Xiliang Zhang

Xiliang Zhang
Tsinghua University | TH · Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy

Doctor of Philosophy

About

148
Publications
29,597
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6,067
Citations

Publications

Publications (148)
Article
Full-text available
As the world's biggest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter and the largest developing country, China faces daunting challenges to peak its emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality within 40 years. This study fully considered the carbon-neutrality goal and the temperature rise constraints required by the Paris Agreement, by developing six long-t...
Article
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In this study, we estimate the cost of PM2.5 and O3 pollution in China and explore how it differs by province. For the analysis, we extend the China Regional Energy Model—a computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy—to explicitly represent the pollution-health linkage within a larger economic system. Our results show that health da...
Article
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The integrity of greenhouse gas emissions data is essential to assess progress towards countries’ pledges under the Paris Agreement on climate change. Building credible systems for emissions measurement, reporting and verification is challenging, especially in developing countries. Using a unique dataset from two of China’s pilot emissions trading...
Article
This study demonstrates how a regional power system modeling tool could be applied to evaluate renewable energy development and emissions reduction with technology change and market reform. We introduce a capacity expansion and operation model with provincial details for China's power system – the Renewable Electricity Planning and Operation (REPO)...
Article
This study focuses on the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) within the private passenger vehicle market in selected Chinese cities categorized into different tiers. It presents an analysis of factors driving the market diffusion of EVs and the reasons for varying results across the investigated cities and provides estimates of related EV impac...
Article
Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China’s road transport sector have been increasing rapidly in recent years. Previous studies on the future trends trend to focus on the national picture and cannot offer regional insights. We build a novel bottom-up model to estimate the future energy demand and GHG emissions of China’s road...
Article
Using the Transportation Mode-Technology-Energy-CO2 (TMOTEC) model which is based on discrete choice mothed and general transport cost simulation, this study made a scenario analysis of energy consumption and reductions in CO2 emissions in China’s transport sector. We used scenarios to investigate the relative influences of improving vehicle energy...
Article
In this study, we apply to China the China Regional Energy Model, developed as part of the Regional Emissions Air-Quality Climate Health (REACH) assessment framework, and estimate PM2.5-associated health costs. We estimate that, in 2015, exposure to PM2.5 caused a nationwide welfare loss of US$248 billion (3.6% of the baseline welfare level). Over...
Article
Improving air quality across mainland China is an urgent policy challenge. While much of the problem is linked to China’s broader reliance on coal and other fossil fuels across the energy system, road transportation is an important and growing source of air pollution. Here we use an energy-economic model, embedded in a Regional Emissions Air Qualit...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the development of electric vehicles (EV) in the private passenger vehicle fleet in Beijing (China), analyzes how EVs will penetrate in the market, and estimates the resulting impacts on energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to 2030. A discrete choice model is adopted with consideration of variables including vehicle technic...
Article
The identification of the driving factors of China's energy-related emissions in the past years is very important to inform the policy design for China's future emission mitigations. Although this topic has been widely discussed in literature, this paper provides the most recent overall estimation of the emission mitigation factors from both the pr...
Article
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Wind power has seen a remarkable growth in China since the Renewable Energy Law came into force in the beginning of 2006. However, the contribution and the economic cost of wind power development to reduce carbon emission at the provincial level are still unclear. This research combined geographic information system analysis and levelized productio...
Article
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Expanding the use of wind energy for electricity generation forms an integral part of China’s efforts to address degraded air quality and climate change. However, the integration of wind energy into China’s coal-heavy electricity system presents significant challenges owing to wind’s variability and the grid’s system-wide inflexibilities. Here we d...
Article
Globally, emissions trading scheme (ETS) as a cost-effective method to facilitate emissions abatement is raising more and more concerns. Moreover, according to the prevailing goal to reach a global agreement for climate mitigation, integrating emissions trading schemes has emerged as a prominent international cooperation option. This paper implemen...
Article
Recent years witnessed a sharp increase of CSP (concentrated solar power) plants around the world. CSP is currently at its early stage in China, with several demonstration and utility-scale plants underway. China's rising electricity demand, the severe environmental pollution from coal-fired power plants, and favorable renewable energy policies are...
Article
Energy security and climate change are topics of primary interest in current Chinese policy debates about the international politics, economy, and environment. In the ongoing process of modernization, China will continue to face challenges to provide secure energy supplies and mitigate climate change over time. Given the size of the country, the de...
Article
Full-text available
Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses perf...
Article
Scenario-based analysis is conducted on the long-term projections of liquid biofuels in China for transport fuels. The key influencing factors during each period are assessed. Driven by the transport energy demand growth, increasing price of crude oil and technological progress, liquid biofuels are expected to develop rapidly in the medium and long...
