Xiang Zhang

Xiang Zhang
Harvard University | Harvard · DBMI

PhD

About

61
Publications
30,959
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805
Citations

Publications

Publications (61)
Preprint
Full-text available
Pre-training on time series poses a unique challenge due to the potential mismatch between pre-training and target domains, such as shifts in temporal dynamics, fast-evolving trends, and long-range and short cyclic effects, which can lead to poor downstream performance. While domain adaptation methods can mitigate these shifts, most methods need ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In many domains, including healthcare, biology, and climate science, time series are irregularly sampled with varying time intervals between successive readouts and different subsets of variables (sensors) observed at different time points. Here, we introduce RAINDROP, a graph neural network that embeds irregularly sampled and multivariate time ser...
Preprint
In many domains, including healthcare, biology, and climate science, time series are irregularly sampled with variable time between successive observations and different subsets of variables (sensors) are observed at different time points, even after alignment to start events. These data create multiple challenges for prevailing models that assume...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse patient safety events, unintended injuries resulting from medical therapy, were associated with 110,000 deaths in the United States in 2019. A nationwide pandemic (such as COVID-19) further challenges the ability of healthcare systems to ensure safe medication use and the pandemic’s effects on safety events remain poorly understood. Here, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is a highly applied measurement for individual heart condition, and much effort have been endeavored towards automatic heart arrhythmia diagnosis based on machine learning. However, traditional machine learning models require large investment of time and effort for raw data preprocessing and feature extraction, as w...
Article
Supply–demand imbalance poses significant challenges to transportation systems such as taxis and shared vehicles (cars and bikes) and leads to excessive delays, income loss, and energy consumption. Accurate prediction of passenger demands is an essential step towards rescheduling resources to resolve the above challenges. However, existing work can...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adverse patient safety events were associated with 110 thousand deaths in the U.S. alone in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic has further challenged the ability of healthcare systems to ensure medication safety, and its effects on patient safety remain unknown. Here, we investigate negative outcomes associated with medication use before and during the pa...
Article
Full-text available
Brain signals refer to the biometric information collected from the human brain. The research on brain signals aims to discover the underlying neurological or physical status of the individuals by signal decoding. The emerging deep learning techniques have improved the study of brain signals significantly in recent years. In this work, we first pre...
Article
Biometric authentication involves various technologies to identify individuals by exploiting their unique, measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics. However, traditional biometric authentication systems (e.g., face recognition, iris, retina, voice, and fingerprint) are at increasing risks of being tricked by biometric tools such as a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deep learning methods for graphs achieve remarkable performance across a variety of domains. However, recent findings indicate that small, unnoticeable perturbations of graph structure can catastrophically reduce performance of even the strongest and most popular Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). Here, we develop GNNGUARD, a general algorithm to defend...
Preprint
Deep learning methods for graphs achieve remarkable performance on many tasks. However, despite the proliferation of such methods and their success, recent findings indicate that small, unnoticeable perturbations of graph structure can catastrophically reduce performance of even the strongest and most popular Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automatic identification of animal species by their vocalization is an important and challenging task. Although many kinds of audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, they suffer from several disadvantages such as non-trivial feature selection, accuracy degradation because of environmental noise or intensive local computation....
Article
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous seizures, which affects about one percent of the worlds population. Most of the current seizure detection approaches strongly rely on patient history records and thus fail in the patient-independent situation of detecting the new patients. To overcome such li...
Article
Automatic identification of animal species by their vocalization is an important and challenging task. Although many kinds of audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, they suffer from several disadvantages such as non-trivial feature selection, accuracy degradation because of environmental noise or intensive local computation....
Chapter
Deep learning algorithms have achieved excellent performance lately in a wide range of fields (e.g., computer version). However, a severe challenge faced by deep learning is the high dependency on hyper-parameters. The algorithm results may fluctuate dramatically under the different configuration of hyper-parameters. Addressing the above issue, thi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Community question answering (CQA) has attracted increasing attention recently due to its potential as a de facto knowledge base. Expert finding in CQA websites also has considerably board applications. Stack Overflow is one of the most popular question answering platforms, which is often utilized by recent studies on the recommendation of the doma...
Article
