Xavier Querol

Xavier Querol
Spanish National Research Council, in Barcelona, Spain · Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Department of Geosciences, Barcelona, Spain

Prof. Dr.

About

943
Publications
190,908
Reads
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53,078
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Introduction
Graduated and Doctorate in Geology, University of Barcelona, Spain. Background in environmental geochemistry. Research profesor at IDAEA-CSIC at Barcelona. Research on atmospheric sciences and environmental issues associated to power generation. Supervised 27 PhD thesis. Advisor several important city counclis, regional governments, the Spanish Ministry of Environment,, as well as UNECE and WHO projects. Currently vice-chairman of EMEP-UNECE.
Additional affiliations
October 2008 - December 2014
Spanish National Research Council
Position
  • Professor
October 2008 - December 2014
Spanish National Research Council
Position
  • Professor
November 1994 - September 2008
Institute Of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera
Position
  • Researcher and Research Professor
Education
May 1987 - May 1990
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • Geology
June 1982 - June 1986
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (943)
Article
Full-text available
Despite international efforts to limit worker exposure to coal dust, it continues to impact the health of thousands of miners across Europe. Airborne coal dust has been studied to improve risk models and its control to protect workers. Particle size distribution analyses shows that using spraying systems to suppress airborne dusts can reduce partic...
Article
Full-text available
A sampling methodology and a mathematical data treatment were developed that enable to determine not only total suspended particulates (TSP) emitted at channeled sources but also the PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 mass fractions (w10, w2.5, and w1) and emission factors (E.F.), using a seven-stage cascade impactor. Moreover, a chemical analysis was performed...
Article
Full-text available
The anomalous enrichment of the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY), U, Mo, As, Se, and V in the coal-bearing intervals intercalated within the carbonate successions in South China has attracted much attention due to the highly promising recovery potential for these elements. This study investigates the mineralogical and geochemical characteristi...
Article
Black carbon (BC) is recognized as the most important warming agent among atmospheric aerosol particles. The absorption efficiency of pure BC is rather well-known, nevertheless the mixing of BC with other aerosol particles can enhance the BC light absorption efficiency, thus directly affecting Earth's radiative balance. The effects on climate of th...
Book
Full-text available
The aim of the "Sand and Dust Storms Compendium: Information and Guidance on Assessing and Addressing the Risks" is to provide information and guidance on how to assess and address the risks posed by sand and dust storms and plan actions to combat sand and dust storms. The Compendium brings together information and guidance from a wide range of sou...
Article
Full-text available
PM10 was collected during an EMEP winter campaign of 2017–2018 in two urban background sites in Barcelona (BCN) and Granada (GRA), two Mediterranean cities in the coast and inland, respectively. The concentrations of PM10, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and organic molecular tracer compounds such as hopanes, anhydro-saccharides, polycy...
Article
Oxidative potential (OP) is considered to be an efficient indicator of particulate matter (PM) to induce oxidative stress in the lungs and is increasingly considered to be a relevant health metric. In this study, two complementary OP assays were deployed, including dithiothreitol (DTT) and ascorbic acid (AA) assays, to investigate the potential tox...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the chemical speciation and leaching behavior of a selected group of hazardous trace pollutants in lignite and lignite-petcoke blend co-combustion products from three power stations in China. The evaluation of speciation results showed that, during combustion, oxidizable elements, mainly As and Mo, bound to organic matter and...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, global reanalysis dataset fields of meteorological parameters (temperature and geopotential height at different atmospheric levels) in the period 1948–2020, were used to characterize the main dynamic and thermodynamic features of African dust outbreaks (ADO) produced over regions of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The...
Preprint
Black carbon (BC) is recognized as the most important warming agent among atmospheric aerosol particles. The absorption efficiency of pure BC is rather well known, nevertheless the mixing of BC with other aerosol particles can enhance the BC light absorption efficiency, thus directly affecting the Earth radiative balance. The effects on climate of...
Article
The current study investigates the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Late Triassic coals from the Coc Sau open-pit mine, Cam Pha Coalfield (Quang Ninh Province, Northeastern Vietnam) using Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry...
