Xiaodong Chen

Xiaodong Chen
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | PNNL · Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division

Doctor of Philosophy

About

42
Publications
9,687
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
786
Citations
Introduction
Xiaodong is an earth scientist at the Land System Modeling Team of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). He is currently working on regional climate simulations, hydroclimate extreme events and the applications of machine learning. He got his Ph.D. degree from the University of Washington in 2017. For more information, please visit the personal website at https://www.xiaodongchen.com/
Additional affiliations
February 2021 - present
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Position
  • Researcher
March 2018 - January 2021
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2011 - December 2017
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Full-text available
The safety of large and aging water infrastructures is gaining attention in water management given the accelerated rate of change in landscape, climate and society. In current engineering practice, such safety is ensured by the design of infrastructure for the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). Recently, several numerical modeling approaches hav...
Article
Full-text available
We quantified the relationship between atmospheric rivers (ARs) and occurrence and magnitude of extreme precipitation in western United States watersheds, using ARs identified by the Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project and precipitation from a high‐resolution regional climate simulation. Our analysis shows the potential of ARs...
Article
Full-text available
The safety of critical water infrastructures such as dams that are upstream of population centers and aging is gaining attention due to rapid change to landscape, climate and society. In general, Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is used in the design to ensure public safety of such critical water infrastructures. We demonstrate an approach wher...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can significantly modulate surface hydrological processes through the extreme precipitation they produce. However, there is a lack of comprehensive evaluation of ARs’ impact on surface hydrology. This study uses a high‐resolution regional climate simulation to quantify the impact of ARs on surface hydrological processes acr...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a crucial role in the hydroclimate of the U.S. west coast. While the impact of large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns on ARs is well recognized, the specific roles of local SST on ARs have not been systematically investigated. This study analyzed the landfalling ARs from two regional climate simulations tha...
Article
Full-text available
Hailstones and extreme precipitation generate substantial economic losses across the United States (US) and the globe. Their strong association with short‐lived, intense convective storms poses a great challenge in predicting their future changes. Here, we conducted model simulations at 1.2 km grid spacing for severe convective storms with large ha...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Changes of river floods under a changing climate are of worldwide concerns, but relevant knowledge is still limited especially over East Asian monsoon region. Changes in dates of flood peak occurrences are preferably investigated to understand how climate change affects river floods. This is because flood peak timing, compare...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting how regional precipitation will respond to future warming is among the most challenging undertaking in climate change projection. Despite sustained efforts to improve modeling and understanding of precipitation, the overall uncertainty in projecting regional precipitation has not been reduced substantially. Here, the potential for more r...
Article
Full-text available
California has experienced more wildfires in recent years, resulting in huge economic losses and threatening human health. Clarifying the meteorological environments of wildfires is foundational to improving the understanding and prediction of wildfires and their impacts. Here, 1,535 California wildfires during 1984–2017 are systematically investig...
Article
Full-text available
Sea surface temperature (SST) significantly modulates the precipitation and temperature over land, with important consequences on land surface processes such as snowpack. Compared to the impact of remote SST, the effect of nearshore/local SST is less well understood. In this study, the impact of local SST on the mountain snowpack of the U.S. west c...
Article
Full-text available
National and international security communities (e.g., U.S. Department of Defense) have shown increasing attention for innovating critical infrastructure and installations due to recurring high-profile flooding events in recent years. The standard infrastructure design approach relies on local precipitation-based intensity-duration-frequency (PREC-...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates and compares soil moisture and hydrology projections of broadly used land models with permafrost processes and highlights the causes and impacts of permafrost zone soil moisture projections. Climate models project warmer temperatures and increases in precipitation (P) which will intensify evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff i...
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the past century, numerous water infrastructures have been built to serve the water-related need of people worldwide (Mitchell, 1990). Those larger ones often serve multiple purposes, such as agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and flooding control. Failure of such high-hazard dams, especially those with flooding control purposes, would bring...
Chapter
Over the past 100 years, numerous water management infrastructures have been constructed to serve the water-related needs of people worldwide (Mitchell 1990). The larger ones are typically reservoirs with a dam and are often built for multiple purposes (e.g., water supply, disaster control, energy production, recreation, and navigation). These larg...
Chapter
Intense storms, or extreme rainfall events as they shall be called in this chapter hereafter, pose challenges to infrastructure management and design, and trigger other catastrophic events such as floods, landslides, and dam failures. They are also the cornerstone of engineering design and risk assessment of large infrastructures such as dams, leve...
Article
Full-text available
Snowpack accumulation/ablation affects the runoff response to precipitation by modulating the water flux reaching the surface. Previous studies focused on “rain‐on‐snow” events. Here we propose a framework to extend the scope and classify precipitation events accompanied by snow accumulation/ablation (precipitation‐and‐snow, or PAS events) into fiv...
Article
The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) code was parallelized for distributed memory computers using the Global Arrays (GA) programming model. To analyze parallel performance, DHSVM was used to simulate the hydrology in two river basins of significant size located in the northwest continental United States and southwest Canada at 90...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates and compares soil moisture and hydrology projections of broadly-used land models with permafrost processes and highlights the causes and impacts of permafrost zone soil moisture projections. Climate models project warmer temperatures and increases in precipitation (P) which will intensify evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff i...