Unlike all prior work, we investigate the notion of ‛ ${unraveling\ metric\ vector\ spaces}$ ‚, i.e., deriving meaning and low-rank structure from distance or metric space. Our new model bridges two commonly adopted paradigms for recommendations - metric learning approaches and factorization-based models, distinguishing itself accordingly. More co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous seizures, which affects about one percent of the world's population. Most of the current seizure detection approaches strongly rely on patient history records and thus fail in the patient-independent situation of detecting the new patients. To over...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Semi-supervised learning is sought for leveraging the unlabelled data when labelled data is difficult or expensive to acquire. Deep generative models (e.g., Variational Autoencoder (VAE)) and semi-supervised Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently shown promising performance in semi-supervised classification for the excellent discrimin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep learning algorithms have achieved excellent performance lately in a wide range of fields (e.g., computer version). However, a severe challenge faced by deep learning is the high dependency on hyper-parameters. The algorithm results may fluctuate dramatically under the different configuration of hyper-parameters. Addressing the above issue , th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Synthesizing geometrical shapes from human brain activities is an interesting and meaningful but very challenging topic. Recently, the advancements of deep generative models like Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have supported the object generation from neurological signals. However, the Electroencephalograph (EEG)-based shape generation stil...
Preprint
Deep learning algorithms have achieved excellent performance lately in a wide range of fields (e.g., computer version). However, a severe challenge faced by deep learning is the high dependency on hyper-parameters. The algorithm results may fluctuate dramatically under the different configuration of hyper-parameters. Addressing the above issue, thi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) bridges the human's neural world and the outer physical world by decoding individuals' brain signals into commands recognizable by computer devices. Deep learning has enhanced the performance of brain-computer interface systems significantly in recent years. In this article, we systematically investigate brain signal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) bridges human's neural world and the outer physical world by decoding individuals' brain signals into commands recognizable by computer devices. Deep learning has liied the performance of brain-computer interface systems signiicantly in recent years. In this article, we systematically investigate brain signal types fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) bridges the human's neural world and the outer physical world by decoding individuals' brain signals into commands recognizable by computer devices. Deep learning has lifted the performance of brain-computer interface systems significantly in recent years. In this article, we systematically investigate brain signal ty...
Preprint
Full-text available
Semi-supervised learning is sought for leveraging the unlabelled data when labelled data is difficult or expensive to acquire. Deep generative models (e.g., Variational Autoencoder (VAE)) and semisupervised Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently shown promising performance in semi-supervised classification for the excellent discrimina...
Chapter
Full-text available
Generative adversarial networks (GAN)-based approaches have been extensively investigated whereas GAN-inspired regression (i.e., numeric prediction) has rarely been studied in image and video processing domains. The lack of sufficient labeled data in many real-world cases poses great challenges to regression methods, which generally require suffici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Community Question Answering (CQA) websites can be claimed as the most major venues for knowledge sharing, and the most effective way of exchanging knowledge at present. Considering that massive amount of users are participating online and generating huge amount data, management of knowledge here systematically can be challenging. Expert recommenda...
Article
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) acquires brain signals, analyzes and translates them into commands that are relayed to actuation devices for carrying out desired actions. With the widespread connectivity of everyday devices realized by the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT), BCI can empower individuals to directly control objects such as smart...
Preprint
Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are known to manifest differential patterns when individuals visually concentrate on different objects (e.g., a car). In this work, we present an end-to-end digital fabrication system , Brain2Object, to print the 3D object that an individual is observing by solely decoding visually-evoked EEG brain signal stream...
Preprint
In the past decade, matrix factorization has been extensively researched and has become one of the most popular techniques for personalized recommendations. Nevertheless, the dot product adopted in matrix factorization based recommender models does not satisfy the inequality property, which may limit their expressiveness and lead to sub-optimal sol...
Preprint
Full-text available
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) acquires brain signals, analyzes and translates them into commands that are relayed to actuation devices for carrying out desired actions. With the widespread connectivity of everyday devices realized by the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT), BCI can empower individuals to directly control objects such as smart...
Article
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system empowering humans to communicate with or control the outside world with exclusively brain intentions. Electroencephalography (EEG) based BCIs are promising solutions due to their convenient and portable instruments. Despite the extensive research of EEG in recent years, it is still challenging to interpret...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multimodal wearable sensor data classification plays an important role in ubiquitous computing and has a wide range of applications in scenarios from healthcare to entertainment. However, most existing work in this field employs domain-specific approaches and is thus ineffective in complex situations where multi-modality sensor data are collected....
Article
Full-text available
