Ximena Besoain

Ximena Besoain
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso | PUCV · School of Agronomy

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92
Publications
20,863
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1,031
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
601 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Since 2016, crown death and mortality of Araucaria araucana trees have been observed at different localities of the Nahuelbuta Coastal Range, Chile. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Phytophthora spp. in the rhizosphere of A. araucana trees that may explain its decline. Samples of soil rhizosphere were collected from tree...
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Phylogenetic analyses categorize seven genotypes of citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The symptoms caused by this pathogen, their expression and severity are influenced by CTV genotypes, host species, cultivars, and infected host rootstocks. This study aimed to verify how populations of Chilean CTV isolates changed following inoculation from infected sw...
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English walnut (Juglans regia) has become an important crop in Chile, representing 11.5% of the total area of fruit trees, surpassed only by grapevine. As the Chilean walnut industry rapidly expands, young orchards are at risk from the emergence of new fungal diseases. Botryosphaeriaceae and Diaporthaceae fungi have been recognized as main causes o...
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In Chile, tomato is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables, with around 5,000 ha for fresh market and 8,000 ha for processing industry. During recent years, symptoms of bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, have been observed more frequently in tomato plants in different regions of Chile. This pathogen was first identifie...
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Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops in Chile based on economic value. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Botryosphaeriaceae species have been reported as the major causal agents associated with dieback symptoms in Chile commercial vineyards (Díaz and Latorre 2014; Besoain, 2018; Larach et al. 2020). Recently Eutypa l...
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Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are the most cultivated and important vegetable crop in the world. These plants can wilt during crop growth due to fusarium wilt (fusariosis), a disease that damages tomato vascular systems. The Fusarium isolated and analyzed in this work correspond to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The isolates we...
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Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Differences in virulence between Cmm strains have been reported. The aim of this study was the characterization of nine Cmm strains isolated in Chile to reveal the causes of their differences in virulence. The virulence assays in tomato seedlings...
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The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of novel and known dihydrocarvone-hybrid derivatives (2–9) and to evaluate mycelial growth activity of hybrid molecules against two strains of Monilinia fructicola, as well as their toxicity. Dihydrocarvone-hybrid derivatives have been synthesized under sonication conditions and characterized by FTIR...
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Gray and summer bunch rot are important diseases of table grapes due to the high economic and environmental cost of their control with synthetic fungicides. The ability to produce antifungal compounds against the causal agents Botrytis, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus of two microorganisms isolated from table grapes and identified as Hanseni...
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Table grapes (Vitis vinifera) are affected by botrytis bunch rot and summer bunch rot, the latter a complex disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus spp., Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer. To search for biocontrol alternatives, a new bioproduct composed of Gluconobacter cerinus and Hanseniaspora osmophila, a consortium called PUC...
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Dieback symptoms have been increasingly reported in Chilean vineyards over recent years. Although there have been studies on Botryosphaeriaceae species and associated trunk disease incidence and severity in table grape-producing vineyards, their impacts on ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, the most planted red wine grape in Chile, is unknown. This study determ...
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The genus Clavibacter has been associated largely with plant diseases. The aims of this study were to characterize the genomes and the virulence factors of Chilean C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains VL527, MSF322 and OP3, and to define their phylogenomic positions within the species, Clavibacter michiganensis. VL527 and MSF322 genomes po...
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This work reports on the synthesis of eight new 2'-hydroxy-chalcones with potential anti-phytopathogenic applications in agroindustry, among others, via Claisen-Schmidt condensation and ultrasound assisted reaction. Assays showed three chalcones with allyl moieties strongly inhibited growth of phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans; moreov...
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Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of a bacterial canker in kiwifruit plants and has caused economic losses worldwide. Currently, the primary strategies to control this pathogen include the use of copper-based compounds and even antibiotics. However, the emergence of isolates of Psa that are resistant to these agrochemica...
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In the present study, seven 2’,4’-dihydroxydihydrochalcone derivatives (compounds 3–9) were synthesized and their capacity as anti-Saprolegnia agents were evaluated against Saprolegnia parasitica, S. australis, S. diclina. Derivative 9 showed the best activity against the different strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum oo...
