Xiang Xiao

Xiang Xiao
Shanghai Jiao Tong University | SJTU · S

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192
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Publications

Publications (192)
Article
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Background Prokaryote-virus interactions play key roles in driving biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the drivers shaping their interaction network structures, especially from the host features. Here, we compiled 7656 species-level genomes in 39 prokaryotic phyla across environments globally and explored how their interaction spe...
Preprint
The origin of thermophilic bacteria is essential to our understanding of the early evolution of life. However, due to the lack of deep-branching culturable lineages, many controversies remain. Here, we report a novel deep-branching, sulfur-reducing, thermophilic bacterium that was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent using a newly developed c...
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The Mariana Trench is the deepest oceanic region on earth, its microbial ecological exploration has become feasible with the rapid progress of submersible and metagenomic sequencing. We investigated the community compositions and metabolic functions of the core microbiome along the abyssal-hadal transition zone of the Mariana Trench, although most...
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Mesoscale eddies are common oceanographic processes that can enhance primary productivity by transporting nutrients to the euphotic zone. In the northern South China Sea (SCS), eddies were frequently found to promote the exchange between the nutrient-rich shelf water and the oligotrophic water at the slope area. However, the response of bacterial c...
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High-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene has been successfully applied to explore the microbial structure and dynamics in various environments. The distinctive microbial communities in oceanic trench sediments are expected because of the extremely high pressure and V-shape topology that caused the isolation from the other...
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In the ocean, almost all of the emission and consumption of deeply buried methane occurs in cold seeps; therefore, understanding the methane cycling in cold seeps is crucial to estimating the oceanic methane budget. Cold-seep eruptions often lead to the dramatic destruction of microbial ecosystems that drive methane cycling.
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The spontaneous depurination of genomic DNA occurs frequently and generates apurinic/pyrimidinic (AP) site damage that is mutagenic or lethal to cells. Error-prone DNA polymerases are specifically responsible for the translesion synthesis (TLS) of specific DNA damage, such as AP site damage, generally with relatively low fidelity. The Y-family DNA...
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Bacteroidetes VC2.1 Bac22 (referred to as VC2.1) is an uncultured clade that is widely distributed in marine ecosystems, including hydrothermal vents, oxygen‐minimum zones and other anoxic, sulfide‐rich environments. However, the lack of cultured representatives and sequenced genomes of VC2.1 limit our understanding of its physiology, metabolism an...
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Viruses are ubiquitous in the oceans. Even in the deep sediments of the Mariana Trench, viruses have high productivity. However, little is known about their species composition and survival strategies in that environment. Here, we uncovered novel viral communities (3,206 viral scaffolds) in the upper slope sediments of the Mariana Trench via metage...
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D-amino acids (D-AAs) have been produced both in organisms and in environments via biotic or abiotic processes. However, the existence of these organic materials and associated microbial degradation activity has not been previously investigated in subduction zones where tectonic activities result in the release of hydrothermal organic matter. Here,...
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Phosphorothioate (PT) modification by the dnd gene cluster is the first identified DNA backbone modification and constitute an epigenetic system with multiple functions, including antioxidant ability, restriction modification, and virus resistance. Despite these advantages for hosting dnd systems, they are surprisingly distributed sporadically amon...
Article
Archaea, one of the three domains of life along with Bacteria and Eukarya, contains ancient life forms such as methanogen that are observed today on Earth, and one lineage Asgard archaea is also considered the closest ancestor of Eukarya. Recently, with the development of interdisciplinary studies from Earth and Life sciences, archaeal organisms ar...
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3’-Phosphoadenosine 5’-monophosphate (pAp) is a byproduct of sulfate assimilation and coenzyme A metabolism. pAp can inhibit the activity of 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase and sulfotransferase and regulate gene expression under stress conditions by inhibiting XRN family of exoribonucleases. In metazoans, plants, yeast, and s...
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Methanogens are considered as one of the earliest life forms on Earth, and together with anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea, they have crucial effects on climate stability. However, the origin and evolution of anaerobic alkane metabolism in the domain Archaea remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that methylotrophic methanogenesis was th...
Article
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a common factor in the deep sea and provides an ignorable parameter of consideration in all studies related to deep life. High-temperature environments in the deep sea, mainly including hydrothermal vents and deep sediments in the subseafloor, support enormous amounts of biomass, productivity, and diversity of lif...