Article
This study provides an up-to-date assessment of the present-day spatial distribution (2015–2019) and trends (2008–2019) in Spain for eight O3 metrics relevant for human/ecosystems exposure and regulatory purposes. Main O3 precursors were also analyzed using ground-level observations, satellite imagery and emission inventories.Results show that the...
Article
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a priority pollutant for urban air pollution management because of its negative effects on human health and visibility. Emissions from road traffic have been a major focus of management over the past few decades, but non-exhaust emissions i.e., emissions from brake, tyre, road wear, and the resuspension of dus...
Article
Full-text available
Background The recent evidence of the short-term impact of air pollution on youth cognitive functions is based primarily on observational studies. Objectives We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether purifying the air of the classrooms produced short-term changes in attention processes of adolescents. Methods We recruited a tot...
Article
Measurements of CO2 and counting of occupants were carried out in 37 public bus trips during commuting rush hours in Barcelona (NE Spain) with the aim of evaluating parameters governing ventilation inside the vehicles and proposing actions to improve it. The results show that CO2 concentrations (1039 and 934 ± 386 ppm, as average and median, during...
Article
Background The evidence on the association between ultrafine (UFP) particles and mortality is still inconsistent. Moreover, health effects of specific UFP sources have not been explored. We assessed the impact of UFP sources on daily mortality in Barcelona, Helsinki, London, and Zurich. Methods UFP sources were previously identified and quantified...
Article
Full-text available
Providing reliable observations of aerosol particles' absorption properties at spatial and temporal resolutions suited to climate models is of utter importance to better understand the effects that atmospheric particles have on climate. Nowadays, one of the instruments most widely used in international monitoring networks for in situ surface measur...
Article
Full-text available
Public bus system worldwide transports daily more than 34 million people; therefore, air quality inside buses is an important urban air pollution issue. Airborne microbiological composition and abundance was examined inside five different fuel type buses (diesel (EURO IV and EURO V), hybrid diesel (HD), compressed natural gas (CNG), hybrid natural...
Article
Full-text available
New particle formation (NPF) events occur almost everywhere in the world and can play an important role as a particle source. The frequency and characteristics of NPF events vary spatially, and this variability is yet to be fully understood. In the present study, long-term particle size distribution datasets (minimum of 3 years) from 13 sites of va...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates geochemical and oxidative potential (OP) properties of the respirable (finer than 4 μm) fractions of 22 powdered coal samples from channel profiles (CP4) in Chinese mined coals. The CP4 fractions extracted from milled samples of 22 different coals were mineralogically and geochemically analysed and the relationships with the OP...
Article
Full-text available
The preventive and cautionary measures taken by the UAE and Abu Dhabi governments to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and promote social distancing have led to a reduction of mobility and a modification of economic and social activities. This paper provides statistical analysis of the air quality data monitored by the Environ...
Article
Severe episodic air pollution blankets entire cities and regions and have a profound impact on humans and their activities. We compiled daily fine particle (PM 2.5) data from 100 cities in five continents, investigated the trends of number, frequency, and duration of pollution episodes, and compared these with the baseline trend in air pollution. W...
Article
In this work, time-series analyses of the chemical composition and source contributions of PM2.5 from an urban background station in Barcelona (BCN) and a rural background station in Montseny (MSY) in northeastern Spain from 2009 to 2018 were investigated and compared. A multisite positive matrix factorization analysis was used to compare the sourc...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of fine aerosol (PM1) species as well as the contribution of potential sources to the total organic aerosol (OA) at an urban background site in Barcelona, in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB) was investigated. For this purpose, a quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitor (Q-ACSM) was deployed to acquire real-time measurements...
Article
Looking further than COVID-19, some of the key messages: 1. We from now on should include the risk of indoor respiratory infections in our design of buildings and its ventilation. 2. Treat the air quality in a similar way as we are used to for water and food quality. 3. ‘Visualize’ the air quality by displaying monitoring values (e.g. CO2 concentra...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to ambient black carbon (BC) on daily cause-specific mortality, including mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular, ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases in Tehran, Iran.Materials and methodsDaily non-accidental death counts, meteorological data and h...
Article
The behaviour and speciation of inorganic trace pollutants were studied in a 270 MWh coal-fired power station equipped with denitrification (DeNOx)-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and ammonia flue gas desulphurisation (NH3-FGD) controls. The aqueous (NH4)2SO4 slurry (pH 3.2) showed remarkably high concen...
