X. A. Padin

X. A. Padin
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas

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56
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (56)
Preprint
An understanding of animal grouping patterns is essential to increase knowledge about their social systems. We used a five-year continuous dataset to investigate grouping behavior in a free-ranging highly social mammal, the bottlenose dolphin. Our objective was achieved by examining the relationships between a set of oceanographic, climatic, topogr...
Article
Full-text available
Marine aquaculture takes advantage of marine ecosystem services to produce goods that can be relevant from a food security point of view. However, this activity is subject to multiple stressors as the ones exerted by global climate change. Local stressed conditions due to environmental drivers may be exacerbated by the COVID19 pandemic crisis. In t...
Article
Full-text available
Estuarine exchange flow plays an important role in the biogeochemical properties exchange between the coastal ocean and the estuaries. Circulation patterns inside the Rias Baixas (NW Iberian Peninsula) have been widely studied, while the Ría de Pontevedra has received less attention. A high-resolution ROMS-AGRIF system configuration with three onli...
Article
Full-text available
Local environmental conditions can have strong effects on ecophysiological responses in bivalve molluscs. Molluscs must allocate the energetic resources acquired in their habitats to survival and fitness. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of response in relation to byssus strength and soft tissue weight during the max...
Preprint
Full-text available
The impact of simulated seawater acidification and warming conditions on specimens of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis locally adapted to very distinct, widely separated sites in the Mediterranean Sea (Tunisia) and Atlantic Sea (Galicia, NW Spain) was evaluated in relation to key behavioural and eco-physiological parameters. Over the 2-month ex...
Article
Full-text available
A data product of 17 653 discrete samples from 3343 oceanographic stations combining measurements of pH, alkalinity and other biogeochemical parameters off the northwestern Iberian Peninsula from June 1976 to September 2018 is presented in this study. The oceanography cruises funded by 24 projects were primarily carried out in the Ría de Vigo coast...
Article
Full-text available
The oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by human activities alters the seawater carbonate system. Here, the chemical status of the Northeast Atlantic is examined by means of a high-quality database of carbon variables based on the GO-SHIP A25 section (1997-2018). The increase of atmospheric CO2 leads to an increase in ocean a...
Article
Full-text available
Estuarine environments are highly heterogeneous habitats where numerous organisms interact with each other. Aquaculture systems encompass such interactions, and the eventual yields depend on how the cultivated species respond to the environmental heterogeneity. Marine mussels are calcifying organisms that rely on calcium carbonate shell and byssus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. A data product of 17,653 discrete samples from 3,357 oceanographic stations combining measurements of pH, alkalinity and other biogeochemical parameters off the North-western Iberian Peninsula from June 1976 to September 2018 is presented in this study. The oceanography cruises funded by 24 projects were primarily carried out in the Ría d...
Article
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The carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean is increasing as levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide increase, thus lowering the ocean pH and altering the carbonate system. In this laboratory study, we evaluated the physiological responses of juvenile mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Galician waters (NW Iberian Peninsula) exposed to control (500...
Poster
Full-text available
Eutrophication can cause adverse effects in the coastal ecosystems, this leads to an accelerated proliferation of opportunistic microbial and macroalgae communities, altering the trophic structure of the marine ecosystems and deteriorating water quality. The determination of eutrophication risk requires a continuous acquisition of time series of nu...
Article
Marine mussel aggregations act as a substratum and refuge for many fouling species. Mussel cultivation in Galicia, Spain, is carried out on hanging ropes in subtidal systems. The fauna associated with this cultivation includes a large number of invertebrates that compete for space or food with the mussels, or use their clusters as a refuge from pre...
Article
Many marine species, including anemones, snails, jellyfish, coral and fish, are venomous to humans, causing serious injuries or even death. Most of these animals live in warm, shallow waters, which increase the chances of an encounter with them. The majority of these interactions with humans are accidental; however, it is not well known under which...
Poster
Full-text available
MarRISK Project Goal: Consolidation of a knowledge infrastructure for evaluating coastal risks in the Galicia-North Portugal Euroregion. A multi-disciplinary consortium of experts in Marine Sciences from the Galicia and North-Portugal Euroregion has put together more than 300 variables at the disposal of MarRISK project for a better understanding o...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and m...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the valve-opening behavior of raft-cultivated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the Ría de Arousa (Arousa estuary), Spain. Eight rope-grown mussels [mean ± standard error (SEM), shell length 61.6 ± 2.1 mm] were connected to a non-invasive valvometry apparatus that monitored (one measurement min−1) the magnitude of valve openness sy...