Multimodal wearable sensor data classification plays an important role in ubiquitous computing and has a wide range of applications in scenarios from healthcare to entertainment. However, most existing work in this field employs domain-specific approaches and is thus ineffective in complex sit- uations where multi-modality sensor data are col- lect...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An electroencephalography (EEG) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) enables people to communicate with the outside world by interpreting the EEG signals of their brains to interact with devices such as wheelchairs and intelligent robots. More specifically, motor imagery EEG (MI-EEG), which reflects a subject's active intent, has been attracting in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability of human beings to precisely recognize others intents is a significant mental activity in reasoning about actions, such as, what other people are doing and what they will do next. Recent research has revealed that human intents could be inferred by measuring human cognitive activities through heterogeneous body and brain sensors (e.g.,...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of human beings to precisely recog- nize others intents is a significant mental activity in reasoning about actions, such as, what other people are doing and what they will do next. Recent research has revealed that human intents could be inferred by measuring human cognitive activities through heterogeneous body and brain sensors (e.g....
Article
Electroencephalography (EEG) signals reflect activities on certain brain areas. Effective classification of time-varying EEG signals is still challenging. First, EEG signal processing and feature engineer- ing are time-consuming and highly rely on expert knowledge. In addition, most existing studies focus on domain-specific classifi- cation algorit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) bridges human's neural world and the outer physical world by decoding individuals' brain signals into commands recognizable by computer devices. Deep learning has liied the performance of brain-computer interface systems signiicantly in recent years. In this article, we systematically investigate brain signal types fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system empowering humans to communicate with or control the outside world with exclusively brain intentions. Electroencephalography (EEG) based BCIs are promising solutions due to their convenient and portable instruments. Despite the extensive research of EEG in recent years, it is still challenging to interpret...
Article
Person identification technology recognizes individuals by exploiting their unique, measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics. However, the state-of-the-art person identification systems have been shown to be vulnerable, e.g., contact lenses can trick iris recognition and fingerprint films can deceive fingerprint sensors. EEG (Electro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Person identiication technology recognizes individuals by exploiting their unique, measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics. However, the state-of-the-art person identiication systems have been shown to be vulnerable, e.g., anti-surveillance prosthetic masks can thwart face recognition, contact lenses can trick iris recognition, voco...
Article
Full-text available
Electroencephalography (EEG) signal based intent recognition has recently attracted much attention in both academia and industries , due to helping the elderly or motor-disabled people controlling smart devices to communicate with outer world. However, the utilization of EEG signals is challenged by low accuracy, arduous and time-consuming feature...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An electroencephalography (EEG) based brain activity recognition is a fundamental eld of study for a number of signiicant applications such as intention prediction, appliance control, and neurological disease diagnosis in smart home and smart healthcare domains. Existing techniques mostly focus on binary brain activity recognition for a single pers...
Conference Paper
An electroencephalography (EEG) based brain activity recognition is a fundamental field of study for a number of significant applications such as intention prediction, appliance control, and neurological disease diagnosis in smart home and smart healthcare domains. Existing techniques mostly focus on binary brain activity recognition for a single p...
Conference Paper
Electroencephalography (EEG) signal based intent recognition has recently attracted much attention in both academia and industries, due to helping the elderly or motor-disabled people controlling smart devices to communicate with outer world. However, the utilization of EEG signals is challenged by low accuracy, arduous and time-consuming feature e...
Article
An electroencephalography (EEG) based brain activity recognition is a fundamental field of study for a number of significant applications such as intention prediction, appliance control, and neurological disease diagnosis in smart home and smart healthcare domains. Existing techniques mostly focus on binary brain activity recognition for a single p...
Article
An electroencephalography (EEG) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) enables people to communicate with the outside world by interpreting the EEG signals of their brains to interact with devices such as wheelchairs and intelligent robots. More specifically, motor imagery EEG (MI-EEG), which reflects a subjects active intent, is attracting increasin...
Article
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system empowering humans to communicate with or control the outside world with exclusively brain intentions. Electroencephalography (EEG) based BCIs are promising solutions due to their convenient and portable instruments. Motor imagery EEG (MI-EEG) is a kind of most widely focused EEG signals, which reveals a su...
Article
Full-text available
Biometric authentication involves various technologies to identify individuals by exploiting their unique, measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics. However, biometric authentication systems (e.g., face recognition, iris, retina, voice, and fingerprint) are increasingly facing the risk of being tricked by biometric tools such as anti...
Article
While smart living based on the controls of voices, gestures, mobile phones or the Web has gained momentum from both academia and industries, most of existing methods are not effective in helping the elderly or people with muscle disordered or motor disabilities. Recently, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal based mind control has attracted muc...

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