Article
We assessed 2005─2018 data series of NO, NO2, and O3 surface measurements, meteorological data and remote sensing of tropospheric NO2 by OMI-NASA in the Guadalquivir Valley (GV, Andalucía). The GV is one of the Spanish atmospheric basins with the most exceedances of the EU's hourly O3 information threshold (180 μg O3 m−3). We aimed to deepen unders...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate measurements of light absorption by aerosolized particles, especially black carbon (BC), are of utter importance since BC represents the second most important climate-warming agent after carbon dioxide (CO2). Reducing the uncertainties related to the absorption measurement techniques will improve the global estimation of BC concentration a...
Article
Full-text available
We offer and overview of the COVID-19 -driven air quality changes across 11 metropolises in Spain with the focus on lessons learned on how continuing abating pollution. Traffic flow decreased by up to 80% during the lockdown and remained relatively low during the full relaxation (June and July). After the lockdown a significant shift from public tr...
Article
Full-text available
The highly elevated concentrations of the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY), U, Mo, Se, and Pb in late Permian coals in some coalfields in Guangxi Province, South China, have been widely investigated; however, the mode of occurrence and enrichment mechanism of these critical elements are still under debate. This study investigates the mineralog...
Article
Full-text available
Although new particle formation (NPF) events have been studied extensively for some decades, the mechanisms that drive their occurrence and development are yet to be fully elucidated. Laboratory studies have done much to elucidate the molecular processes involved in nucleation, but this knowledge has yet to be conclusively linked to NPF events in t...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain glaciers have generally experienced an accelerated retreat over the last 3 decades as a rapid response to current global warming. However, the response to previous warm periods in the Holocene is not well-described for glaciers of the southern Europe mountain ranges, such as the Pyrenees. The situation during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (...
Article
Biomass burning (BB) including forest, bush, prescribed fires, agricultural fires, residential wood combustion, and power generation has long been known to affect climate, air quality and human health. With this work we supply a systematic review on the health effects of BB emissions in the framework of the WHO activities on air pollution. We perfo...
Article
Full-text available
Given the widespread concern but general lack of information over the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection in public transport, key issues such as passenger personal hygiene, efficient air circulation systems, and the effective disinfection of frequently touched surfaces need to be evaluated to educate the public and diminish the risk of viral trans...
Article
Full-text available
Molybdenum (Mo) is a key cofactor in enzymes used for nitrogen (N) fixation and nitrate reduction, and the low availability of Mo can constrain N inputs, affecting ecosystem productivity. Natural atmospheric Mo aerosolization and deposition from sources such as desert dust, sea-salt spray, and volcanoes can affect ecosystem function across long tim...
Article
The Harmancık Basin, in the north-easternmost Miocene graben in western Anatolia, hosts a 12.6-m-thick coal seam located in the Keles coalfield, in which coals are being exploited by open-cast mining methods. Syngenetic clinoptilolite/heulandite-type zeolite formation in the upper part of coal seam and carbonaceous clayey diatomite as a roof rock h...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing the potential leaching of Mo and Ni from the fly ash (FA) of petroleum coke is an increasingly important issue as Asia and Europe’s demand is expected to drastically intensify as continuing urbanisation and technological innovation demands ever more electricity. In the present study, we investigated coal combustion products (CCP) from a la...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol particle optical properties are key for a better understanding of their impact on the climate. Here we present the results of a measurement campaign based on instrumented flights over north-eastern Spain. We measured vertical profiles of size-segregated atmosph...
Article
Full-text available
Coal mining in China is continually increasing, and the associated emitted coal mine dust is of growing environmental and occupational concern. In this study, deposited coal mine dust (DD) was analysed in three different regions of an active, highly-volatile bituminous open-pit coal mine in the Xingjian Province, Northwest of China: coal working fr...
Article
We analysed long-term datasets of ambient air concentrations of gaseous pollutants, black carbon (BC) and particle size distributions at an urban background air quality station (Barcelona, Spain; 2013–2019) and a regional background station (Montseny, Spain; 2014–2019). Using BC as a tracer of primary emissions, we segregated the aerosol load in mo...
