Xiangdong Zhang

Xiangdong Zhang
University of Alaska Fairbanks · Department of Atmospheric Sciences

PhD
Arctic climate, Arctic-lower latitude linkages, storm/cyclone dynamics, extreme events, water and energy cycle

About

112
Publications
27,767
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5,116
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
3382 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Full-text available
Diurnal variations in clouds and radiation budgets over four subareas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during summer (June–August) are analyzed using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) synoptic 1° (SYN1deg) data from 2000 to 2020. The results show that the total cloud amount decreases from southeast to northwest and is larger durin...
Article
The summertime atmospheric water vapor transport (WVT) of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and surrounding regions is investigated based on the ERA5 reanalysis data during 1990–2019. It is found that the ascending motion on the south of the TP is conducive to the transport of water vapor from the low-latitude monsoon regions to the TP, showing strong WVT a...
Article
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The Arctic climate system is rapidly transitioning into a new regime with a reduction in the extent of sea ice, enhanced mixing in the ocean and atmosphere, and thus enhanced coupling within the ocean–ice–atmosphere system; these physical changes are leading to ecosystem changes in the Arctic Ocean. In this review paper, we assess one of the critic...
Article
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Three striking and impactful extreme cold weather events successively occurred across East Asia and North America during the mid-winter of 2020/21. These events open a new window to detect possible underlying physical processes. The analysis here indicates that the occurrences of the three events resulted from integrated effects of a concurrence of...
Article
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Intense storms have been more frequently observed in the Arctic during recent years, in coincidence with extreme sea ice loss events. However, it is still not fully understood how storms drive such events due to deficient observations and modeling discrepancies. Here we address this problem by analyzing in situ observations acquired during an Arcti...
Article
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Pronounced changes in the Arctic environment add a new potential driver of anomalous weather patterns in midlatitudes that affect billions of people. Recent studies of these Arctic/midlatitude weather linkages, however, state inconsistent conclusions. A source of uncertainty arises from the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. Thermodynamic forcing by...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Arctic climate system is rapidly transitioning into a new regime with a reduction in the extent of sea ice, enhanced mixing in the ocean and atmosphere, and thus enhanced coupling within the ocean-ice-atmosphere system; these physical changes are leading to ecosystem changes in the Arctic Ocean. In this review paper, we assess one of the critic...
Article
Full-text available
Rain cells are the most elementary unit of precipitation system in nature. In this study, fundamental geometric and physical characteristics of rain cells over tropical land and ocean areas are investigated by using 15-yr measurements of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The rain cells are identified with a mi...
Article
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Arctic river discharge increased over the last several decades, conveying heat and freshwater into the Arctic Ocean and likely affecting regional sea ice and the ocean heat budget. However, until now, there have been only limited assessments of riverine heat impacts. Here, we adopted a synthesis of a pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean model and a land surfac...
Article
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Public attention has recently focused on high-impact extreme weather events in midlatitudes that originate in the sub-Arctic. We investigate movements of the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) and related changes in lower atmospheric circulation during the February-March 2018 “Beast from the East” cold winter event that dramatically affected much of...
Article
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Despite the long existence of theoretical studies, few statistical studies of precipitation characteristics on the northern Pacific storm track have been reported due to lack of observation. Using data from GPM DPR and ERA-Interim, we examined the precipitation features of extratropical cyclones in the northern Pacific storm-track region. Extratrop...
Chapter
The scales of dynamical processes in the Arctic atmosphere range from turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) via interactive mesoscale processes, such as orographic flows and Polar lows, to synoptic-scale cyclones, and further to hemispherical-scale circulations characterized by the Polar front jet stream and planetary waves. Specific b...
Article
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The Arctic has warmed more than twice as fast as the global average since the late twentieth century, a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification (AA). Recently, there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical contributions to AA, and progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that link it to midlatitude weather varia...
Article
The Arctic has warmed more than twice as fast as the global average since the late 20th century, a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification (AA). Recently, there have been significant advances in understanding the physical contributions to AA and progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms linking AA to mid-latitude weather variability....
Article
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The change of extreme precipitation with temperature has regional characteristics in the context of global warming. In this study, radiosonde data, co-located rain gauge (RG) observations, and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) products are used to explore the relationship between extreme precipitation intensity and...
Article
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Using the high-resolution global ocean-sea ice model MITgcm-ECCO2, variability and changes of Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait during 1979–2012 are examined. The simulated annual mean ice export is about 3216 km³/year, which is 12.7% of the 34-year averaged Arctic sea ice volume, with the maximum and minimum occurring in 1994/95 and 1984/1...
Article
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The article Impacts of extratropical storm tracks on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait.
Article
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The article Reexamination of Fram Strait sea ice export and its role in recently accelerated Arctic sea ice retreat, written by, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 29 March 2019 without open access.
Article
Here we show that Atlantic windstorms of extreme category in northern winter tend to follow a well-defined route toward the Atlantic sector of Arctic, and that heat and moisture transported by these extreme storms significantly warm the Arctic. A positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) condition and the associated intensified upper-level Atlantic...
