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Woodrow Barfield

Woodrow Barfield
Duke University | DU · Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science (MEMS)

PhD, JD, LLM

About

129
Publications
18,908
Reads
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5,487
Citations
Citations since 2017
7 Research Items
1632 Citations
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (129)
Book
Woodrow Barfield and Ugo Pagallo present a succinct introduction to the legal issues related to the design and use of artificial intelligence (AI). Exploring human rights, constitutional law, data protection, criminal law, tort law, and intellectual property law, they consider the laws of a number of jurisdictions including the US, the European Uni...
Article
Full-text available
The human body is a remarkable example of the process of evolution which ultimately created a sentient being with cognitive, motor, and information-processing abilities. The body can also be thought of as an amazing feat of engineering, and specifically as an example of molecular nanotechnology, positioning trillions of cells throughout the body, a...
Article
Full-text available
In the backdrop of increasingly intelligent machines, important issues of law have been raised by the use of robots that operate autonomous from human supervisory control. In particular, when systems operating with autonomous robot’s damage property or injure humans, it may be difficult to determinewho’s at fault and therefore liable under current...
Article
Full-text available
As we become more and more enhanced with cyborg technology, significant issues of law and policy are raised. For example, as cyborg devices implanted within the body create a class of people with enhanced motor and computational abilities, how should the law and policy respond when the abilities of such people surpass those of the general populatio...
Article
Full-text available
As we move deeper into the twenty-first century there is a major trend to enhance the body with “cyborg technology”. In fact, due to medical necessity, there are currently millions of people worldwide equipped with prosthetic devices to restore lost functions, and there is a growing DIY movement to self-enhance the body to create new senses or to e...
Chapter
Let me start the book with a controversial and bold statement—our future is to merge with artificially intelligent machines! How I reached that conclusion is the subject of this book. I don’t mean to imply that in the coming decades we humans will look and act like robots on an assembly line, rather, that we will be equipped with so much technology...
Chapter
Repeating a central theme of this book—at the same time we humans are becoming enhanced with “cyborg” technology—artificially intelligent machines are gaining in intelligence and becoming more like us in shape, appearance, and abilities. In fact, the use of twenty-first century technologies to create artificially intelligent machines are leading to...
Chapter
A few years back I taught a course on the remote control of robots , a field known as telerobotics (Thomas S (2003) Telerobotics, Automation, and Human Supervisory Control, MIT Press). At that time, “insect-like” robots roamed my lab greeting guests. I viewed teaching the class as an opportunity to spend the term talking about increasingly intellig...
Chapter
In previous chapters, I described several technologies that are leading humanity closer to a merger with artificially intelligent machines .
Chapter
If humans merge with machines this century, the coming Singularity will have a lot to say about that. What is the Singularity? The Singularity is that point in time or development when artificially intelligent machines equal or surpass humans in intelligence.
Chapter
The first students who took a course in computer science were required to write programs for a massive computer that had a voracious appetite for electricity and a habit for reading punched cards. Since then, much has changed.
Chapter
Benefiting from exponentially improving technologies , in numerous examples what was once considered a task distinctly requiring human intelligence is now being done much faster and more efficiently by artificially intelligent machines .
Chapter
While previous chapters discussed the role of prosthesis and implants as technologies moving humanity closer to a merger with artificially intelligent machines , this chapter introduces the reader to another technology that will be essential for reaching a Posthuman age—sensors and sensor networks. Following the law of accelerating returns , the la...
Book
It is predicted that robots will surpass human intelligence within the next fifty years. The ever increasing speed of advances in technology and neuroscience, coupled with the creation of super computers and enhanced body parts and artificial limbs, is paving the way for a merger of both human and machine. Devices which were once worn on the body a...
Article
Recent advances in hardware and software technologies for computer games have proved to be more than capable of delivering quite detailed virtual environments on PC platforms and gaming consoles for so-called “serious” applications, at ...
Article
The ever increasing size and complexity of volumetric data in a wide range of disciplines makes it useful to augment volume visualization tools with alternative modalities. Studies have shown that introducing haptics can significantly increase both exploration ...
Article
A software agent is a computer program that operates within computing environments. The owners of software agents may instruct their agents to roam the networks, access desired information by exchanging data with other agents or people, and handle business and personal transactions. As the interactions between software agents and humans become more...
Article
Full-text available
Using an immersive virtual environment, this study investigated whether the inclusion of force feedback or auditory cues improved manipulation performance and subjective reports of usability for an assembly task. Twenty-four volunteers (12 males and 12 females) were required to assemble and then disassemble five interconnecting virtual parts with e...
