Xing Gao

Xing Gao
Chinese Academy of Sciences | CAS

Doctor of Philosophy

About

147
Publications
56,406
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,199
Citations
Education
September 1993 - December 1999
University of Arizona
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
Full-text available
Personal ornaments are key archaeological remains to investigate prehistoric symbolic systems, and, whenever hard animal remains were used for their manufacture, explore topics on the status attributed to faunal resources by past human groups. Since the onset of the Upper Paleolithic, animal tooth pendants have been widely used in Eurasia as person...
Article
Personal ornaments have become a key cultural proxy to investigate cognitive evolution, modern human dispersal, and population dynamics. Here, we reassess personal ornaments found at Zhoukoudian Upper Cave and compare them with those from other Late Paleolithic Northern Chinese sites. We reappraise the information provided by Pei Wen Chung on Upper...
Data
Supplementary Online Material for the article: Errico, Francesco d’, Africa Pitarch Martí, Yi Wei, Xing Gao, Marian Vanhaeren, and Luc Doyon. “Zhoukoudian Upper Cave Personal Ornaments and Ochre: Rediscovery and Reevaluation.” Journal of Human Evolution 161 (2021): 103088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.103088.
Article
Past human genetic diversity and migration between southern China and Southeast Asia have not been well characterized, in part due to poor preservation of ancient DNA in hot and humid regions. We sequenced 31 ancient genomes from southern China (Guangxi and Fujian), including two ∼12,000- to 10,000-year-old individuals representing the oldest human...
Article
The Dayao Paleolithic site, located in Inner Mongolia on the eastern margin of China's vast northwestern drylands, was a lithic quarry-workshop utilized by Pleistocene human migrants through the region. Determining the age of this activity has previously yielded controversial results. Our magnetostratigraphic and OSL dating results suggest the two...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars have long debated when the Neolithic began in China. Neolithisation, however, is a process rather than an event. It is more realistic to investigate the timing and nature of the socio-economic trajectory from mobile, microblade-using foragers to sedentary communities during the Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition in northern China. Here, the...
Article
The orientation of artifacts and faunal remains within archaeological deposits are useful for understanding past processes that led to the formation of these deposits. This is because post-depositional processes move clasts in particular ways, causing non-random patterning in clast orientation arrangements. On the other hand, when assemblages exhib...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of the Upper Paleolithic and regional variability in early Upper Paleolithic industries are prominent topics in Paleolithic archaeology, with special relevance to the dispersal and differentiation of early modern human cultures across Eurasia. The so-called Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) has been considered a key element in the emerg...
Article
Full-text available
The site of Shuidonggou Locality 2 offers important evidence for the Late Paleolithic sequence of north China. The site not only contains one of the earliest instances of ornamental freshwater shell and ostrich eggshell beads in the region, but also stone artifacts with features arguably resembling the Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) blade technolo...
Article
Full-text available
Human genetic history in East Asia is poorly understood. To clarify population relationships, we obtained genome wide data from 26 ancient individuals from northern and southern East Asia spanning 9,500-300 years ago. Genetic differentiation was higher in the past than the present, reflecting a major episode of admixture involving northern East Asi...
Article
The Paleolithic-Neolithic transition has been hotly debated for decades. In our study, plant starch residue analysis suggests that the occupants of Pigeon Mountain (Locality QG10) exploited several edible plant resources including cereals, legumes, nuts, and underground storage organs (USOs). A post-hunting-gathering living style could be observed,...
Article
Full-text available
The timing and behavioral markers of the Upper Paleolithic in different parts of the world are of great importance to research on modern human dispersals. The pattern of behavioral developments in the Upper Paleolithic in northern China differs in important ways from the patterns observed in West Eurasia, Africa, and South Asia. Shuidonggou (SDG),...
Article
Here, we discuss the earliest microblade sites in China and the development of microblade technology in greater Northeast Asia. The Xishahe site was discovered in Huliu River terrace deposits in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Chronometric dating indicates the site was first occupied ca. 29–28 ka cal BP, while the microblade remains date to about 2...
Article
Scholars have long recognized the importance of organic artifacts to an improved understanding of the economic and social behavior of Palaeolithic hominins. However, in contrast to archaeological studies in other parts of the world, osseous industries from China have received only limited attention. As one of the first steps aiming at tipping this...
