Xiankun Zeng

Xiankun Zeng
United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases | USAMRIID · Pathology Division

Doctor of Philosophy

About

124
Publications
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Publications

Publications (124)
Article
Full-text available
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an important human pathogen. In cell culture, CCHFV is sensed by the cytoplasmic RNA sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) molecule and its adaptor molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein. MAVS initiates both type I interferon (IFN-I) and proinflammatory responses. Here, we...
Preprint
Background Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can result in birth defects, including malformations in the fetal brain and visual system. There are two distinct genetic lineages of ZIKV: African and Asian. Asian lineage ZIKVs have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans; however, recent evidence from experimental models suggest...
Article
Full-text available
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is mosquito-borne virus that produces fatal encephalitis in humans. We recently conducted a first of its kind study to investigate EEEV clinical disease course following aerosol challenge in a cynomolgus macaque model utilizing the state-of-the-art telemetry to measure critical physiological parameters. Here...
Preprint
Countermeasures against Zika virus (ZIKV), including vaccines, are frequently tested in nonhuman primates (NHP). Macaque models are important for understanding how ZIKV infections impact human pregnancy due to similarities in placental development. The lack of consistent adverse pregnancy outcomes in ZIKV-affected pregnancies poses a challenge in m...
Article
Full-text available
Disease associated with Nipah virus infection causes a devastating and often fatal spectrum of syndromes predominated by both respiratory and neurologic conditions. Additionally, neurologic sequelae may manifest months to years later after virus exposure or apparent recovery. In the two decades since this disease emerged, much work has been complet...
Article
Full-text available
Effective therapeutics have been developed against acute Ebola virus disease (EVD) in both humans and experimentally infected nonhuman primates. However, the risk of viral persistence and associated disease recrudescence in survivors receiving these therapeutics remains unclear. In contrast to rhesus macaques that survived Ebola virus (EBOV) exposu...
Article
The rapid emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a global health emergency. While most human disease is mild to moderate, some infections lead to a severe disease characterized by acute respiratory distress, hypoxia, anosmia, ageusia, and, in some instances, neurological involvement. Small-animal model...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants stresses the continued need for next-generation vaccines that confer broad protection against coronavirus disease 2019. We developed and evaluated an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 spike ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine in nonhuman primates. High-dose (50-μg) SpFN vac...
Article
Full-text available
A worldwide effort to counter the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in hundreds of candidate vaccines moving through various stages of research and development, including several vaccines in phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials. A relatively small number of these vaccines have been evaluated in SARS-CoV-2 disease models, and fewer in a severe disease mode...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) requires adequate coverage of vaccine protection. We evaluated whether a SARS-CoV-2 spike ferritin nanoparticle vaccine (SpFN), adjuvanted with the Army Liposomal Formulation QS21 (ALFQ), conferred protection against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), and Beta (B.1.351) VOCs in Syrian golden hamsters. SpFN-AL...
Article
Full-text available
Efficacious therapeutics for Ebola virus disease are in great demand. Ebola virus infections mediated by mucosal exposure, and aerosolization in particular, present a novel challenge due to nontypical massive early infection of respiratory lymphoid tissues. We performed a randomized and blinded study to compare outcomes from vehicle-treated and rem...
Article
Full-text available
Emergence of novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for next-generation vaccines able to elicit broad and durable immunity. Here we report the evaluation of a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RFN) adjuvanted with Arm...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Findings from autopsies have provided evidence on systemic microvascular damage as one of the underlying mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19). The aim of this study was to correlate autopsy-based cause of death in SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients with chest imaging...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) requires adequate coverage of vaccine protection. We evaluated whether a spike ferritin nanoparticle vaccine (SpFN), adjuvanted with the Army Liposomal Formulation QS21 (ALFQ), conferred protection against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 VOCs in Syrian golden hamsters. SpFN-ALFQ was administered as eith...
Article
Following the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas, ZIKV was causally associated with microcephaly and a range of neurological and developmental symptoms, termed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). The viruses responsible for this outbreak belonged to the Asian lineage of ZIKV. However, in-vitro and in-vivo studies assessing the pathogenesis of A...
Article
Full-text available
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) and is primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes; however, ZIKV can also be sexually transmitted. During the initial epidemic and in places where ZIKV is now considered endemic, it is difficult to disentangle the risks and contributions of sexual versus vector-borne transmission to a...
Article
SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and human infections have resulted in a global health emergency. Small animal models that reproduce key elements of SARS-CoV-2 human infections are needed to rigorously screen candidate drugs to mitigate severe disease and prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We and others have reported that transgenic mic...
Preprint