Article
Personal Cybernetics and Humanistic Intelligence are new and rapidly growing fields of research in the area of human-computer interaction. These areas of research involve personal wearable imaging devices with intelligence that arises from the existence of a human user in the feedback loop of a computational process, in which the human user and the...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a review of the literature related to presence and performance within virtual environments. Summary tables are provided to present the reader with a general framework in which to evaluate the type of studies that have been run, as well as representative findings across different tasks and virtual environments. Within the gener...
Article
The focus of this research was to examine how effectively augmented reality displays, generated with a wearable computer, could be used for aiding an operator performing a manual assembly task. Fifteen subjects were asked to assemble a computer motherboard using four types of instructional media: paper manual, computer-aided, opaque augmented reali...
Article
This paper describes a study on the sense of presence and task performance in a virtual environment as affected by copresence (one subject working alone versus two subjects working as partners), level of control (control of movement and control of navigation through the virtual environment), and head tracking. Twenty subjects navigated through six...
Article
This study investigated performance in a desktop virtual environment as a function of stereopsis and head tracking. Ten subjects traced a computer-generated wire using a virtual stylus that was slaved to the position of a real-world stylus tracked with a 6-DOF position sensor. The objective of the task was to keep the virtual stylus centered on the...
Article
This paper proposes a model of interaction in virtual environments which we term the immersion, presence, performance (IPP) model. This model is based on previous models of immersion and presence proposed by Barfield and colleagues and Slater and colleagues. The IPP model describes the authors' current conceptualization of the effects of display te...
Article
This paper presents a review of virtual reality, telemedicine, and systems engineering design concepts that relate to the human performance of mission tasks during long duration spaceflight. A Mini-Case Study of the MIR/Progress collision is discussed and serves to highlight some of the key issues. We review some physiologic changes which occur as...
Article
Two studies were performed to investigate the effect of providing computer graphics enhancements to a perspective display on the observer's ability to estimate the azimuth and elevation separating two computer-generated images. The enhancements included the ability to rotate the perspective scene, the use of Lambertian shading, and the use of Lambe...
Article
Presence in virtual environments can be defined as the participant's feeling or sense of “being there” in the virtual environment. Two factors which may influence the level of presence experienced by a participant within a virtual environment are the display update rate and the type of input device used for navigating within the virtual environment...
Article
Wearable computers are fully functional, self-powered, self-contained computers that allow the user to access information anywhere and at any time. In this paper, design issues for wearable computers are discussed, including power considerations, use of input devices, image registration, and the use of wearable computers for the design of smart spa...
Article
As part of a study on the recall of skilled and novice programmers, 23 subjects each viewed a 25-line BASIC program organized in one of three ways, executable order, random chunks, and random lines. Subjects performed a perceptual task in which they recopied a 25-line BASIC program on an answer sheet while the program remained in plain view, and a...
Article
An analysis of private and commercial drivers' information requirements for an advanced traveler information system (ATIS) is presented. The analysis is based on data from two nationwide surveys, one addressing private drivers' needs and the other addressing commercial drivers' needs. In these surveys, drivers rated the importance of four trip fact...
Article
In this study we investigate the effects of computer graphics eyepoint elevation, display type (perspective vs. stereoscopic), and location of computer-generated images within a particular quadrant on the accuracy of spatial judgments. Twelve volunteer participants judged the azimuth and elevation separation between two computer-generated cubes usi...
Article
Full-text available
This study was performed to investigate the accuracy of performing a localization task as a function of the use of three display formats: auditory, perspective, and combined perspective-auditory. The experimental task for the perspective and perspective-auditory displays was to judge the relative azimuth and elevation that separated a computer-gene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study investigated the effects of stereopsis and head tracking on presence and performance in a desktop virtual environment. Twelve subjects viewed the virtual image of a bent wire and were required to select the correct representation of the virtual wire from one of three drawings presented on paper. After each trial, subjects completed a ques...
Article
Currently, the hardware to produce virtual environments does not include olfactory displays, in spite of the fact that a wealth of sensory information is available from the olfactory sense. This paper reviews the physiological and psychological aspects of olfaction and discusses the use of olfactory displays for virtual environments. Further, it ou...
Article
The growing concern about the possible safety-related impacts of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has focused attention on the need to develop new statistical approaches to predict accident severity. This paper presents a nested logit formulation as a means for determining accident severity given that an accident has occurred. Four levels o...