Article
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Various temporal and spatial changes have manifested in Arctic storm activities, including the occurrence of the anomalously intense storms in the summers of 2012 and 2016, along with the amplified warming and rapidly decreased sea ice. To detect the variability of and changes in storm activity and understand its role in sea ice changes, we examine...
Article
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Polar amplification-the phenomenon where external radiative forcing produces a larger change in surface temperature at high latitudes than the global average-is a key aspect of anthropogenic climate change, but its causes and consequences are not fully understood. The Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) contribution to the six...
Article
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Studies have indicated regime shifts in atmospheric circulation, and associated changes in extratropical storm tracks and Arctic storm activity, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and cyclone activity on...
Article
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Arctic sea ice exhibits rapid reductions and large fluctuations during recent decades in conjunction with a warming climate. Arctic sea ice shows a prominent seasonal cycle with the maximum extent in spring and the minimum extent in fall. In this study a suite of modeling experiments, which were solely forced with observed time-varying sea-ice conc...
Article
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Previous studies have extensively investigated the impact of Arctic sea ice anomalies on the midlatitude circulation and associated surface climate in winter. However, there is an ongoing scientific debate regarding whether and how sea ice retreat results in the observed cold anomaly over the adjacent continents. We present a robust “cold Siberia”...
Article
Full-text available
Polar amplification – the phenomenon that external radiative forcing produces a larger change in surface temperature at high latitudes than the global average – is a key aspect of anthropogenic climate change, but its causes and consequences are not fully understood. The Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) contribution to the...
Article
Full-text available
In the version of this Letter originally published, the increments on the y axis of Fig. 3 were incorrectly labelled as ‘0.0; 0.2; 0.2; 0.3’; they should have read ‘0.0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3’. This has now been corrected in all versions of the Letter.
Article
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Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi–Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air–ice–sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentrat...
Article
The decline of Arctic sea ice is an integral part of anthropogenic climate change. Sea-ice loss is already having a significant impact on Arctic communities and ecosystems. Its role as a cause of climate changes outside of the Arctic has also attracted much scientific interest. Evidence is mounting that Arctic sea-ice loss can affect weather and cl...
Article
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Poleward atmospheric moisture transport (AMT) into the Arctic Ocean can change atmospheric moisture or water vapor content and cause cloud formation and redistribution, which may change downward longwave radiation and, in turn, surface energy budgets, air temperatures, and sea-ice production and melt. In this study, we found a consistently enhanced...
Article
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The existence and magnitude of the recently suggested global warming hiatus, or slowdown, have been strongly debated1–3. Although various physical processes4–8 have been examined to elucidate this phenomenon, the accuracy and completeness of observational data that comprise global average surface air temperature (SAT) datasets is a concern9,10. In...
Article
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Extratropical cyclone activity over Eurasia has exhibited a weakening trend in the recent decade. Extratropical cyclones bring precipitation and hence supply fresh water for winter crops in the mid- and high-latitude regions of Eurasia. Any changes in extratropical cyclone activity over Eurasia in the future may have a critical impact on winter agr...
Article
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Absract Due to the thinness and small scale of cirrus clouds, its lateral boundary may be missed by conventional passive remote-sensing techniques and climate models. Here, using satellite observations in June–August from 2006 to 2011, a global dataset for the cirrus cloud lateral boundary (CCLB) was established. The results indicate that the optic...
Article
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Intense synoptic-scale storms have been more frequently observed over the Arctic during recent years. Specifically, a superstorm hit the Arctic Ocean in August 2012 and preceded a new record low Arctic sea ice extent. In this study, the major physical processes responsible for the storm's intensification and persistence are explored through a serie...
Article
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Historically, in-situ measurements have been notoriously sparse over the Arctic. As a consequence, the existing gridded data of Surface Air Temperature (SAT) may have large biases in estimating the warming trend in this region. Using data from an expanded monitoring network with 31 stations in the Alaskan Arctic, we demonstrate that the SAT has inc...
Article
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Storm activities have recently exhibited intensification over the Arctic, potentially impacting air-ice-sea interactions and contributing to rapid changes in the Arctic climate and environment. In this study, the spatial and temporal structures and driving mechanisms of a long-lasting storm occurring in September 2010 over the Arctic Ocean have bee...
Article
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In January 2016, the Arctic experienced an extremely anomalous warming event after an extraordinary increase in air temperature at the end of 2015. During this event, a strong intrusion of warm and moist air and an increase in downward longwave radiation, as well as a loss of sea ice in the Barents and Kara seas, were observed. Observational analys...
Article
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The detailed mesoscale climatology of surface winds in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas and adjacent Arctic Slope region is analyzed using the recently developed Chukchi-Beaufort High-Resolution Atmospheric Reanalysis (CBHAR). Within the study area, surface winds are mainly driven by the prevailing synoptic weather patterns of the Beaufort high and Aleuti...