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the need for animal models that faithfully recapitulate the salient features of COVID-19 disease in humans; these models are necessary for the rapid down-selection, testing, and evaluation of medical countermeasures. Here we performed a direct comparison of two distinct routes of SARS-CoV-2 expos...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emergence of novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for next-generation vaccines able to elicit broad and durable immunity. Here we report the evaluation of a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RFN) adjuvanted with Arm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) and is primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes; however, ZIKV can also be sexually transmitted. During the initial epidemic and in places where ZIKV is now considered endemic, it is difficult to disentangle the risks and contributions of sexual versus vector-borne transmission to a...
Article
Burkholderia mallei is a gram-negative obligate animal pathogen that causes glanders, a highly contagious and potentially fatal disease of solipeds including horses, mules, and donkeys. Humans are also susceptible, and exposure can result in a wide range of clinical forms, i.e., subclinical infection, chronic forms with remission and exacerbation,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants stresses the continued need for next-generation vaccines that confer broad protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed and evaluated an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 Spike Ferritin Nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Hi...
Article
Full-text available
Airborne transmission is predicted to be a prevalent route of human exposure with SARS-CoV-2. Aside from African green monkeys, nonhuman primate models that replicate airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 have not been investigated. A comparative evaluation of COVID-19 in African green monkeys, rhesus macaques, and cynomolgus macaques following airbo...
Article
Full-text available
DNA vaccine evaluation in small animals is hampered by low immunogenicity when the vaccines are delivered using a needle and syringe. To overcome this technical hurdle we tested the possibility that a device developed for human intradermal medicine delivery might be adapted to successfully deliver a DNA vaccine to small animals. Disposable syringe...
Article
Full-text available
Background SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19 disease) can induce systemic vascular involvement contributing to morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 targets epithelial and endothelial cells through the ACE2 receptor. The anatomical involvement of the coronary tree is not explored yet. Methods Cardiac autopsy tissue of the entire coronary tree (main cor...
Article
Background Ebola virus disease (EVD) supportive care strategies are largely guided by retrospective observational research. This study investigated the effect of EVD supportive care algorithms on duration of survival in a controlled nonhuman primate (NHP) model. Methods Fourteen rhesus macaques were challenged intramuscularly (IM) with a target do...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is mosquito-borne virus that produces fatal encephalitis in humans. We recently conducted a first of its kind study to investigate EEEV clinical disease course following aerosol challenge in a cynomolgus macaque model utilizing the state of the art telemetry to measure critical physiological parameters. Foll...
Preprint
Full-text available
A worldwide effort to counter the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in hundreds of candidate vaccines moving through various stages of research and development, including several vaccines in phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials. A relatively small number of these vaccines have been evaluated in SARS-CoV-2 disease models, and fewer in a severe disease mode...
Preprint
Full-text available
DNA vaccine evaluation in small animals is hampered by low immunogenicity when the vaccines are delivered using a needle and syringe. To overcome this technical hurdle we tested the possibility that a device developed for human intradermal medicine delivery might be adapted to successfully deliver a DNA vaccine to small animals. The PharmaJet ® Tro...
Article
Full-text available
Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure results in a spectrum of disease ranging from severe birth defects to delayed onset neurodevelopmental deficits. ZIKV-related neuropathogenesis, predictors of birth defects, and neurodevelopmental deficits are not well defined in people. Here we assess the methodological and statistical feasibility of a congeni...
Article
Syrian hamsters are in use as a model of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Pathology is pronounced in the upper and lower respiratory tract, and disease signs and endpoints include weight loss and viral RNA and/or infectious virus in swabs and organs (e.g., lungs). However, a high dose of virus is needed to produce disease, and the disease resolves rap...
Article
Full-text available
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging human pathogen, endemic in areas of China, Japan, and the Korea (KOR). It is primarily transmitted through infected ticks and can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever disease with case fatality rates as high as 30%. Despite its high virulence and increasing prevalence, molecular a...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has created an international health crisis. Small animal models mirroring SARS-CoV-2 human disease are essential for medical countermeasure (MCM) development. Mice are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to low affinity binding to the murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. Here we evaluated the pathoge...
Article
Although sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is well-documented, the viral reservoir(s) in the male reproductive tract remains uncertain in humans and immune-intact animal models. We evaluated the presence of ZIKV in a rhesus macaque pilot study to determine persistence in semen, assess the impact of infection on sperm functional characteristi...
Article
Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV) are mosquito-borne viruses in the Americas that cause central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans and equids. In this study, we directly characterized the pathogenesis of VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV in cynomolgus macaques following subcutaneous exposure because this rou...
Preprint
Full-text available
Animal models recapitulating human COVID-19 disease, especially with severe disease, are urgently needed to understand pathogenesis and evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we develop novel severe disease animal models for COVID-19 involving disruption of adaptive immunity in Syrian hamsters. Cyclophosphamide (CyP) immunosuppressed o...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has created an international health crisis. Small animal models mirroring SARS-CoV-2 human disease are essential for medical countermeasure (MCM) development. Mice are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to low affinity binding to the murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. Here we evaluated the pathoge...