Article
This paper reports the results of three studies, each of which investigated the sense of presence within virtual environments as a function of visual display parameters. These factors included the presence or absence of head tracking, the presence or absence of stereoscopic cues, and the geometric field of view used to create the visual image proje...
Article
Two studies were performed to investigate the sense of presence within stereoscopic virtual environments as a function of the addition or absence of auditory cues. The first study examined the presence or absence of spatialized sound, while the second study compared the use of nonspatialized sound to spatialized sound. Sixteen subjects were allowed...
Article
A sample of travelers' preferences toward in-vehicle traffic information systems was undertaken and appropriate statistical models were estimated. Specifically, ordered logit and regression analyses were conducted to quantify travelers' ratings of the importance of in-vehicle system attributes, and the distance ahead that they prefer to be notified...
Article
This paper analyzes the responses from two nationwide surveys designed to obtain user information requirements for the design of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and commercial vehicle operations (CVO) with respect to commercial system operators (dispatchers) and commercial vehicle drivers. A total of 673 returned surveys (348 dispatche...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varying the elevation of the computer graphics eyepoint and the geometric field of view on judgements of spatial information using a stereoscopic perspective display. Twelve subjects judged the elevation and azimuth angle separating two computer-generated objects viewed using an eyepoint el...
Article
As part of a study on the relationship between geometric parameters of perspective and judgments of spatial information, 15 subjects estimated the degree of spatial distortion within a computer-generated perspective display. The experiment task was to estimate “skewness,” the projected angle (in screen spate coordinates) between two parallel vertic...
Chapter
Recent technological advancements in virtual environment equipment have led to the development of augmented reality displays for applications in medicine, manufacturing, and scientific visualization (Bajura et al., 1992; Janin et al., 1993; Milgram et al., 1991; Lion et al., 1993). However, even with technological advances in virtual environment eq...
Chapter
Recent developments in display technology, specifically head-mounted displays slaved to the user’s head position, techniques to spatialize sound, and computer-generated tactile and kinesthetic feedback allow humans to experience impressive visual, auditory, and tactile simulations of virtual environments. However, while technological advancements i...
Chapter
We understand from the anthropologists that almost from the beginning of our species we have been tool builders. Most of these tools have been associated with the manipulation of matter. With these tools we have learned to organize or reorganize and arrange the elements for our comfort, safety, and entertainment. More recently, the advent of the co...
Article
This sweeping introduction to the science of virtual environment technology masterfully integrates research and practical applications culled from a range of disciplines, including psychology, engineering, and computer science. With contributions from the field's foremost researchers and theorists, the book focuses in particular on how virtual tech...
Article
This paper explores the frequency of occurrence of highway accidents on the basis of a multivariate analysis of roadway geometrics (e.g. horizontal and vertical alignments), weather, and other seasonal effects. Based on accident data collected in the field, a negative binomial model of overall accident frequencies is estimated along with models of...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of monoscopic and stereoscopic depth cues for spatial instrument design. Ten volunteer subjects judged the depth and altitude separation between two computer-generated objects located above a ground plane using either a stereoscopic or perspective display. The depth cues manipulated in the study...
Article
The current study was done to investigate the effect of varying the update rate of a computer-generated simulation (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 Hz) on the sense of presence within stereoscopic virtual environments. Thirteen subjects navigated a virtual representation of Stonehenge and were asked to search for a rune, inscribed upon the wall of one of Stonehe...
Conference Paper
The paper reports the results of two experiments each investigating the sense of presence within visual and auditory virtual environments. The variables for the studies included the presence or absence of head tracking, the presence or absence of stereoscopic cues, the geometric field of view (GFOV) used to design the visual display, the presence o...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of three-dimensional display formats for judgments of spatial information using an exocentric frame of reference. Eight subjects judged the azimuth and elevation that separated two computer-generated objects using either a perspective or stereoscopic display. Errors, which consisted of the differ...
Article
This paper discusses three nationwide surveys designed to obtain user information requirements for an advanced traveler information system (ATIS) and the ATIS portion of commercial vehicle operations (CVO). A description of the survey methodology for targeting the three populations—private vehicle drivers, commercial vehicle drivers, and commercial...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine how 3 variables for the design of a "heads-down" spatial display--the frame of reference (pilot's eye vs. God's eye), geometric field of view, and elevation of the computer graphics eyepoint--influenced situation awareness. Thirteen flight-naive subjects each flew a simulated F-16 over a computer-generated...
