Xing-Xing Shen

Xing-Xing Shen
Zhejiang University | ZJU · Institute of Insect Sciences

PhD

About

57
Publications
13,905
Reads
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1,816
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2019 - December 2025
Zhejiang University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
December 2019 - December 2025
Zhejiang University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
Full-text available
Topological conflict or incongruence is widespread in phylogenomic data. Concatenation- and coalescent-based approaches often result in incongruent topologies, but the causes of this conflict can be difficult to characterize. We examined incongruence stemming from conflict between likelihood-based signal (quantified by the difference in gene-wise l...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic trees are essential for studying biology, but their reproducibility under identical parameter settings remains unexplored. Here, we find that 3515 (18.11%) IQ-TREE-inferred and 1813 (9.34%) RAxML-NG-inferred maximum likelihood (ML) gene trees are topologically irreproducible when executing two replicates (Run1 and Run2) for each of 19,...
Article
Full-text available
Ascomycota, the largest and most well-studied phylum of fungi, contains three subphyla: Saccharomycotina (budding yeasts), Pezizomycotina (filamentous fungi), and Taphrinomycotina (fission yeasts). Despite its importance, we lack a comprehensive genome-scale phylogeny or understanding of the similarities and differences in the mode of genome evolut...
Article
Budding yeasts (subphylum Saccharomycotina) are found in every biome and are as genetically diverse as plants or animals. To understand budding yeast evolution, we analyzed the genomes of 332 yeast species, including 220 newly sequenced ones, which represent nearly one-third of all known budding yeast diversity. Here, we establish a robust genus-le...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenomic studies have resolved countless branches of the tree of life, but remain strongly contradictory on certain, contentious relationships. Here, we use a maximum likelihood framework to quantify the distribution of phylogenetic signal among genes and sites for 17 contentious branches and 6 well-established control branches in plant, animal...
Preprint
Molecular evolution studies, such as phylogenomic studies and genome-wide surveys of positive selection, often rely on gene families of single-copy orthologs (SC-OGs). In contrast, large gene families with multiple homologs in one or more species - a phenomenon observed among several important families of genes such as transporters and transcriptio...
Article
Full-text available
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway corrects mismatched bases produced during DNA replication and is highly conserved across the tree of life, reflecting its fundamental importance for genome integrity. Loss of function in one or a few MMR genes can lead to increased mutation rates and microsatellite instability, as seen in some human cancers. Wh...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying our most distant animal relatives has emerged as one of the most challenging problems in phylogenetics. This debate has major implications for our understanding of the origin of multicellular animals and of the earliest events in animal evolution, including the origin of the nervous system. Some analyses identify sponges as our most dis...
Preprint
Full-text available
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway corrects mismatched bases produced during DNA replication and is highly conserved across the tree of life, reflecting its fundamental importance for genome integrity. Loss of function in one or a few MMR genes can lead to increased mutation rates and microsatellite instability, as seen in some human cancers. Wh...
Article
Full-text available
Dollo’s law posits that evolutionary losses are irreversible, thereby narrowing the potential paths of evolutionary change. While phenotypic reversals to ancestral states have been observed, little is known about their underlying genetic causes. The genomes of budding yeasts have been shaped by extensive reductive evolution, such as reduced genome...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: Diverse disciplines in biology process and analyze multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and phylogenetic trees to evaluate their information content, infer evolutionary events and processes, and predict gene function. However, automated processing of MSAs and trees remains a challenge due to the lack of a unified toolkit. To fill this g...
Article
Phylogenomic studies using genome-scale amounts of data have greatly improved understanding of the tree of life. Despite the diversity, ecological significance, and biomedical and industrial importance of fungi, evolutionary relationships among several major lineages remain poorly resolved, especially those near the base of the fungal phylogeny. To...
Article
Full-text available
Highly divergent sites in multiple sequence alignments (MSAs), which can stem from erroneous inference of homology and saturation of substitutions, are thought to negatively impact phylogenetic inference. Thus, several different trimming strategies have been developed for identifying and removing these sites prior to phylogenetic inference. However...