Article
Full-text available
The global spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged most countries worldwide. It was quickly recognized that reduced activities (lockdowns) during the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic produced major changes in air quality. Our objective was to assess the impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on gr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
• This guide is intended as a tool to reduce the potential spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through aerosol transmission. Strategies and possible solutions for ventilation in classrooms are provided, alongside tools to evaluate the implemented ventilation strategies. • This guide has two parts. Part I focuses on how to maintain healthy indoor air in...
Article
Full-text available
Superhigh organic sulfur(SHOS) coals have currently attracted great attention due to their typical depositional environments and formation history as well as their great negative impact on the ecosystem. This study investigated the geochemistry of the No. 11coalof the Late Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation from the Sangshuping coalmine, Hancheng mini...
Preprint
Full-text available
The evolution of fine aerosol (PM1) species as well as the contribution of potential sources to the total organic aerosol (OA) at an urban background site (Palau Reial, PR, 80 m a.s.l) in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB) was investigated. For this purpose, an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed to acquire real-time measurem...
Article
Air pollution coming from industrial activities is a matter of interest since their emissions can seriously affect to the human health of nearby populations. A more detailed study about industrial emissions is required in order to discriminate different activities contributing to pollutant sources. In this sense, gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2 and O3...
Technical Report
This report provides a comprehensive update on the use and operation of low-cost sensing devices for assessing atmosphere chemical composition. The original report, published by WMO in 2018, was fully revised to update new scholarly understanding of low-cost sensors (LCS) that was published in the peer-reviewed literature. While some of the origin...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of local high-pollution episodes in densely populated urban areas, which have huge fleets of vehicles, is currently one of the most worrying problems associated with air pollution worldwide. Such episodes are produced under specific meteorological conditions, which favour the sudden increase of levels of air pollutants. This study ha...
Article
The abnormal enrichment of the REY (rare earth elements and yttrium)-Zr (Hf)-Nb (Ta) assemblage in Late Permian coals occurring in some coalfields in SW China has been extensively investigated, but the geological controlling factors of this assemblage are still under debate. This study reports on the mineralogical and geochemical features of coals...
Article
Full-text available
The potential utilization of boiler slag generated in large amounts from pulverized-coal-combustion (PCC) power plants has recently drawn much attention due to the serious problems caused to ecosystems. In order to make maximal use of the boiler slag and reduce the environmental risk it poses, this study focused on manufacturing acoustic materials...
Article
The study aims to assess the differences between the chemical profiles of the major anthropogenic and natural PM sources in two areas with different levels of urbanization and traffic density within the same urban agglomeration. A traffic site and an urban background site in the Athens Metropolitan Area have been selected for this comparison. For b...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the association of short-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3, and CO with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular, and respiratory deaths in Mashhad, a tourist megacity in Iran (2014–2018). A distributed-lag-day, nonlinear model (DLNM) and generalized additive model (GAM) based on the...
Article
Full-text available
Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of coals provide crucial information on their potential clean, efficient, and integrated utilization. In this paper, the mineralogical and geochemical behaviors of the No. 5 coals of the Taiyuan Formation in the Weibei Coalfield, North China, were investigated, and their geological controlling factors w...
Preprint
Full-text available
New particle formation (NPF) events occur almost everywhere in the world and can play an important role as a particle source. The frequency and characteristics of NPF events vary spatially and this variability is yet to be fully understood. In the present study, long term particle size distribution datasets (minimum of three years) from thirteen si...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosols contribute some of the greatest uncertainties to estimates of global radiative forcing, and have significant effects on human health. New particle formation (NPF) is the process by which new aerosols of sub-2 nm diameter form from gas-phase precursors and contributes significantly to particle numbers in the atmosphere, accounti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol particle optical properties are key for a better understanding of their impact on the climate. Here we present the results of a measurement campaign based on instrumented flights over NE Spain. We measured vertical profiles of size segregated atmospheric partic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although new particle formation (NPF) events have been studied extensively for some decades, the mechanisms that drive their occurrence and development are yet to be fully elucidated. Laboratory studies have done much to elucidate the molecular processes involved in nucleation, but this knowledge has yet to be linked to NPF events in the atmosphere...