Article
The establishment of a global multi-regional carbon market is considered to be a cost effective approach to facilitate global emission abatement and has been widely concerned. The ongoing planned linkage between the European Union’s carbon market and a new emission trading system in Australia in 2015 would be an important attempt to the practice of...
Article
District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it is critical to formulate a development strategy to de...
Article
The wind power industry in China is faced with the obstacle of ineffective use due to severe wind curtailment recently. With detailed representation of the electricity and heat sectors in an energy-system-modeling tool, we evaluated the potential of technical improvements that could be implemented to increase wind integration in Northeast China. Fi...
Article
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As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fracti...
Chapter
Based on case studies from the United States, Denmark, and China, this chapter analyzes the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 percent renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. The design of 100 percent renewable energy systems involves three major technological changes: energy savings...
Article
Interprovincial migration flows involve substantial relocation of people and productive activity, with implications for regional energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In China, these flows are not explicitly considered when setting energy and environmental targets for provinces, and their potential impact on the effectiveness of policy alternati...
Article
Chinese government announced it is going to reduce carbon intensity in 2020 by 40 to 45% when compared with 2005 levels. One question for how to accomplish this is how to disaggregate national target to provincial level. This study employed a regional disaggregation approach based on a series of principles. Analysis of the carbon intensity revealed...
Article
China's climate and energy policy commitment are stated at the national level, but they may have uneven impacts on the country's regionally heterogeneous transport system. This work quantifies the expected provincial-level response of freight transport to an economywide policy targeting reductions in carbon emissions intensity. The analysis applies...
Article
We visualize water utilization in China from source to service and onward to destination, using a Sankey diagram to analyse the energy-water nexus at the national level. Among total water usage in China, about 53.4 % ultimately enters the atmosphere through evaporation and evapotranspiration; and 20.7 % and 6.4 % flows out to other countries or to...
Article
While China is on track to meet its global climate commitments through 2020, China’s post-2020 CO2 emissions trajectory is highly uncertain, with projections varying widely across studies. Over the past year, the Chinese government has announced new policy directives to deepen economic reform, protect the environment, and limit fossil energy use in...
Article
The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five energy-intensive sectors – to analyze global energy demand, CO2 emissions, and economic activity. The C-GEM model supplies a res...
Article
Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models seeking to evaluate the impacts of electricity policy face difficulties incorporating detail on the variable nature of renewable energy resources. To improve the accuracy of modeling renewable energy and climate policies, detailed scientific and engineering data are used to inform the parameterization of...
Article
In this chapter, a life-cycle analysis (LCA) of vehicle-fuel pathways covering the stages of resource extraction, fuel production, and utilization is conducted to examine the macro impact of China’s road transport energy supply and related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Original Chinese data on feedstock extraction and process efficiency, process...
Article
The Che Kung Temple interchange project of Shenzhen Metro is used as an example in this paper to study the heaving/settlement laws and the displacement control measures for the adjacent metro tunnel in operation which is effected by excavation of group foundation pits. In order to control the displacement of existing tunnel and track structure, the...
Article
Identifying the appropriate amount of subsidy is crucial to spur the development of low carbon electricity technologies such as wind power that are currently not competitive with conventional coal-fired power on the basis of levelized cost. Though essential for formulating subsidy policy, most of the existing planning tools have not been tailored f...
Article
China has adopted targets for developing renewable electricity that would require expansion on an unprecedented scale. During the period from 2010 to 2020, we find that current renewable electricity targets result in significant additional renewable energy installation and a reduction in cumulative CO2 emissions of 1.8% relative to a No Policy base...
Article
One of the key aspects of developing a regional renewable energy plan involves incorporating national renewable energy targets into provincial targets whilst including interim phase targets and technology targets. This paper proposes a renewable energy model based on national targets ‘decomposed’ into regional targets that incorporate technological...
Article
A FCC gasoline pre-hydrotreating catalyst GHC-32 is developed and commercialized. The calibration results demonstrate that the mercaptans content in FCC gasoline is reduced to 2. 7 ug/g from 21. 6 ug/g, the diene value is lowered to 0. 20 gI/(100 g) from 0. 64 gI/(100 g) and the olefin content loss is 0. 3%. No octane number loss is observed. The r...
Article
To control rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China׳s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity targets as part of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (the Twelfth FYP, 2011–2015). Both to support achievement of these targets and to lay the foundation for a future national market-based climate policy, at the end of 2011, China׳s government selected...
Article
China's carbon emissions trading pilot schemes have already made significant progress, with five out of the seven pilot systems having started operation by the end of 2013. The experience in establishing and operating the pilot schemes will be valuable to the establishment of China's unified national emissions trading system in the near future. Des...