Chapter
Storms generating in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas or traveling to the area play an important role impacting the regional climate and environment. Surface wind associated with storm exerts dynamic forcing, modifying sea ice movements and ocean currents, opening sea ice leads, and redistributing sea ice coverage. In this study, Arctic storms and their i...
Chapter
Global models are the most widely used tools for understanding and assessing climatic variability and changes. However, coarse-resolution limits their capability to capture detailed finer-scale meteorological features, including heterogeneous spatial distributions and high-frequency temporal variability. In this study, the mesoscale Weather Researc...
Article
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A prominent feature of recent climatic change is the strong Arctic surface warming that is contemporaneous with broad cooling over much of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Longer global surface temperature observations suggest that this contrasting pole-to-pole change could be a manifestation of a multi-decadal interhemispheric or bipolar seesaw...
Data
During the last glacial–interglacial cycle, changes in the large-scale North Atlantic ocean circulation occurred, and at the same time topography of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets also varied. In this study, we focus on detecting the changes of the North Atlantic gyres, western boundary current, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circ...
Article
Full-text available
During the last glacial–interglacial cycle, changes in the large-scale North Atlantic ocean circulation occurred, and at the same time topography of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets also varied. In this study, we focus on detecting the changes of the North Atlantic gyres, western boundary current, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circ...
Article
Atmospheric humidity, clouds, precipitation, and evapotranspiration are essential components of the Arctic climate system. During recent decades, specific humidity and precipitation have generally increased in the Arctic, but changes in evapotranspiration are poorly known. Trends in clouds vary depending on the region and season. Climate model expe...
Article
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Successive cold winters of severely low temperatures in recent years have had critical social and economic impacts on the mid-latitude continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Although these cold winters are thought to be partly driven by dramatic losses of Arctic sea-ice, the mechanism that links sea-ice loss to cold winters remains a subject of deb...
Article
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Anticyclonic circulation has intensified over the Arctic Ocean in summer during recent decades. However, the underlying mechanism is, as yet, not well understood. Here, it is shown that earlier spring Eurasian snowmelt leads to anomalously negative sea level pressure (SLP) over Eurasia and positive SLP over the Arctic, which has strong projection o...
Article
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The Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) represents the zonally symmetric planetary-scale atmospheric mass fluctuations between middle and high latitudes, whose variations have shown a large impact on other components of the climate system. Previous studies have indicated that the NAM is correlated with the Ferrel cell in their monthly or longer...
Article
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Meteorological observations from more than 250 stations in the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coastal, interior, and offshore regions were gathered and quality-controlled for the period 1979 through 2009. These stations represent many different observing networks that operate in the region for the purposes of aviation, fire weather, coastal weather, clim...
Conference Paper
Observations and greenhouse-gas-emissions-forced climate change projections have indicated a wetting trend in northern high latitudes and Arctic, evidenced by increasing Eurasian Arctic river discharges. The increase in river discharge has accelerated in the latest decade, and an unprecedented, record-high discharge occurred in 2007 along with an e...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the dominant submonthly variability of zonally symmetrical atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter within the context of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), with particular emphasis on interactive stratosphere-troposphere processes. The submonthly variability is identified and measured using a daily NAM index...
Article
Full-text available
[1] An increased frequency and intensity of winter and spring storms have recently manifested over a broad area of North America—along the east coast of the U.S. especially, though global mean storm tracks are suggested to shift northward. To understand these changes, we have conducted atmospheric model experiments, examining the response of North...
Article
Full-text available
Along with significant changes in the Arctic climate system, the largest year-to-year variation in sea-ice extent (SIE) has occurred in the Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi seas (defined here as the area of focus, AOF), among which the two highly contrasting extreme events were observed in the summers of 2007 and 1996 during the period 1979-2012....
Article
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To achieve a high-quality simulation of the surface wind field in the Chukchi/Beaufort Sea region, quick scatterometer (QuikSCAT) ocean surface winds were assimilated into the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting model by using its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system. The SeaWinds instrument on board the polar-orbiting Quik...
Article
The Beaufort Sea high (BSH) plays an important role in forcing Arctic sea ice and the Beaufort Gyre. This study examines the variability and long-term trends of atmospheric circulation over the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas using the ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) for the period 1979–2012. Because of the mobility of the BSH through the year, E...
Article
Full-text available
Climate projections suggest that an ice-free summer Arctic Ocean is possible within several decades and with this comes the prospect of increased ship traffic and safety concerns. The daily sea ice concentration tendency in five Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations is compared with observations to reveal that many model...
Article
Full-text available
Observations and climate change projections forced by greenhouse gas emissions have indicated a wetting trend in northern high latitudes, evidenced by increasing Eurasian Arctic river discharges. The increase in river discharge has accelerated in the latest decade and an unprecedented, record high discharge occurred in 2007 along with an extreme lo...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme cold winter weather events over Eurasia have occurred more frequently in recent years in spite of a warming global climate. To gain further insight into this regional mismatch with the global mean warming trend, we analyzed winter cyclone and anticyclone activities, and their interplay with the regional atmospheric circulation pattern chara...