Article
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow, elongated corridors of high water vapor content transported from tropical and/or extratropical cyclones. We characterize precipitation and snow water equivalent associated with ARs intersecting the western U.S. coast during the cold season (November- March) of water years 1949- 2015. For each AR landfalling date...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme precipitation events bring huge societal and economic loss around the world every year, and they have undergone spatially heterogeneous changes in the past half-century. They are fundamental to probable maximum precipitation (PMP) estimation in engineering practice, making it important to understand how extreme storm magnitudes are related...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a numerical modeling framework for simulating extreme storm events was established using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Such a framework is necessary for the derivation of engineering parameters such as probable maximum precipitation that are the cornerstone of large water-management infrastructure design. Here, th...
Article
Realistic projection of future climate-carbon (C) cycle feedbacks requires better understanding and an improved representation of the C cycle in permafrost regions in the current generation of Earth system models. Here, we evaluated 10 terrestrial ecosystem models for their estimates of net primary productivity (NPP) and responses to historical cli...
Article
Full-text available
A realistic simulation of snow cover and its thermal properties are important for accurate modelling of permafrost. We analyse simulated relationships between air and near-surface (20 cm) soil temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region during winter, with a particular focus on snow insulation effects in nine land surface models, and...
Article
Full-text available
Historical extreme storm events are widely used to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates, which form the cornerstone of large water management infrastructure safety. Past studies suggest that extreme precipitation processes can be sensitive to land surface feedback and the planetary warming trend, which makes the future safety of larg...
Article
A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model...
Article
Full-text available
Forum papers are thought-provoking opinion pieces or essays founded in fact, sometimes containing speculation, on a civil engineering topic of general interest and relevance to the readership of the journal. The views expressed in this Forum article do not necessarily reflect the views of ASCE or the Editorial Board of the journal.
Article
Growing population and increased demand for water is causing an increase in dam and reservoir construction in developing nations. When rivers cross international boundaries, the downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multisensor preci...
Article
Full-text available
A realistic simulation of snow cover and its thermal properties are important for accurate modelling of permafrost. We analyze simulated relationships between air and near-surface (20 cm) soil temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region during winter, with a particular focus on snow insulation effects in nine land surface models and c...
Article
Soil temperature (Ts/change is a key indicator of the dynamics of permafrost. On seasonal and interannual timescales, the variability of Ts determines the activelayer depth, which regulates hydrological soil properties and biogeochemical processes. On the multi-decadal scale, increasing Ts not only drives permafrost thaw/retreat but can also trigge...
Article
Full-text available
We present an approach to estimate the feedback from large-scale thawing of permafrost soils using a simplified, data-constrained model that combines three elements: soil carbon (C) maps and profiles to identify the distribution and type of C in permafrost soils; incubation experiments to quantify the rates of C lost after thaw; and models of soil...
Article
Full-text available
Climate factors including soil temperature and moisture, incident solar radiation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are important environmental controls on methane (CH4) emissions from northern wetlands. We investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of the influence of these factors on northern high-latitude wetland CH4 emissions usi...
Article
Full-text available
This study asks the question of whether GCMs are ready to be operationalized for streamflow forecasting in South Asian river basins, and if so, at what temporal scales and for which water management decisions are they likely to be relevant? The authors focused on the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna basins for which there is a gridded hydrologic mod...
Data
Full-text available
A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO 2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary produ...
Article
Full-text available
A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary produc...
Article
Full-text available
Climate factors including soil temperature and moisture, incident solar radiation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are important environmental controls on methane (CH4) emissions from northern wetlands. We investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of the influence of these factors on northern high latitude wetland CH4 emissions usi...
Article
Full-text available
Soil temperature (Ts) change is a key indicator of the dynamics of permafrost. On seasonal and inter-annual time scales, the variability of Ts determines the active layer depth, which regulates hydrological soil properties and biogeochemical processes. On the multi-decadal scale, increasing Ts not only drives permafrost thaw/retreat, but can also t...
Article
Full-text available
We used a process-based model to examine the role of spatial heterogeneity of surface and sub-surface water on the carbon budget of the wetlands of the West Siberian Lowland over the period 1948-2010. We found that, while surface heterogeneity (fractional saturated area) had little overall effect on estimates of the region's carbon fluxes, sub-surf...
Article
Large uncertainties exist in estimates of global lake and wetland methane emission rates, due in part to their large spatial and temporal heterogeneity and also due to the sparseness of in situ observations. This is especially true of lakes and inundated wetlands, for which ebullition is a major methane pathway. Here we use a large-scale coupled l...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Archived project
This study aims to develop a physics-based approach to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimation, which is crucial to large water management infrastructures. The potential impact of current and future climate forcings such as land use change and planetary warming will be investigated using an ensemble approach. The overall goal of the study is to modernize current engineering practice of PMP estimation and to quantify the failure risk of large water management infrastructures for current and future climate scenarios.