Article
To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China's leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity targets under the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015), which are defined at both the national and provincial levels. We develop a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with global coverage that disaggregates China's 30 provinces and includes...
Article
In this work, a novel gate-level delay computing method for common subexpression elimination (CSE) algorithm is proposed. The computing method is based on delay matrix and suitable for implementation with computers. A CSE algorithm with gate-level delay computing (GLDC-CSE) is developed. The GLDC-CSE algorithm is demonstrated through a case study i...
Article
The LanzaTech process can convert carbon monoxide-containing gases produced by industries, such as steel manufacturing, into valuable fuel products. The life-cycle analysis (LCA) of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from the LanzaTech process has been developed for a Chinese setting using the original Tsinghua China Automotive LCA model along...
Article
Full-text available
A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF) production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM). Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) from...
Article
Emissions trading systems are recognized as a cost-effective way to facilitate emissions abatement and are expected to play an important role in international cooperation for global climate mitigation. Starting from the planned linkage of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System with a new system in Australia in 2015, this paper simulates the...
Chapter
The ultimate goal in developing China’s automotive energy is the establishment of a sustainable automotive energy system, which amounts to an ideal policy target scenario. In this chapter, a method that can help China achieve sustainable automotive energy, involving a change from the reference scenario to the integrated policy scenario, will be sum...
Article
Because the liquid fuel market in China is growing rapidly compared to the capacity for liquid fuel production, interest of coal-to-liquid technology is growing for producing liquid fuel. Several processes have not yet been industrialized. Among these, the Fischer–Tropsch (FT) process for fuel production from coal was chosen for simulation and anal...
Article
The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China's final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Tra...
Article
Full-text available
This paper compares the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of natural gas (NG)- based fuels to the GHG emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) powered with NG-to-electricity in China. A life-cycle model is used to account for full fuel cycle and use-phase emissions, as well as vehicle cycle and battery manufacturing. The reduction of life-cycle GHG emissi...
Article
Understanding the life-cycle private cost (LCPC) of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is important for market feasibility analysis. An HEV LCPC model was established to evaluate HEV market prospects in China compared with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The Kluger HV, a full-hybrid HEV sports utility vehicle (SUV), aimed at...
Article
Non-ionic solvent-free carbon nanotube nanofluids (NSCNN) were prepared using carboxylic MWNTs-COOH and poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO) via hydrogen bonding between the surface -OH or C=O groups and the hydroxy groups. It can be seen that NSCNN were used as reinforcing materials for PP t...
Chapter
This chapter provides a further integrated analysis of these energy problems, introduces a comprehensive analytical framework and modeling tools, and focuses on an analysis and evaluation of several scenarios related to vehicle energy systems. The aim is to provide an understanding of the essential development of automotive energy in China as well...
Chapter
Over the last 10 years, the development of biofuels in China has undergone three distinct stages. By the end of 2010, the utilization of fuel ethanol reached 1.86 million tonnes in China and that of biodiesel was about two million tonnes. This chapter analyzes the biomass resource potential in China and reviews conversion technologies and policies....
Article
From the view of geographic location, climate and population status, this paper makes a comparative study of the economy structure, transport system, energy supply and carbon emissions among a few cities, especially between Beijing and London, two mega-cities in the world. The developed tertiary industry, consummate transport system and low-carbon...
Article
Life-cycle fossil primary energy consumption (FPEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of nine types of dominant secondary energy (SE) pathways for China in 2010 are calculated with iterative methods, using the TLCAM (Tsinghua Life-cycle Analysis Model). Three major types of GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are considered for GHG emission intensity,...
Article
Decoupling fossil energy demand from economic growth is crucial to China’s sustainable development. In addition to energy and carbon intensity targets enacted under the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015), a coal or fossil energy cap is under discussion as a way to constrain the absolute quantity of energy used. Importantly, implementation of such a...
Article
Full-text available
Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM) has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for natural gas- (NG-) based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1) compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW) fossil energy uses to conventional gasol...
Article
We calcualate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment rather than energy-intensive products, such as steel and aluminum. In 2007, the largest net recipients of embodie...
Article
Full-text available
Energy consumption for transport purposes has increased rapidly in China over the past decade. China's transport industry has undergone remarkable developments in energy conservation through structural, technological and managerial measures. The paper analyzes energy-conservation policies and measures related to road transport in China. The paper a...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the analysis on the development trend of vehicle technology, vehicle price, vehicle fuel economy and fuel supply price, the new energy vehicle (NEV) passenger car development scale is projected on different scenario with the application of life time cost model. Three scenarios are set to find electric vehicle (EV) and fuel cell vehicle (FC...
Chapter
China has adopted targets for developing renewable electricity - wind, solar, and biomass - that would require expansion on an unprecedented scale in China and relative to existing global installations. An important question is how far this deployment will go towards achieving China's low-carbon development goals, which include a carbon intensity r...