Data
This data includes: 1) A complete technological description of the needles assemblage from Shuidonggou Locality 12 (SDG12) and the associated manufacturing by-products; 2) A detailed description of the lithic and faunal remains found at SDG12; and 3) A database of Eurasian and North American Pleistocene sites that have yielded bone needles.
Article
Full-text available
When, how, and following which paths hominins created the innovations that allowed them to colonize regions of the planet that were not suited to their thermal physiology is still a matter of inquiry. In this paper, we elaborate a theoretical framework to investigate the origin and diversification of bone needles, summarize the evidence for their e...
Article
Full-text available
Ostrich eggshell (OES) beads are an important kind of human ornaments, because their production reflects the development of modern human behavior, thinking ability, and cognitive level. Although the manufacture procedure of OES beads has been reconstructed in some Later Stone Age sites and early Neolithic sites, little information is known about de...
Article
Beads are a communication technology used by humans to transmit information on the wearer identity to members of the same or neighbouring groups by means of a shared symbolic language. Here we focus on the earliest evidence from Eastern Asia of a communication technology – the production of artificially coloured beads – that has allowed humans to f...
Article
Besides active hunting by hominins, there are two methods of scavenging that can provide primary access to intact ungulate carcasses: first-access scavenging from non-predator-related accidents and early-access aggressive scavenging from carnivore kills. Patterns in mortality profiles of prey animals at archaeological sites provide evidence of prey...
Article
The dispersal of Neanderthals and their genetic and cultural interactions with anatomically modern humans and other hominin populations in Eurasia are critical issues in human evolution research. Neither Neanderthal fossils nor typical Mousterian assemblages have been reported in East Asia to date. Here we report on artifact assemblages comparable...
Article
By at least 45,000 years before present, anatomically modern humans had spread across Eurasia [1-3], but it is not well known how diverse these early populations were and whether they contributed substantially to later people or represent early modern human expansions into Eurasia that left no surviving descendants today. Analyses of genome-wide da...
Article
Full-text available
Recent fossil finds have complicated the picture of East Asian Late Pleistocene hominin taxonomy and morphology, necessitating analysis of more fossils with secure dates and stratigraphic contexts to better contextualize human evolution during this epoch. Field excavations at the Laoya Cave in Guizhou Province, China in 2013 recovered two isolated...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence for “controlled use of fire” by Homo erectus pekinensis at Zhoukoudian Locality 1 was initially discovered in the early 1930s and was widely accepted as the earliest such record in human evolutionary history for more than half a century. However, since the mid-1980s, this evidence has been questioned. Some of the questions were based on ne...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonality study of Paleolithic archaeological faunal assemblages is important for reconstructing modes of animal death and ancient hominin strategies for prey acquisition. The dental cementum of animal teeth records the season of an individual animal in which it died, providing the necessary evidence for determining any patterns in season of deat...
Article
Full-text available
Two early Late Pleistocene (~105,000- to 125,000-year-old) crania from Lingjing, Xuchang, China, exhibit a morphological mosaic with differences from and similarities to their western contemporaries. They share pan–Old World trends in encephalization and in supraorbital, neurocranial vault, and nuchal gracilization. They reflect eastern Eurasian an...
Article
Full-text available
Qiliting is an Early to Middle Pleistocene open-air site sealed within Vermiculated Laterite and Xiashu Loess in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. Based on palaeomagnetic work at this site and stratigraphic comparisons, the position of the artifacts in the Xiashu Loess indicates that human activities occurred in an upper cultural layer ca 0.30–0....
Article
Full-text available
Laoya Cave is a long-term occupation site of Late Paleolithic humans in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest China, where abundant lithic, bone materials were recovered. Dating by the AMS technique showed a significant depositional process during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3/2. In this study, the species spectrum was presented from the perspective...
Article
In recent years, the origin and evolution of modern human behaviors have become a common topic of research in Paleolithic archaeology. One important part of modern human behavior, blade technology, was once thought to be unique to modern humans. Recent studies have suggested that variations in blade technology do not fully correspond to modern popu...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery and present a detailed analysis of a freshwater bivalve from Shuidonggou Locality 2, layer CL3. This layer is located c. 40 cm below layer CL2, which has yielded numerous ostrich eggshell beads. The shell is identified as the valve of a Corbicula fluminea. Data on the occurrence of this species in the Shuidonggou region duri...