Article
This paper presents the results of three surveys that compared the human's ability to detect and discriminate visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic information with current technical specifications of virtual environment equipment. The comparison exposes limitations of current virtual environment interfaces and thus indicates areas where impro...
Article
Impressive advances in VR hardware Lack framework to guide research Lack a set of metrics to quantify presence No real theory of presence, virtual presence, or telepresence
Article
This paper studies the effects of traffic information on Seattle-area commuters. Models of commuters' route-change frequency, the duration of traffic delay needed to induce a route change, and the influence of pre-trip traffic information on departure-time choice, mode choice, and route choice are estimated. Two modeling techniques are used in thes...
Article
Advanced Traveler Information Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ATIS/CVO) are segments of IVHS currently being researched as a means of decreasing road congestion and increasing safety. Due to the complex information requirements for these systems, three surveys have been designed by University of Washington researchers and distributed nationw...
Article
Conventional diagnostic protocols in radiological viewing require the availability of a large display space, as exemplified by the film alternator (or lightbox). However, the recent trend in medical imaging workstation design is the use of relatively small display screens to present radiological images. In the study, the efficacy of an alternatorfi...
Article
This paper reviews the requirements for conducting successful usability tests, particularly on traveler information and traffic management systems; offers a general approach for conducting such tests; and presents a case study of usability tests on an interactive traveler information system.
Article
This paper describes a methodology originally devised for analysis of travel-activity patterns and applies it to commuters' responses to the influence of traffic information upon commuting decisions. The method of cluster analysis was employed to identity commuter groups (from 3,893 motorists who responded to an on-road survey) with similar pattern...
Article
A survey of computer-aided design (CAD) usage was performed to investigate the relationship between CAD tools and four aspects of the designer's job which included productivity, creativity, decision making, and job satisfaction. Several designers (n & 117) representing 19 companies and 3 major universities were administered a CAD questionnaire desi...
Conference Paper
The results of three studies, each designed to obtain functional requirements for the design of a graphics-based traveler information system, are reported. In the first study, the results of a survey are reviewed in which four commuter groups are identified with regard to the impact of traffic information on mode choice, departure time, and alterna...
Conference Paper
We discuss the design and implementation of Traffic Reporter, a PC-based, graphical, interactive, real-time, advanced traveler information system created to meet the information needs of Puget Sound area commuters. Traffic Reporter's goal is to influence commuter behavior and decision making so as to improve the efficiency with which commuters use...
Article
15 university students performed an exocentric judgement task in which they estimated the azimuth and elevation separating two computer-generated cubes, using a perspective display. The perspective displays were created by varying two geometric parameters of perspective, the geometric field of view and station-point distance. Further, the radial di...
Article
Important goals for interface designers are to determine when it is beneficial to use iconic or command-based menus and how these traditional menu systems can be enhanced by the use of sound. To investigate this topic, 28 subjects were asked to maneuver through one of four different implementations of an interactive software package in order to exe...
Article
Results are presented of two preliminary display designs (plan view and perspective) employed for the purpose of extracting and analyzing specific user requirements from which specifications could be applied to design a 3D, color-coded, dynamic, perspective ATC display. These results provide evidence that critical trade-offs exist in the design of...
Article
This paper presents the results of a large sample survey designed to investigate the response of commuters to the delivery of traffic information. The main purpose of the survey was to investigate the impact of traffic information on commuters route choices, mode choices, and departure times in order to provide functional requirements for the desig...
Article
A “Motorist Information Survey” was conducted by University of Washington investigators as part of a project sponsored by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) and the Federal Highway Administration under the State's Freeway Arterial Management Effort (FAME). This survey, with responses on 62 variables from 3, 893 Seattle commut...
Article
An important goal for the design of visual displays is to determine how much realism or scene complexity to include in a computer simulation to reach a given level of performance. This is an important task since the present trend in computer graphics is to include the highest level of realism or scene complexity possible in a simulation. However, i...
Article
This study investigated the effect of providing visual enhancements to a three-dimensional (3D) perspective display on the observers ability to judge the azimuth and elevation which separated two computer-generated images. The 3D perspective scenes were modeled after displays presented previously by McGreevy and Ellis (1986) but with several visual...
Conference Paper
This paper reports the results of several studies designed to investigate commuter behavior and decision making with the goal of obtaining functional requirements for a user-based advanced driver information system (ADIS). To achieve this objective, the following tasks were performed: (1) a large sample survey was administered to 9, 652 motorists c...

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