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As the most abundant biological entities on the planet, viruses significantly influence the overall functioning of marine ecosystems. The abundance, distribution, and biodiversity of viral communities in the upper ocean have been relatively well studied, but our understanding of viruses in the hadal biosphere remains poor. Here, we established the...
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Full-text available
Methanogens are considered as one of the earliest life forms on Earth, and together with anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea, they have crucial effects on climate stability. Yet, the origin and evolution of anaerobic alkane metabolism in the domain Archaea remain controversial. Here, we show that methanogenesis was already present in the common anc...
Article
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents resemble the early Earth, and thus the dominant Thermococcaceae inhabitants, which occupy an evolutionarily basal position of the archaeal tree and take an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic free-living lifestyle, are likely excellent models to study the evolution of early life. Here, we determined that unbiased mutati...
Preprint
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Hydrothermal vents in the deep sea spew noxious chemicals like hydrogen sulfide at temperatures of up to 750°F, and yet they’re teeming with life. But what happens when these underwater chimneys stop smoking? That’s what researchers exploring vents in the Eastern Pacific set out to discover. The team compared DNA between microbes inhabiting an acti...
Preprint
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Deep sea hydrothermal vents resemble the early Earth ¹ , and thus the dominant Thermococcaceae inhabitants, which occupy an evolutionarily basal position of the archaeal tree 2,3 and take an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic free-living lifestyle ⁴ , are likely excellent models to study the evolution of early life. Here, we determined that unbia...
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Hyperthermophiles, living in environments above 80°C and usually coupling with multi-extreme environmental stresses, have drawn great attention due to their application potential in biotechnology and being the primitive extant forms of life. Studies on their survival and adaptation mechanisms have extended our understanding on how lives thrive unde...
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Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) is the primary process that provides energy to cold seep ecosystems by converting methane into inorganic carbon. Notably, cold seep ecosystems are dominated by highly divergent heterotrophic microorganisms. The role of the AOM process in supporting heterotrophi...
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Shewanella strains are characterized by versatile metabolic capabilities, resulting in their wide distribution in the ocean at different depths. Considering that particle sedimentation is an important dynamic process in the ocean, we hypothesized that hadal Shewanella species evolved from the upper ocean. In this study, we isolated three novel Shew...
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Background: Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are highly productive biodiversity hotspots in the deep ocean supported by chemosynthetic microorganisms. Prominent features of these systems are sulfide chimneys emanating high-temperature hydrothermal fluids. While several studies have investigated the microbial diversity in both active and inactive sulfide...
Article
Viruses, especially bacteriophages are thought to have important functions in the deep-sea ecosystem, but little is known about the induction mechanism of benthic phages towards environmental change. Our prior work characterized a cold-active filamentous phage SW1 which infects the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3; however, the under...
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A Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped, yellow bacterium (strain LMO-1T) was isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Mariana Trench, Challenger Deep. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain LMO-1T belonged to genus Sphingomonas, with the highest sequence similarity to Sphingomonas formosensis CC-Nfb-2T (96.3 %),...
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The bathypelagic zone is a large, dark, cold, high-pressure environment that undergoes extensive material and energy exchanges with the upper ocean and the deep biosphere. Viruses are important parts of the deep ocean, and transportation of surface viruses has been considered as an important source of deep-sea viruses. However, limited information...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are highly productive, yet ephemeral biodiversity hotspots in the deep ocean supported by chemosynthetic microorganisms that play critical roles in the maintenance and development of these extreme ecosystems. While several studies have investigated the microbial diversity in both active and inactive sulfide ch...
Article
Two Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6 were isolated from a deep oceanic basaltic crust at North Pond, located at the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These two strains are capable of using multiple carbon sources such as acetate, succinate, glucose and sucrose while take oxygen as a primary electron acceptor. The strain NP-4 is also able to gr...
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The marine microbial community profoundly influences biogeochemical cycles. On the northern slope of the South China Sea (SCS), a considerable reservoir of mesopelagic fishes that present diurnal vertical movement (DVM) as a diel habit has been discovered. To investigate the microbial community and its potential effects on nutrient conversion in th...
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Methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation through methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) as a key enzyme have been suggested to be basal pathways of archaea ¹ . How widespread MCR-based alkane metabolism is among archaea, where it occurs and how it evolved remain elusive. Here, we performed a global survey of MCR-encoding genomes based on metagenom...