Article
Full-text available
Since the Industrial Revolution, the North Atlantic Ocean has been accumulating anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and experiencing ocean acidification, that is, an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (a reduction in pH) and a reduction in the concentration of carbonate ions. The latter causes the 'aragonite saturation horizon'-below whi...
Article
Climatology-based storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant, referred to year 2000) in the North-East Atlantic (53 ± 9 kmol s-1, 0.020 ± 0.003 Pg-C yr-1) is described on annual mean terms. Cant advection (32 ± 14 kmol s-1) occurs mostly in the upper 1800 m and contributes to 60% of the Cant storage rate. The Azores and Portugal Currents act as ‘Cant...
Article
The subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) is important in the global carbon cycle because of the deep water ventilation processes that lead to both high uptake of atmospheric CO2 and large inventories of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant). Thus, it is crucial to understand its response to increasing anthropogenic pressures. In this work, the budgets of dissolved in...
Article
Full-text available
Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean's uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50°S-36°N) for the Atlantic Ocean over two decades (1993-2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with...
Article
Ocean acidification is directly related to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels due to human activities and the active role of the global ocean in absorbing part of this anthropogenic CO2. Here we present an assessment of the pH changes that have occurred along 24.5°N in the Subtropical North Atlantic through comparison of pH observations conducted in...
Technical Report
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/CLIVAR/A17_FICARAM_XV_2013/. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Article
Full-text available
As a response to public demand for a welldocumented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global...
Article
Full-text available
A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly availab...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim), one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet), winds derived under the Cro...
Article
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Biogeochemical variations of surface water in the Northeast Atlantic (Bay of Biscay) were examined using high-frequency underway measurements combined with monthly sampling of carbon-related variables. The mechanisms controlling seasonal CO2 variability were investigated by distinguishing the contributions of biological and physical processes to th...
Article
Full-text available
Using data collected during the DYBAGA and ECO cruises, remote sensing chlorophyll-a estimations and the averaged upwelling index of the previous fortnight (Iw’), we studied the variability of the sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2) over the Galician continental shelf during three seasonal cycles. Sea surface salinity (SSS) distribution controlled fCO2...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the globa...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of sea-air CO2 fluxes are largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from using different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR...
Article
The subsurface ocean layer (100–200m deep) is suggested as a reference to parameterise preformed alkalinity (AT°) and air–sea CO2 disequilibrium (∆Cdis) in the Atlantic. Results suggest that this domain retains the memory of water mass formation (WMF) conditions over annual periods and avoids the large, short-term variability of the uppermost layer...
Article
A large part of the CO2 released to the atmosphere due to human activities is taken up by the oceans, raising the amount of total inorganic carbon dissolved in the upper layers, thus affecting the chemical balances of the CO2 system in seawater. In addition to the estimation of the anthropogenic carbon inventory, establishing the rate at which ocea...
Article
The present study reports and discusses water surface fCO2 measurements from 36 cruises in the Strait of Gibraltar made over an eleven-year period (1997 to 2009). Underway measurements of sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw), sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) compiled during the cruises were analysed and integrated into a si...
Article
In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that the global warming process would produce an increase in sea-land temperature gradients and, subsequently, enhance the wind patterns responsible for coastal upwelling. Hence, an increase in the intensity of coastal upwelling was expected in the main upwelling ecosystems around the world. However, recently...
Article
Long-term variability of the biogeochemical properties during the formation of central waters in the Eastern North Atlantic were analyzed between 42–47°N and 10–20°W from the dataset gathered during the Galicia VII (GVII) and C. Darwin 58/59 (CD58/59) cruises. These cruises that showed important changes in the thermohaline properties and the nutrie...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a multiparametric interpolation method and its application to anthro pogenic carbon (C-ANT) in the Atlantic calculated by two estimation methods using the CARINA database The multiparametric interpolation proposed uses potential temperature (theta) salinity conservative NO and PO as conservative parameters fo...
Article
The meridional WOCE line A17 was conducted during the austral summer of 1994 parallel to the eastern South American coast, from 55°S to 10°S, where one of the main limbs of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), i.e., the southward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is found. Full-depth profiles of pH, total alkalinity and total inorganic...
Article
The Gulf of Lions in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea is one of the few regions in the world where open ocean deep convection occurs. Convective mixing leads to deep water formation and to the development of a late winter - early spring phytoplankton bloom after stratification. Despite its likely influence on carbon fluxes, whether this process c...
Article
Full-text available
A total of fourteen hydrographic cruises from 2000 to 2008 were conducted during the spring and autumn seasons between Spain and the Southern Ocean under the framework of the Spanish research project FICARAM. The underway measurements were processed and analysed to describe the meridional air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the covered sector of the Atlan...