Article
Full-text available
used the alignment-free feature frequency profile (FFP) method to reconstruct a broad sketch of the tree of life (ToL). The FFP tree reports many relationships that strongly contradict the current consensus view of the ToL, including sister group relationships for plants + animals, Bacteria + Archaea, and Mollusca (incorrectly referred to as cnidar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dollo's law posits that evolutionary losses are irreversible, thereby narrowing the potential paths of evolutionary change. While phenotypic reversals to ancestral states have been observed, little is known about their underlying genetic causes. The genomes of budding yeasts have been shaped by extensive reductive evolution, such as reduced genome...
Preprint
Full-text available
Choi and Kim (PNAS, 117: 3678-3686; first published February 4, 2020; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1915766117) used the alignment-free Feature Frequency Profile (FFP) method to reconstruct a broad sketch of the tree of life based on proteome data from 4,023 taxa. The FFP-based reconstruction reports many relationships that strongly contradict the c...
Article
Full-text available
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) drive developmental and cellular differentiation, and variation in their architectures gives rise to morphological diversity. Pioneering studies in Aspergillus fungi, coupled with subsequent work in other filamentous fungi, have shown that the GRN governed by the BrlA, AbaA, and WetA proteins controls the development...
Article
Full-text available
Angiosperms represent one of the most spectacular terrestrial radiations on the planet¹, but their early diversification and phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain2–5. A key reason for this impasse is the paucity of complete genomes representing early-diverging angiosperms. Here, we present high-quality, chromosomal-level genome assemblies of...
Article
Full-text available
Immunity genes have repeatedly experienced natural selection during mammalian evolution. Galectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that regulate diverse immune responses, including maternal-fetal immune tolerance in placental pregnancy. Seven human galectins, four conserved across vertebrates and three specific to primates, are involved in placen...
Article
Full-text available
Cell type in budding yeasts is determined by the genotype at the mating-type (MAT) locus, but yeast species differ widely in their mating compatibility systems and life cycles. Among sexual yeasts, heterothallic species are those in which haploid strains fall into two distinct and stable mating types (MATa and MATα), whereas homothallic species are...
Article
Full-text available
The filamentous fungal family Aspergillaceae contains >1,000 known species, mostly in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Several species are used in the food, biotechnology, and drug industries (e.g., Aspergillus oryzae and Penicillium camemberti), while others are dangerous human and plant pathogens (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicilliu...
Article
Full-text available
The tangerine pathotype of the ascomycete fungus Alternaria alternata is the causal agent of citrus brown spot, which can result in significant losses of both yield and marketability for tangerines worldwide. A conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC), which harbours the host‐selective ACT toxin gene cluster, is required for tangerine pathogenici...
Article
Full-text available
Cell-cycle checkpoints and DNA repair processes protect organisms from potentially lethal mutational damage. Compared to other budding yeasts in the subphylum Saccharomycotina, we noticed that a lineage in the genus Hanseniaspora exhibited very high evolutionary rates, low Guanine–Cytosine (GC) content, small genome sizes, and lower gene numbers. T...
Article
Operons are a hallmark of bacterial genomes, where they allow concerted expression of functionally related genes as single polycistronic transcripts. They are rare in eukaryotes, where each gene usually drives expression of its own independent messenger RNAs. Here, we report the horizontal operon transfer of a siderophore biosynthesis pathway from...
Article
Full-text available
Secondary metabolites are key in how organisms from all domains of life interact with their environment and each other. The iron-binding molecule pulcherrimin was described a century ago, but the genes responsible for its production in budding yeasts have remained uncharacterized. Here, we used phylogenomic footprinting on 90 genomes across the bud...
Article
Full-text available
DNA glycosylases remove aberrant DNA nucleobases as the first enzymatic step of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The alkyl‐DNA glycosylases AlkC and AlkD adopt a unique structure based on α‐helical HEAT repeats. Both enzymes identify and excise their substrates without a base‐flipping mechanism used by other glycosylases and nucleic acid pro...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic code used in nuclear genes is almost universal, but here we report that it changed three times in parallel during the evolution of budding yeasts. All three changes were reassignments of the codon CUG, which is translated as serine (in 2 yeast clades), alanine (1 clade), or the 'universal' leucine (2 clades). The newly discovered Ser2 c...