Article
Full-text available
Electric vehicles are developing quickly in China. Based on the expert interview, the current status, development trends, possible paths and related policy recommendations of the electric vehicle technology in China are discussed in this paper. It is found that there are some bottleneck problems for the electric vehicle development and some promoti...
Article
Full-text available
Year 2010 is the significant year of offshore wind power development in China. The first national offshore wind power project is connected to the grid, and the first round of concession projects marks the strong support from central government. It is foreseeable that offshore wind power capacity in China will expand rapidly in the future, and the u...
Article
China is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-...
Article
China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will...
Article
Analysed various influence factors of unit GDP energy consumption, discussed the mathematical decomposition and calculation method and did empirical analysis of the influence and role on unit GDP energy consumption changes since “The Fifth Five-Year Plan”.The main conclusions are:(1) the drop of the energy efficiency is caused both by technical fac...
Article
China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies including biofuels. The 2010 biofuel targets were met and even surpassed except for non-grain fuel ethanol; however, there is debate on whether and how the country will be able t...
Article
This paper describes the effect of the coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry on economic output and employment in four Chinese regions. The operation of CTL projects require large amount of expense and thus can largely boost regional economy growth by expanding local output demands. However, such economic benefit has never been quantified. In this paper,...
Article
This paper analyzes the full lifetime cost of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) in China in the near future. The full lifetime cost comprises the initial and periodic cost of owning and operating the vehicle. Compared with the conventional gasoline vehicles, the full...
Article
Recognized as an indispensable player in the future electricity supply mix of China, photovoltaic (PV) power has experienced a fast expansion in recent years. Owing to the higher cost compared with traditional coal-fired power, financial subsidy is crucial for the development of PV power. Although a series of policies have been implemented to subsi...
Article
Renewable energy planning will consider and weigh the technical, economic, social, environmental and other factors comprehensively, these factors tend to use many types of standard to measure, and these metrics often conflict with each other, which bring many difficult to renewable energy planning. Based on renewable energy planning program selecti...
Article
We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model (http://www.feeimodel.org/). The policies ev...
Article
Photovoltaic (PV) power has a huge resource of supply, wide range of usage, and low impact on environment and it is considered as a key factor of the supply mix in the future for China. PV power is still in its infancy in China. It has higher cost than coal-fired power, and needs policy support. In recent years, China has launched a series of polic...
Article
This article has analyzed China's coal consumption status and its over usage in industry and construction sectors by the comparison of energy and coal utilization mode between China and America. The sources of these problems have been discussed from the aspects of industry development level, energy consumption tradition and resources endowment, etc...
Article
China is coal dependent, and this situation will persist for a long time. Because more and more attention has been paid to energy security, the coal‐chemical industry has become a hot topic and has developed quickly. To improve efficiency and reduce emissions, industrial symbiosis (IS) can be introduced when establishing a coal‐chemical eco‐industr...
Article
Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based...
Article
A model was established to analyze the impact of important factors for low-carbon international technology transfer. This game-theory model includes an inter-country macro-level game with governments as the players and an inter-enterpriser micro-level game with all the involved governments, companies and citizens as players. The main impact factors...
Conference Paper
The paper investigates the feasibility of integrating 1.5th and 2nd generation (G) conversion technology for ethanol production from sweet sorghum stalks, in terms of economic performance, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (3E). To that end, discriminants were developed for economic analysis to determine the conditions under which the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces the background of low-carbon development briefly, and analyzes the paths of low-carbon economies development in typical countries comparatively. Then it builds and analyzes regression model based on the panel data from six representative countries. It explores the relationship of EI and primary industry, second industry, terti...
Article
Full-text available
As an important renewable energy, wind power has been paid more and more attentions in China recent years, in order to weaken the influence of climate change. We should know exactly the benefits wind power can produce, before government formulates relevant policies to accelerate its deployment. In this paper, we calculate the quantity of fossil ene...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzed the process of the LCD and the industrial structure in the typical countries to reveal the Causality Relationship between LCD and Industrial Structure. First, most of the developed countries industry have experienced the high-carbon period. When the economy evolved to a certain extent, the base level of the LCD increased. And In...
Article
Year 2010 is the significant year of offshore wind power development in China. The first national offshore wind power project is connected to the grid, and the first round of concession projects marks the strong support from central government. It is foreseeable that offshore wind power capacity in China will expand rapidly, and play a notable role...
Article
The paper aimed to analyze the factors of photovoltaic (PV) module price dynamics in Japan and in the United States separately, focusing on the development of domestic manufacture sector, so as to inspire policy designing for PV industry development. The study used the stepwise regression method to create multiple time series models, addressing eco...