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In Chile, the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum was first reported affecting potato plants in 1983 (Ciampi-Panno 1984). R. solanacearum was detected first in tomato crop by Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero de Chile (SAG) (Acuña 2008). Wilt symptoms in tomato have been reported from growers sporadically in Northern and Central Chile, with...
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Fungal diseases, both pre-and post-harvest, are currently difficult to control-increased antifungal resistances have further stimulated the search for natural alternatives. The objective of the present research work was to evaluate the antifungal activities of Mentha pulegium essential oil (EO) and its major constituents. The EO was obtained from h...
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Excessive nitrogen (N) use in agriculture has been associated with increased severity of the damage caused by Phytophthora species. In this study, we investigated the impact in vitro and in vivo of N about Phytophthora cinnamomi . The preliminary in vitro assay showed the effect of different N sources on the mycelial growth of P. cinnamomi . This a...
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Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. However, only a few antifungal drugs are currently available for the treatment of Candida infections. In the last decade, terpenophenols have attracted much attention because they often possess a variety of biological activities. In the search for new antifung...
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Clonal rootstocks are one alternative used by the walnut industry to control damage caused by Phytophthora species, traditionally using plants grafted on susceptible Juglans regia rootstock. Vlach, VX211, and RX1 are clonal rootstocks with a degree of resistance to Phytophthora species. The resistance to pathogens in these rootstocks depends on the...
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Streptomycin has been used for decades in Chile to control Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of tomato bacterial canker. The aim of this work was to evaluate streptomycin resistance and to analyse the presence of resistance‐related genes in Cmm strains from Chile. A collection of 25 Cmm strains isolated from dif...
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English (Persian) walnut (Juglans regia) trees affected by root and crown rot were surveyed in five regions of central Chile between 2015 and 2017. In each region, nine orchards, ranging from 1 to 21 years old, were randomly selected and inspected for incidence and severity of tree decline associated with crown and root rot. Soil and symptomatic cr...
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In recent years, Chilean kiwifruit production has been affected by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), which has caused losses to the industry. In this study, we report the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 18 Psa isolates obtained from Chilean kiwifruits orchards between 2012 and 2016 from different geographic o...
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Tomato crops can be affected by several infectious diseases produced by bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Four phytopathogens are of special concern because of the major economic losses they generate worldwide in tomato production; Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, causative agents behind two highly d...
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Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of tomato. In order to understand the emergence and dissemination of this pathogen in Chile, Chilean Cmm strains isolated from different sites of Central Chile were characterized in comparison to a worldwide collection of...
Article
Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch (monkey-puzzle tree) is a conifer endemic to central and southern Chile and Argentina. This species has long been a staple food for the Araucanos, an indigenous group of southern Chile. It has a high timber value and has been used for ornamental purposes (†). In the Araucaria garden at the School of Agronomy of t...
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Walnut industry (Juglans regia L.) has increased in the last decade in Chile from 9,734 ha to 27,941 ha (www.odepa.cl, 2016) and many walnut orchards have been established in lands predisposed to crown and root rot development in walnut trees. The main variety is Chandler followed by Serr, both grafted on J. regia rootstock. During the 2015-16 grow...
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The preliminary phytopathogenic data related to the presence of fungi in stored bulbs and plants of Allium ampeloprasum var: holmense (ajo elefante) studied in the zones of Quillota and Nogales (V Región) are issued in this paper. Considering bulbs having different lesions, fungal isolations were carried out corresponding to the following taxa: Pen...
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Una de las enfermedades que ataca al tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum) en la V Región de Chile es Rhizoctonia solani, desconociéndose a la fecha los grupos de anastomosis presentes en esta zona; por tal motivo, se estudiaron cepas del hongo obtenidas a partir de plantas enfermas, En las cepas estudiadas, se determinó la presencia de los grupos de an...
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Se investigó la etiología de una pudrición basal y radical causada por Fusarium sp. en plantas de tomate enfermas en invernaderos fríos de la V Región de Chile. Se identificó como patógeno a Fusarium solani, hongoque ha sido descrito en otros países causando síntomas similares a los observados en este trabajo. Los síntomas en terreno y en las plant...