Data
Accession numbers or coordinates for the proteins used to construct the species phylogeny.
Data
AI results for W/S species, C. infanticola, B. adeninivorans, and Su. lignohabitans.
Data
Data used to construct the plots is presented in Figure 1.
Data
tBLASTx results for glycolytic proteins in the W/S clade.
Data
KEGG, Interpro and GO annotations of genes of bacterial origin in the W/S clade.
Data
Primers and strategies used to construct the deletion mutants.
Article
Full-text available
Fructophily is a rare trait that consists of the preference for fructose over other carbon sources. Here, we show that in a yeast lineage (the Wickerhamiella/Starmerella, W/S clade) comprised of fructophilic species thriving in the high-sugar floral niche, the acquisition of fructophily is concurrent with a wider remodeling of central carbon metabo...
Article
Full-text available
The sizes of the data matrices assembled to resolve branches of the tree of life have increased dramatically, motivating the development of programs for fast, yet accurate, inference. For example, several different fast programs have been developed in the very popular maximum likelihood framework, including RAxML/ExaML, PhyML, IQ-TREE, and FastTree...
Preprint
Full-text available
The tangerine pathotype of the ascomycete fungus Alternaria alternata is the causal agent of citrus brown spot, which can result in significant losses of both yield and marketability for tangerines and tangerine hybrids worldwide. A conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC), which harbors the host-selective ACT toxin gene cluster, is required for...
Article
DNA glycosylases preserve genome integrity and define the specificity of the base excision repair pathway for discreet, detrimental modifications, and thus, the mechanisms by which glycosylases locate DNA damage are of particular interest. Bacterial AlkC and AlkD are specific for cationic alkylated nucleobases and have a distinctive HEAT-like repea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phylogenetics has witnessed dramatic increases in the sizes of data matrices assembled to resolve branches of the tree of life, motivating the development of programs for fast, yet accurate, inference. For example, several different fast programs have been developed in the very popular maximum likelihood framework, including RAxML/ExaML, PhyML, IQ-...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina is a prerequisite for understanding the evolution of their metabolisms and ecological lifestyles. In the last two decades, the use of rDNA and multi-locus data sets has greatly advanced our understanding of the yeast phylogeny, but many deep relationship...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina is a prerequisite for understanding the evolution of their metabolisms and ecological lifestyles. In the last two decades, the use of rDNA and multi-locus data sets has greatly advanced our understanding of the yeast phylogeny, but many deep relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular phylogenetic inference is inherently dependent on choices in both methodology and data. Many insightful studies have shown how choices in methodology, such as the model of sequence evolution or optimality criterion used, can strongly influence inference. In contrast, much less is known about the impact of choices in the properties of the...
Article
Full-text available
Deep phylogenetic relationships of the largest salamander family Plethodontidae have been difficult to resolve, probably reflecting a rapid diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here, data from 50 independent nuclear markers (total 48,582 bp) are used to reconstruct the phylogeny and divergence times for plethodontid salamanders, usi...
Article
Full-text available
Resolving difficult nodes for any part of the vertebrate tree of life often requires analyzing a large number of loci. Developing molecular markers that are workable for the groups of interest is often a bottleneck in phylogenetic research. Here, based on a nested PCR strategy, we present a universal toolkit including 102 NPCL (nuclear protein-codi...
Article
Full-text available
The only currently unresolved portion of the backbone phylogeny of the vertebrates involves the relationships among coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods. Despite active research on this question over the past three decades, it is still difficult to determine statistically whether lungfishes alone or both lungfishes and coelacanths together are cl...
Article
Full-text available
Universal nuclear protein-coding locus (NPCL) markers that are applicable across diverse taxa and show good phylogenetic discrimination have broad applications in molecular phylogenetic studies. For example, RAG1, a representative NPCL marker, has been successfully used to make phylogenetic inferences within all major osteichthyan groups. However,...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the increasing availability of genomic resources has provided an opportunity to develop phylogenetic markers for phylogenomics. Efficient methods to search for candidate markers from the huge number of genes within genomic data are particularly needed in the era of phylogenomics. Here, rather than using the traditional approach of...

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