Preprint
Airborne transmission is predicted to be a prevalent route of human exposure with SARS-CoV-2. Aside from African green monkeys, nonhuman primate models that replicate airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 have not been investigated. A comprehensive and comparative evaluation of COVID-19 in African green monkeys, rhesus macaques, and cynomolgus macaqu...
Preprint
Animal models recapitulating human COVID-19 disease, especially with severe disease, are urgently needed to understand pathogenesis and evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we develop novel severe disease animal models for COVID-19 involving disruption of adaptive immunity in Syrian hamsters. Cyclophosphamide (CyP) immunosuppressed o...
Article
Full-text available
The PALM trial in the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified a statistically significant survival benefit for two monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics in the treatment of acute Ebola virus disease; however, substantial gaps remain in improving the outcomes of acute Ebola virus disease and for the survivors. Ongoing efforts are needed to deve...
Article
Full-text available
Lassa virus (LASV), an arenavirus causing Lassa fever, is endemic to West Africa with up to 300,000 cases and between 5000 and 10,000 deaths per year. Rarely seen in the United States, Lassa virus is a CDC category A biological agent inasmuch deliberate aerosol exposure can have high mortality rates compared to naturally acquired infection. With th...
Article
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The virus rapidly spread globally, resulting in a public-health crisis including more than 3.1 million cases and 224,000 deaths as of May 1, 2020. Here, we describe the identification and ev...
Article
Filoviruses such as Ebola virus continue to pose a substantial health risk to humans. Advances in the sequencing and functional characterization of both pathogen and host genomes have provided a wealth of knowledge to clinicians, epidemiologists and public health responders during outbreaks of high-consequence viral disease. Here, we describe how g...
Article
Full-text available
Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Currently, there are no vaccines for these two diseases. Animal models have been developed to evaluate vaccines and therapeutics. Tissues from infected animals, however, must be fixed in formalin and embed...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The virus rapidly spread globally, resulting in a public-health crisis including more than one million cases and tens of thousands of deaths. Here, we describe the identification and evaluat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and is caused by the Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis is often difficult because of the protean clinical presentation of the disease, and it may mimic other diseases, such as tuberculosis. There are many...
Preprint
Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) is highly expressed in many cancer cells. Synthesizing glutamine by its enzyme function has been found to be important for supporting cancer cell survival and growth under glutamine restriction. However, GLUL′s functions under glutamine sufficient condition still not been uncovered yet. Here we find that GLUL is high...
Article
Full-text available
Background In utero Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes birth defects and neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. We reasoned that a translational macaque model of congenital ZIKV infection could define disease pathophysiology not possible in human clinical studies. Methods We inoculated 5 pregnant rhesus macaques with a Puerto Rican isolate of ZI...
Article
Full-text available
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most medically important tick-borne viral disease of humans and tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide by a bacterial pathogen. These two diseases overlap geographically, however, concurrent infection of CCHF virus (CCHFV) with mycobacterial infection has not been assessed nor has the abil...
Preprint
Full-text available
Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure results in a spectrum of disease ranging from severe birth defects to delayed onset neurodevelopmental deficits. ZIKV-related neuropathogenesis, predictors of birth defects, and neurodevelopmental deficits are not well defined in people. Here we assess the methodological and statistical feasibility of a congeni...
Article
Full-text available
Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes highly lethal henipavirus encephalitis in humans. Survivors develop various neurologic sequelae, including late-onset and relapsing encephalitis, several months up to several years following initial infection. However, the underlying pathology and disease mechanisms of persistent n...
Article
Full-text available
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an important human pathogen. Limited evidence suggests that antibodies can protect humans against lethal CCHFV disease but the protective efficacy of antibodies has never been evaluated in adult animal models. Here, we used adult mice to investigate the protection provided against CCHFV infection by...
Data
Supplemental Table 3. Klebsiella pneumoniae proteins detected using Proteome Discoverer.
Article
Full-text available
The cover image is based on the Original Research An increase in intracellular p62/NBR1 and persistence of Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei in infected mice linked to autophagy deficiency by Kamal U. Saikh et al., DOI: 10.1002/iid3.239.
Article
Full-text available
Bacteria can circumvent the effect of antibiotics by transitioning to a poorly understood physiological state that does not involve conventional genetic elements of resistance. Here we examine antibiotic susceptibility with a Class A β-lactamase+ invasive strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that was isolated from a lethal outbreak within laboratory col...
Data
Figure S1. Stimulation of autophagy with rapamycin treatment followed by B. pseudomallei infection decreased intracellular p62 as well as NBR1 Figure S2. p62 and LC3 increased in spleen cells of mice infected with B. mallei or B. pseudomallei
Article
Full-text available
Ebola virus (EBOV) disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever with a high case-fatality rate in humans. This disease is caused by four members of the filoviral genus Ebolavirus, including EBOV. The natural hosts reservoirs of ebolaviruses remain to be identified. Glycoprotein 2 of reptarenaviruses, known to infect only boa constrictors and pythons, is si...