Xiao Qin

Xiao Qin
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | UWM · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

About

70
Publications
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587
Citations

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
In South Korea, one of the leading causes of motor vehicle crashes occurring at road tunnel entrances is speeding or failure to maintain a safe distance, especially during adverse weather conditions. The South Korean government released a strategic plan to address this issue through weather-responsive speed limit adjustments at tunnel entrances. Th...
Poster
Full-text available
ABSTRACT To better understand the reasons behind crashes and to comply with the Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) 5TH Edition, Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) replaced the old version of the motor vehicle crash report form (MV4000) in 2017 with a new form (DT4000) that provides more relevant and complete information throu...
Article
Work zone safety management and research relies heavily on the quality of work zone crash data. However, it is possible that a police officer may misclassify a crash in structured data due to: restrictive options in the crash report; a lack of understanding about their importance; lack of time due to police officers’ work load; and ignorance of wor...
Article
Freeway tunnel strikes by motor vehicles inflict serious damages to the infrastructure, cause personal injuries, and create traffic congestions. Freeway tunnel hits are a constant threat in South Korea due to its mostly mountainous terrain. Despite efforts by public agencies to include disaster remedial or preventative facilities in the development...
Article
Multi-use trails are popular for transportation and recreation, but pedestrians and bicyclists are exposed to motor vehicle traffic at trail crossings (locations where trails cross roadways), creating the risk of crashes, injuries, and fatalities. Many trail crossing design guidelines suggest best practices to make trail crossings safe, but few stu...
Chapter
Spatial analysis of crash data is to study the distribution of crash locations to identify the spatial patterns and their underlying causes. Spatial association indicators such as Getis G and Moran's I can measure the clustering of crash attributes of a set of geographic features at a global or a local scale. Kernel density estimation, Ripley's k-f...
Chapter
Cross-sectional and panel (or longitudinal) studies are two types of observational studies that assess exposure and the outcome at one point or a short period of time in a sample population. These studies cannot be used to infer causality because data do not include information on confounding factors and other variables that affect the relationship...
Chapter
The crash-severity model is to use the statistical methods for identifying factors that are significantly associated with the consequence of a traffic crash, and their relationships. The response variable is the person who sustains the most severe injury in a crash in the KABCO scale (i.e., killed, incapacitating injury, nonincapacitating injury, p...
Chapter
The exploratory analysis of data is the first important step in any research study. The main objective of conducting exploratory analyses is to achieve maximum insights into the data by employing a variety of techniques. Typically, these techniques are employed before building a statistical model or conducting more advanced analyses. Exploratory da...
Chapter
For any transportation agency, safety is considered a priority and, thus, transportation agencies should routinely evaluate the safety risk of the transport network to identify sites for further investigation and implementing potential treatments. The important assumption is that the adverse roadway design or operational characteristics play a vita...
Chapter
Crashes are very complex and multidimensional events. They can be analyzed from the perspective of driver, roadway environment, and vehicle. They can also be analyzed from the perspective of mathematical equations. Various types of data can be collected for analyzing crash data. They include crash, traffic flow, roadway characteristics, vehicle occ...
Chapter
Before–after studies are frequently used for assessing the safety impacts of various interventions. Although these studies have a better control over the within-observation variance, they can be affected by the regression-to-the-mean and site selection biases. Several types of methods have been proposed. They include the simple or naïve method, the...
Chapter
The challenges associated with crash-based analyses offer the opportunities for surrogate safety analysis. Safety measures have been developed from and around the surrogate events that are related to and are more frequently observed than crashes, such as traffic conflicts, near misses. Most measures are based on the proximal of time or location bet...
Chapter
A crash occurs as a result of driver behavior in the traffic stream. Studying the driver's car-following behavior, modeling the relationships between crashes and traffic volume, and mapping crash typologies to a variety of traffic conditions are instrumental in discovering the underlying process of crash occurrence. When the relationships between c...
Chapter
The crash-frequency model is to use statistical methods for identifying factors that are significantly associated with the consequence of a traffic crash, and their relationships. The response variable is the number of crashes, vehicle occupants, road-users, or similar entities. The models can be used for establishing relationships between the resp...