Article
During the climatic fluctuations in the late Late Pleistocene, hominins in China had experienced some significant changes and adaptations in terms of subsistence strategies. Based on the zooarchaeological analyses of the faunal remains from the Shuidougou site of North China and the Ma’anshan site of South China, the present study demonstratively i...
Article
Here we present the results of a techno-functional analysis of 17 bone tools recovered from strata 6, 5 and 3 of the Palaeolithic site of Ma'anshan Cave, Guizhou Province, southern China. Stratum 6, dated to c. 35 cal kyr BP, has yielded three sharp awls. From Stratum 5, dated to c. 34 cal kyr BP, come six probable spear points, awls and a cutting...
Article
Re-excavation of the Peking man site at Zhoukoudian was initiated in 2009. A taphonomic analysis of the skeletal remains of Cervus (Sika) grayi, a dominant species from Layer 3 of the extant West Section of the site strongly negates a role played by hominins in the accumulation and modification of the bones. Instead, it is argued here that some ind...
Article
Full-text available
Zhoukoudian, near Beijing, is where the Homo erectus Sinathropus pekinensis (Peking Man) fossils were found in the 1920s, and has always been a focus for studies of Palaeolithic archaeology in China. This paper discusses two aspects of Zhoukoudian in transition: research histories and lithic technologies. From a historical perspective, the study co...
Article
The process of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition has been hotly debated for many years, but East Asia has not been a significant part of that debate until recently. The Shuidonggou (SDG) site complex, yielding Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) blade-rich assemblages, has been given more and more importance since its discovery and first exca...
Article
The mysterious loss of five calvaria of Homo erectus and three skulls of Homo sapiens sapiens, unearthed from Zhoukoudian, a world cultural heritage site, during World War II is a great loss for paleoanthropological research. Although frontal and occipital bones of Homo erectus were unearthed in 1966, additional important human fossils cannot be fo...
Article
Few sites in China have yielded definite evidence for a complex bone technology. In this paper, we present a detailed description and an integrated techno-functional study of seven bone needles from Shuidonggou locality 12 dated to 12.2–11.0 ka BP in North China. Tool production processes conforming to the classic descriptions of formal techniques,...
Article
Nihewan Basin is considered a vital region for the study of early human evolution, migration and behavioral variation in East Asia. Cenjiawan, dated to 1.1 Ma, is one of the Early Paleolithic sites in the basin, and yielded 1625 pieces of stone artifacts which provide significant information on early stone working techniques. The high proportion of...
Article
There are four hypotheses on the origin of microblade technology in North China: i) that it originated from Siberia before the Last Glacial Maximum; ii) that it emerged in Siberia after the Last Glacial Maximum; iii) that it developed from the long-narrow flakes produced by the long-established knapping tradition in North China; and iv) that it had...
Article
Full-text available
The Chinese Palaeolithic has traditionally been divided into three distinct cultural periods: Lower, Middle, and Upper. Analysis of four stone tool criteria (raw material procurement, core reduction, retouch, and typology) to determine if a distinct Middle Palaeolithic stage existed in China suggests that very little change occurred in lithic techn...
Article
Full-text available
Susan Keates and Yaroslav Kuzmin have contributed valuable comments on our assessment of the chronology and technological characteristics of Shuidonggou localities 1 and 2. These comments have demonstrated some discordance in our publications that should be corrected here. Their rationale for abandoning the conclusions altogether is, however, weak...
Article
The application of heat-treatment technology on lithic raw materials is an important feature of early modern human behaviour. The evidence of heat-treated stone artefacts discovered at Localities 2 and 12 of the Shuidonggou Late Palaeolithic site, North-West China, provides an important example for studying this technology among ancient humans in A...
Article
One of the most important tumor suppression functions of p53 is its ability to induce apoptosis. iASPP is an inhibitory member of the ASPP protein family. It can specifically inhibit the normal function of p53 as a suppressor. The mechanism of iASPP suppressing the cell apoptotosis is through inhibiting the transactivation function of p53 on the pr...
Article
Both the behavioral and skeletal evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens have been hotly debated for more than 20 years. This paper analyzes archaeological materials from Shuidonggou Locality 2 with respect to ecology, technology, economy and social organization, and symbolic behaviors. Locality 2 shows a range of cultural innovations in different archae...
