. We recently reported that the 3xMBT repeats interact with mono- and dimethylated lysines in the amino termini of histones H4 and H1b to promote methyla...
Article
Full-text available
RUNX1/AML1 is required for the development of definitive hematopoiesis, and its activity is altered by mutations, deletions, and chromosome translocations in human acute leukemia. RUNX1 function can be regulated by post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. We show that RUNX1 is arginine-methylated in vivo by the arginine me...
Article
Full-text available
Chromatin remodeling and histone modification are essential for eukaryotic transcription regulation, but little is known about chromatin-modifying activities acting on RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes. The human U6 small nuclear RNA promoter, located 5′ of the transcription start site, consists of a core region directing basal transcr...