Chapter
The application of data mining and machine learning techniques in the highway safety analysis has boomed, resulting from the new and emerging data sources, powerful algorithms, handy software applications, and comparable or superior performance in crash prediction. The broad selection of techniques ranging from exploratory data analysis such as ass...
Article
Air ambulance has a huge advantage over the ground transport in providing rapid medical access to remote areas, shortening transport time, and improving survival rate. However, one of the hurdles to expanding air service coverage is the limited heliports for landing. This study aims to quantitatively assess the impact of adding school playgrounds a...
Article
The purpose of this study is twofold: to assess prehospital emergency medical service performance and to improve the traffic crash survival rate on Korean freeways. To achieve these objectives, this study utilized a logit regression model to predict the likelihood of a severe crash in every Korean administrative district at the local level and comp...
Article
Full-text available
Unsafe driving behaviors, driver limitations, and conditions that lead to a crash are usually referred to as driver errors. Even though driver errors are widely cited as a critical reason for crash occurrence in crash reports and safety literature, the discussion on their consequences is limited. This study aims to quantify the effect of driver err...
Article
Traffic volume prediction plays a critical role in transportation system and infrastructure management. This paper develops the first application of an unobserved component model (UCM) for monthly traffic volume forecasting. We compare the UCM model with simple linear regression, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), support vector mach...
Article
Full-text available
Fog is one of the most influential factors in fatal crashes because of reduced visibility. This study aims to propose a systematic safety analysis framework for selecting fog-crash-prone areas on freeways. To achieve these goals, the spatial analysis in ArcGIS was combined with the latent class cluster-based crash severity estimation models. Nine l...
Article
The south korea transportation safety authority (KTSA) conducts the special traffic safety culture investigation (STSCI) every year to assist local governments in promoting traffic safety. To address the issue of diversity, the local agencies were grouped into four regions by administrative district unit and offered region-specific safety promotion...
Article
Contraflow left-turn lane (CLL) design has been increasingly used in China to help relieve traffic congestion associated with left-turning vehicles at signalized intersections. With the CLL design, one or multiple left-turn lanes are setup in the opposing through lanes adjacent to the median. The basic idea of the CLL design is to provide additiona...
Article
Archived data management systems (ADMS) are extensively used for storing historical traffic data (e.g., volume, speed, occupancy) collected from traffic sensors. Archived traffic data have important uses for engineering and planning applications such as ramp meter timing, work zone planning, and performance management. They are also an important da...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian and bicycle crashes have been increasing at an alarming pace in recent years. Between 2009 and 2016, annual U.S. pedestrian fatalities increased 46%, and bicyclist fatalities increased 34%. Crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists, or vulnerable road users (VRUs), are negatively correlated with roadway factors, and positively correla...
Article
Full-text available
The accuracy and reliability in predicting short-term traffic flow is important. The K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) approach has been widely used as a nonparametric model for traffic flow prediction. However, the reliability of the K-NN model results is unknown and the uncertainty of traffic flow point prediction needs to be quantified. To this end, we...
Article
Lane changes are particularly frequent on urban streets, which not only impact traffic operations, but also cause negative effects on safety. This study uses vehicle trajectory data collected from Southwest Road in Dalian, China, to investigate the influential factors of discretionary lane changing in an urban road environment. Both the standard lo...
Article
As the most important real-time traveler information, travel time can be either experienced or expected (i.e. to be experienced). When a vehicle completes a trip, the travel time refers to the experienced travel time. In contrast, when a vehicle starts its journey, the travel time is unknown but can be predicted, which is the expected travel time....
Article
Full-text available
Travel time distribution studies are fundamental for supporting transportation system reliability studies, particularly for urban road networks. However, such studies are generally based on travel time data sets with limited sample sizes, which provide inconsistent findings. In this paper, a large amount of travel time data collected from the emerg...
Article
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are acute services provided outside of the hospital. EMS are crucial in rural environments where hospitals are often far away and difficult to access. Establishing EMS performance measures is critical in improving a rural community's access to these services and eliminating systemic inequalities. However, an absence...