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Anaerobic oxidation of methane greatly contributes to global carbon cycling, yet the anaerobic oxidation of non‐methane alkanes by archaea was only recently detected in lab enrichments. The distribution and activity of these archaea in natural environments are not yet reported and understood. Here, a combination of metagenomic and metatranscriptomi...
Article
SW1 is the first filamentous phage isolated from a deep-sea environment. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the SW1 genetic switch is controlled is largely unknown. In this study, the function of the phage-encoded FpsR protein was characterized by molecular biological and biochemical analyses. The deletion of fpsR increased the copy number of SW1...
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Endonuclease IV (EndoIV) is a DNA damage-specific endonuclease that mainly hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond located at 5′ of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in DNA. EndoIV also possesses 3′-exonuclease activity for removing 3′-blocking groups and normal nucleotides. Here, we report that Thermococcus eurythermalis EndoIV (TeuendoIV) shows AP en...
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Shewanella species are widely distributed in marine environments, from the shallow coasts to the deepest sea bottom. Most Shewanella species possess two isoforms of periplasmic nitrate reductases (NAP-α and NAP-β) and are able to generate energy through nitrate reduction. However, the contributions of the two NAP systems to bacterial deep-sea adapt...
Article
Genetic manipulations in hyperthermophiles have been studied for over 20 years. However, the extremely high temperatures under which these organisms grow have limited the development of genetic tools. In this study, an HHP-inducible promoter was used to control the expression of a toxin. Compared to sugar-inducible and cold-shock-inducible promoter...
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Nucleases play important roles in nucleic acid metabolism. Some archaea encode a conserved protein known as Hef-associated nuclease (HAN). In addition to its C-terminal DHH nuclease domain, HAN also has three N-terminal domains, including a DnaJ-Zinc-finger, ribosomal protein S1-like, and oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold. To further und...
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Toxin–antitoxin (TA) system is bacterial or archaeal genetic module consisting of toxin and antitoxin gene that be organized as a bicistronic operon. TA system could elicit programmed cell death, which is supposed to play important roles for the survival of prokaryotic population under various physiological stress conditions. The phage abortive inf...
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In cells, degrading DNA and RNA by various nucleases is very important. These processes are strictly controlled and regulated to maintain DNA integrity and to mature or recycle various RNAs. NanoRNase (Nrn) is a 3'-exonuclease that specifically degrades nanoRNAs shorter than 5 nucleotides. Several Nrns have been identified and characterized in bact...
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Oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments, and microbes have developed a variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection betwe...
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RecJ nucleases specifically degrade single-stranded (ss) DNA in the 5′ to 3′ direction. Archaeal RecJ is different from bacterial RecJ in sequence, domain organization, and substrate specificity. The RecJ from archaea Pyrococcus furiosus (PfuRecJ) also hydrolyzes RNA strands in the 3′ to 5′ direction. Like eukaryotic Cdc45 protein, archaeal RecJ fo...
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Bacterial nuclease RecJ, which exists in almost all bacterial species, specifically degrades single-stranded (ss) DNA in the 5' to 3' direction. Some archaeal phyla, except Crenarchaea, also encode RecJ homologs. Compared with bacterial RecJ, archaeal RecJ exhibits a largely different amino acid sequence and domain organization. Archaeal RecJs from...
Article
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) acts as a substantial sink for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in deep waters and is therefore considered a potential electron acceptor supporting abyssal ecosystems. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was isolated from west Pacific deep-sea sediments, and two functional DMSO respiratory subsystems are essential for maximum growth of WP3...
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Shewanella are one of the most abundant Proteobacteria in the deep-sea and are renowned for their versatile electron accepting capacities. The molecular mechanisms involved in their adaptation to diverse and extreme environments are not well understood. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are known for modulating the gene expression at transcriptional an...
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DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification is a sulfur modification on the backbone of DNA introduced by the proteins DndA-E. It has been detected within many bacteria isolates and metagenomic datasets, including human pathogens, and is considered to be widely distributed in nature. However, little is known about the physiological function of this modi...
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Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a typical oceanic ultraslow spreading ridge with intensive hydrothermal activities. The microbial communities in hydrothermal fields including primary producers to support the entire ecosystem by utilizing geochemical energy generated from rock-seawater interactions. Here we have examined the microbial community str...