Article
Full-text available
This volume presents some of the contributions resulting from a conference on recent developments in studies of the NE Asian Palaeolithic and Pleistocene that was held in June, 2013, in Yinchuan, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, in the Peoples' Republic of China, near the famous Palaeolithic site complex of Shuidonggou (SDG). At this conference,...
Article
A large number of broken stones were unearthed from the ash layer dating 11–12 ka at Shuidonggou Locality 12 (SDG 12) during archaeological excavations in 2007. Morphological and lithological analysis of these stones indicated that they were selected by humans, heated, used, and then crushed. Simulation experiments using the same type of rock demon...
Article
The Youfang Paleolithic site, located in the eastern Nihewan Basin, Hebei Province, China, was discovered in 1984. However, the microblade assemblages which were excavated from the site lacked reliable chronological data. In this study, an optical dating technique was applied to nine samples from Late Pleistocene eolian sequences at the site. The a...
Article
Starch grains, phytoliths and plant tissue fragments from Upper Paleolithic stone artifacts provide direct evidence of plant use activities in Northwest China during late MIS 3. These results demonstrate the considerable role of edible plants during the last glacial epoch. The chosen plant species can also help us understand the development of huma...
Article
Full-text available
Shuidonggou Locality 1 (SDG1) contains one of the most important early blade assemblages in East Asia, and has been excavated and studied in detail since its discovery in 1923. However, most studies focus on typology and qualitative analysis along with contextual problems such as chronology and stratigraphy. This article outlines current debates on...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Shuidonggou Locality 1 (SDG 1), discovered in 1923, is one of the most important Upper Paleolithic sites in China, and excavations since its discovery have produced abundant cultural remains and other materials. However, only limited ranges of dating methods have been applied to the site. This study discusses the results of dating samples by optica...
Article
Shuidonggou (SDG) has long been recognized as the type site complex for the Chinese Late Paleolithic, as defined by the presence of blade technology and by its chronology. Recent field and laboratory research conducted in the past decade has revealed the presence of Paleolithic ornaments and two different technological components of an industry equ...
Article
The effect of rapid climate change during the Late Upper Paleolithic on hunter-gatherers is attested by a variety of signals in the archaeological record. One of these, the spread of the microblade technology in North China, shows a particularly close relationship with climate change. The appearance of microblades and functionally related bone and...
Article
The transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic and the global diffusion of modern human populations remain hotly debated topics. The timing and pace of the transition in China are especially uncertain. This paper examines spatial and temporal variation among Paleolithic assemblages in North China dated to Marine Isotope Stage 3. There are tHIOmain...
Article
Full-text available
A review of recently published temporal data from Shuidonggou Locality 1 indicates that a 40–43 cal ka date for the inception of Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP), blade-oriented technologies in East Asia is warranted. Comparison of the dates from Shuidonggou to other Asian IUP dates in Korea, Siberia, and Mongolia supports this assertion, indicating...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an overview of the Chinese Paleolithic industries between 300 ka and 40 ka, a time span now termed the “later Early Paleolithic” (LEP) in the Chinese chronological scheme. It describes the unique features of LEP remains in China compared with contemporaneous materials in Africa and western Eurasia as well as the internal diversi...
Article
Full-text available
Assessments of the complexity of lithic technologies coming from different time periods, regions, or hominid species are recurrent features of the literature on Paleolithic archaeology. Yet the notion of lithic complexity is often defined intuitively and qualitatively, which can easily lead to circular arguments and makes difficult the comparison o...
Article
Full-text available
Based on optimal foraging theory, prey animals from the Shuidonggou Locality 12 (SDG12) are divided into three types according to body size and defense traits: high-ranked large game, low-ranked slow small game, and low-ranked fast small game. Application of the Reciprocal of Simpson’s Index to the three types of animals from SDG12 yields a relativ...
Article
The Shuidonggou site cluster in northern China contains 12 different early prehistoric sequences with great potential to cast light on the transition to Upper Palaeolithic behaviour in East Asia. Here researchers present the latest results from Locality 2, reporting seven occupation levels with hearths, animal bone and diverse industries. Although...
Article
Full-text available
The contributions of the Chinese Paleolithic record to broader ranging paleoanthropological debates – have long been difficult to decipher. The primary problem that hinders many contributions that include or focus on the Chinese record is that relatively few regions outside of the main flagship sites/basins (e.g., Zhoukoudian, Nihewan Basin, Bose B...