Article
The aim of this research was to investigate the performance of simulated traffic data for real-time crash prediction when loop detector stations are distant from the actual crash location. Nearly all contemporary real-time crash prediction models use traffic data from physical detector stations; however, the distance between a crash location and it...
Article
Full-text available
A significant portion of crashes occurred on highway segments, with more than 90% of crashes associated with driving errors. To avoid a crash, a driver needs to detect a hazard, decide the safest driving maneuvers, and execute them properly. Driver errors at any of these sequential phases may lead to a crash; therefore, it is necessary to identify...
Article
Approximately 35,000 fatalities are attributed to accidents on U.S. highways each year and more than half of them occurred in rural areas. With such a high percentage of fatalities, rural areas are in critical need of timely and reliable Emergency Medical Services (EMS). EMS provide important prehospital care to victims before they are transferred...
Article
Emerging data sources such as Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) provide a great opportunity to gain a better understanding of collision mechanisms and to develop novel safety metrics. The SPMD program was a comprehensive data collection effort under real-world conditions in Ann Arbor, Michigan, covering over 73 lane-miles and including approxima...
Article
Full-text available
Improving driver yielding to pedestrians at crosswalks may help prevent pedestrian fatalities, which have increased over the last decade in the United States. The level of assertiveness exhibited by pedestrians when they arrive at a crosswalk may have a significant impact on driver yielding behavior, but assertiveness is not defined clearly or stud...
Article
One of the most common circumstances contributing to pedestrian crashes is drivers failing to yield to pedestrians in crosswalks. A better understanding of driver yielding behavior can help identify optimal safety treatments to improve driver yielding and prevent pedestrian injuries and fatalities. Recognizing this need, this study observed driver...
Article
A crash prediction and prevention method was proposed to detect imminent crash risk and help recommend traffic control strategies to prevent crashes. The method consists of two modules, the crash prediction module and the crash prevention module. The crash prediction module detects crash-prone conditions when the predicted crash probability exceeds...
Article
Full-text available
The existence of preponderant zero crash sites and/or sites with large crash counts can present challenges during the statistical analysis of crash count data. Additionally, unobserved heterogeneity in crash data due to the absence of important variables could negatively impact the estimated model parameters. The traditional negative binomial (NB)...
Article
Transportation agencies rely on the Highway Safety Manual's (HSM) scientific predictive procedures to quantify road safety; however, the HSM methods may not be accurate for use by local jurisdictions. This study used data from rural two-lane, two-way intersections in South Dakota to compare jurisdiction-specific safety performance functions (SPFs)...
Article
A pavement management system (PMS) can assist decision makers in finding optimum strategies for maintaining pavements; however, local agencies in small communities often face implementation challenges, such as a limited budget, lack of manpower and technical resources, and insufficient and inaccurate data. The available literature focuses on the ge...
Article
This study aims to investigate the relationship between the real-time traffic factors and the lane-change related crashes in a lane-specific manner. In the lane-change maneuver leading to a lane-change related crash, there are two related lanes, i.e. the subject lane and the target lane. For the vehicle which changes lanes, the initial lane is call...
Article
Travelers around the world are concerned with choosing not only the quickest route from one point to another but also the safest route. Traffic safety has always been a major public concern, and traffic safety performance should be constantly evaluated so that both reactive and proactive countermeasures can help reduce crashes. This study developed...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this study, a complete pavement management system (PMS) was created and implemented in Madison, SD. The system consists of a street geodatabase, development of pavement performance models and maintenance & rehabilitation (M&R) plans. The PMS database includes an accurate road GIS map and information pertinent to pavement such as street inventory...
Article
A collision between a truck and an overpass bridge on an interstate highway is rare but can be catastrophic, especially if the bridge involved was designed and built in the early interstate highway era. Such collisions highlight the importance of developing a systematic and scientific method for evaluating at-risk bridges. The findings of this rese...
Article
The objective of a study was to examine the systemwide effects of prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) resources quantitatively on crash outcomes throughout the entire South Korean freeway system. Latent class cluster and binomial probit regression models were combined to achieve this objective. In the cluster-based binomial probit regressi...