Article
The seasonal and spatial variability of CO2 uptake across the Loire estuary plume and the adjacent continental shelf was investigated over two years (November 2002 to December 2004). A high-frequency time series of the surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw) and the air–water CO2 exchange is reported and discussed. Continuous measurements of salinity, temper...
Article
Full-text available
The oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Historically, observations have been too sparse to allow accurate tracking of changes in rates of CO2 uptake over ocean basins, so little is known about how these vary. Here, we show observations indicating substantial variability in the CO2 uptake by the North Atlantic on time scale...
Article
Coastal upwelling regions, which are affected by equatorward-wind variability, are among the most productive areas of the oceans. It has been suggested that global warming will lead to a general strengthening of coastal upwelling, with important ecological implications and an impact on fisheries. However, in the case of the Iberian upwelling, the l...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present monthly, basin-wide maps of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) for the North Atlantic on a 1° latitude by 1° longitude grid for years 2004 through 2006 inclusive, constructed using a neural network technique which reconstructs the non-linear relationships between 3 biogeochemical parameters and marine pCO2. A self organiz...
Article
Full-text available
A total of fourteen hydrographic cruises spanning from 2000 to 2008 were conducted during the spring and autumn seasons between Spain and the Southern Ocean, under the framework of the Spanish research project FICARAM. The performed underway measurements are processed and analysed to describe the meridional air-sea CO<sub>2</sub> fluxes ( F CO<sub>...
Article
Full-text available
An upgrade of classical methods to calculate the anthropogenic carbon (C<sub>ant</sub>) signal based on estimates of the preformed dissolved inorganic carbon (C<sub>T</sub><sup°</sup>) is proposed and applied to modern Atlantic sections. The main progress has been the use of subsurface layer data (100–200 m) to reconstruct water mass formation cond...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present monthly, basin-wide maps of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) for the North Atlantic on a 1� latitude by 1� longitude grid for years 2004 through 2006 inclusive. The maps have been computed using a neural network technique which reconstructs the non-linear relationships between three biogeochemical parameters and marine...
Article
An empirical algorithm has been developed to compute the sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw) in the Bay of Biscay from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SSTRS) and chlorophyll a (chl aRS) retrieved from AVHRR and SeaWiFS sensors, respectively. Underway fCO2sw measurements recorded during 2003 were correlated with SSTRS and chl aRS data yieldin...
Article
Full-text available
The anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> (C<sub>ant</sub>) estimates from cruises spanning more than two decades (1981–2006) in the Irminger Sea area reveal a large variability of the C<sub>ant</sub> storage rates in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre. During the early 1990's, the C<sub>ant</sub> uptake rates doubled the average rate for 1981–2006, whilst a...
Article
Full-text available
11 pages, 4 figures. The anthropogenic CO2 (C-ant) estimates from cruises spanning more than two decades (1981–2006) in the Irminger Sea area of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre reveal a large variability in the C-ant storage rates. During the early 1990’s, the C-ant storage rates (2.3 ± 0.6 mol C m−2 yr−1) doubled the average rate for 1981–2006 (1...
Article
Full-text available
Five of the most recent observational methods to estimate anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> (C<sub>ant</sub>) are applied to a high-quality dataset from five representative sections of the Atlantic Ocean extending from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Between latitudes 60° N–40° S all methods give similar spatial distributions and magnitude of C<sub>ant</su...
Article
The Bay of Biscay is part of the North Atlantic Ocean, the most important sink of CO2, and a subduction zone of mode waters that favours the entry of carbon to the ocean interior. To investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 uptake, continuous underway measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 at sea surface were performed along...
Article
Ships of opportunity have been used to investigate ocean–atmosphere CO2 fluxes in the English Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea. Continuous underway measurements of the fugacity of seawater carbon dioxide (fCO2sw), chlorophyll, temperature and salinity have been performed along 26 transects during the spring and autumn periods. The spatia...
Article
Atmospheric molar fraction of CO2 (xCO2atm) measurements obtained on board of ships of opportunity are used to parameterize the seasonal cycle of atmospheric xCO2 (xCO2atm) in three regions of the eastern North Atlantic (Galician and French offshore and Bay of Biscay). Three selection criteria are established to eliminate spurious values and identi...
Article
Full-text available
The anthropogenic CO2 accumulation rate for the North Atlantic Ocean was estimated on the basis of the decrease in the delta 13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon measured between cruises in 1981 (Transient Tracers in the North Atlantic), 1993 (OACES) and 2003 (Repeat Hydrography). A mean depth-integrated delta 13C change of -15.0 +/- 3.80/00 m yr-...

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