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In June 2013, avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) imported from California, USA, entered Chile for sale on the national market. These avocado fruits arrived at the phytopathology laboratory with clear symptoms of stem-end rot, a dark brown color in the peel, necrosis in the vascular strands, and light brown discoloration in the flesh. Pi...
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The dispersal of Botryosphaeriaceae conidia was studied in two vineyards with a in the Valparaiso Region of Chile, where semiarid Mediterranean climate conditions prevail. The objective of this study was to record trappings of Botryosphaeriaceae conidia over one year on a weekly basis and to associate these records with weather and agrochemical app...
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The secretion of enzymes involved in biocontrol from the wild T. harzianum strains Th11 and Th12 and the mutants Th11A80.1, Th11C40.1 and Th12A10.1 was studied after their cultivation in the presence of R. solani cell walls as the sole carbon source. The results showed that endoprotease activity in the supernatants from Th11A80.1 and Th11C40.1 incr...
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Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was reported in the 1960’s to affect Meyer lemon trees in Chile, but no field symptoms were observed. This study performed a complete biological, serological and molecular characterization of one hundred CTV isolates obtained from different hosts and geographical origins. Decline symptoms (DI) were not found on trees gra...
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The secretion of enzymes involved in biocontrol from the wild T. harzianum strains Th11 and Th12 and the mutants Th11A80.1, Th11C40.1 and Th12A10.1 was studied after their cultivation in the presence of R. solani cell walls as the sole carbon source. The results showed that endoprotease activity in the supernatants from Th11A80.1 and Th11C40.1 incr...
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Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) are pathogens that affect citrus trees in Chile. The simultaneous use of a rapid diagnostic method with the effective cleaning of infected budwood is a powerful preventative method for controlling viral diseases. The objective of this study was the multiple dete...
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The potential of Trichoderma spp. fusants for the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani was compared with the ability of their corresponding parental strains. Their effect was tested in vitro using two R. solani strains, 509 (AG 2-1) and 618 (AG 4). The highest inhibitions in growth in dual cultures were obtained with the ThF2-1 (89.79%), ThF3-3 (90.55%...
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A., Díaz, J., Auger, X., Besoain, E., Bordeu, and B. A. Latorre, 2013. Prevalence and pathogenicity of fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Chilean vineyards. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2): 327-339. Trunk diseases in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) have been identified as a major problem in the wine and table grape industries around the world, redu...
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G. A., Diaz, J., Auger, X., Besoain, E., Bordeu, and B. A. Latorre, 2013. Prevalence and pathogenicity of fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Chilean vineyards. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2): 327-339. Trunk diseases in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) have been identified as a major problem in the wine and table grape industries around the world, r...
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C. Torres, B.A. Latorre, P. Undurraga, and X. Besoain. 2013. Evaluation of DMI fungicides against species of Diplodia and Neofusicoccum associated with Botryosphaeria canker of grapevine. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):131-138. The Botryosphaeriaceae species have been widely studied and are considered a serious problem to the production of grapes worldwide....
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The Botryosphaeriaceae species have been widely studied and are considered a serious problem to the production of grapes worldwide. To aid in the development of control strategies for these fungi, in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of demethylation inhibiting (DMI) fungicides against Diplodia seriata, D. mutila, Neofu...
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Several Botryosphaeriaceae species have been identified as the causes of cankers and dieback of Vitis vinifera in several grape-growing regions around the world. This research was conducted to further study the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with table grapes in Chile, to estimate the prevalence and severity of the disease as a function o...
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R. Herrera, D. Nunez, N. Romero, X. Besoain, L. M. Perez, and J. Montealegre. 2012. Sensitivity of wild-type and mutant Trichoderma harzianum strains to fungicides. Cien. Inv. Agr. 39(3): 569-576. The germination of conidia in wild-type (Th11, Th12 and Th650) and mutant (Th11A80.1, Th12A10.1 and Th650-NG7) strains of Trichoderma harzianum that were...