Article
Full-text available
Performance-based safety goals and objectives are more attainable with the use of the Highway Safety Manual (HSM). However, the safety performance functions (SPFs) in the HSM may not be accurate when used with local jurisdictions. Each SPF and crash modification factor (CMF) assume a set of base site conditions that might not be realistic or repres...
Article
A challenge in modeling crash frequency is an excess of sites with no crashes, few sites with a large number of crashes, or both. When there are excess zeros in the data or when the variance of the response is greater than the mean, the data are overdispersed. Recently, a few promising modeling techniques, such as the negative binomial-Lindley (NB-...
Article
The variable approach lane (VAL) at an isolated signalized intersection is an effective way to handle the variation of arrival traffic at intersection approaches by reallocating the space resource according to the time varying demand volumes. This study developed a model that simultaneously optimizes VAL use and signal timings, with the objective o...
Article
A large portion of crashes occur at intersections, and most such crashes are associated with driver mistakes. Severe mistakes may lead to serious injuries; therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that contribute to driver error and how those factors influence driver behavior. More information on these contributing factors can help res...
Article
Unintentional mortality rates attributed to disease, fertility, and motor vehicle crashes are higher in rural areas than in urban areas because of the more limited nature of emergency medical services (EMS), hospitals, and the highway network connecting them. For rural states with long travel distances that result from the sparsely distributed popu...
Article
This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smartphones and other portable personal devices that integrate global positioning systems (GPS), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and advanced computing technologies have become more accessible due to affordable price, product innovation, and people’s desire to be connected. As more people own these devices, there are greater opportunities for data acqu...
Article
Increased freight activities on Interstate highways escalate the risk of collision between trucks and overpass bridges. Although such events are rare, the consequences of such a collision may be catastrophic. Many overpass bridges were designed and constructed in the early years of development of the Interstate highway system and therefore did not...
Article
Injury severity and vehicle damage are two of the main indicators of the level of crash severity. Other factors, such as driver characteristics, roadway conditions, highway geometry, environmental factors, vehicle type, and roadside objects, may also be directly or indirectly related to crash severity. All these factors interact in such complicated...
Article
The growth of motorcycle fatalities in California has been especially prominent, specifically with regard to the 24 and under age group and those aged 45-54. This research quantitatively examined factors associated with motorcyclist fatalities and assessed strategies that could improve motorcyclist safety, specifically focusing on the two age group...
Article
Road weather safety audits (RWSA) emphasizes weather influences on highway safety. The objective is to develop pragmatic road weather safety audit processes, procedures, and methodologies. The improvements recommended by the audit can usually be implemented at a cost that is marginal compared to the benefits achieved from the resulting reduction in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interchange ramp terminals are important parts of the highway system. However, crashes that occur at ramp terminals are not well researched. Additionally, very few research efforts have developed safety performance functions for interchange ramp terminals. This research collected data from six none-frontage-road diamond interchanges in Madison, Wis...
Article
Adverse weather has a major safety impact on travelers on highways. Weather events and their impact on highways can be viewed as predictable, non-recurring incidents that display strong geographic patterns. This study attempts to address the Wisconsin counties with high crash relative risk (RR) under various inclement weather conditions such as sno...
Article
A critical part of any risk assessment is identifying how to represent exposure to the risk involved. Recent research shows that the relationship between crash count and traffic volume is non-linear; consequently, a simple crash rate computed as the ratio of crash count to volume is not proper for comparing the safety of sites with different traffi...
Article
"Pedestrian exposure" is defined as the exposure risk of pedestrians to collisions with motor vehicles. It is one of the important factors influencing pedestrian crashes. Because pedestrian exposure or even pedestrian volume counts are not readily available, population density is usually used as a substitute in pedestrian crash prediction models. U...
Article
This research addresses the problem of modeling time-dependent traffic flow with real-time traffic sensor data for the purpose of online traffic estimation and prediction to support ATMS/ATIS in an urban transportation network. The fundamental objectives of this study are to formulate and develop a dynamic traffic flow model driven by real-world ob...

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