Wolfgang Klimesch

Wolfgang Klimesch
University of Salzburg · Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience

About

219
Publications
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Publications

Publications (219)
Article
Full-text available
Slow oscillations of different center frequencies and their coupling play an important role in brain-body interactions. The crucial question analyzed by us is, whether the low frequency (LF) band (0.05–0.15 Hz) or the intermediate frequency (IMF) band (0.1–0.2 Hz) is more eminent in respect of the information flow between body (heart rate and respi...
Article
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Brain–heart synchronization is fundamental for emotional-well-being and brain–heart desynchronization is characteristic for anxiety disorders including specific phobias. Recording BOLD signals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important noninvasive diagnostic tool; however, 1–2% of fMRI examinations have to be aborted due to c...
Article
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The origin of slow intrinsic oscillations in resting states of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals is still a matter of debate. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that slow blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) oscillations with frequency components greater than 0.10 Hz result from a central neural pacemaker located i...
Article
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Recently, we reported on the unusual “switch-off” of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) by analyzing heart rate (HR) beat-to-beat interval (RRI) signals and respiration in five subjects during a potentially anxiety-provoking first-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning with slow spontaneous breathing waves (Rassler et al., 2018)...
Article
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Cross frequency coupling is used to study the cross talk between brain oscillations. In this paper we focus on a special type of frequency coupling between brain and body oscillations, which is reflected by the numerical ratio (r) between two frequencies (m and n; n > m). This approach is motivated by theoretical considerations, indicating that dur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cross frequency coupling is used intensively to study the cross talk between brain oscillations. In this paper we focus on a special type of frequency coupling between brain and body oscillations, which is reflected by the numerical ratio (r) between two frequencies (m and n; n > m). This approach is motivated by theoretical considerations indicati...
Article
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Research on brain oscillations has brought up a picture of coupled oscillators. Some of the most important questions that will be analyzed are, how many frequencies there are, what the coupling principles are, what their functional meaning is, and whether body oscillations follow similar coupling principles. It is argued that physiologically, two b...
Article
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Neural populations produce complex oscillatory patterns thought to implement brain function. The dominant rhythm in the healthy adult human brain is formed by alpha oscillations with a typical power peak most commonly found between 9 and 11 Hz. This alpha peak frequency has been repeatedly discussed as a highly heritable and stable neurophysiologic...
Article
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Today’s stressors largely arise from social interactions rather than from physical threat. However, the dominant laboratory model of emotional learning relies on physical stimuli (e.g. electric shock) whereas adequate models of social conditioning are missing, possibly due to more subtle and multilayered biobehavioral responses to such stimuli. To...
Article
Based on physiological models of neurovisceral integration, different studies have shown how cognitive processes modulate heart rate and how the heartbeat, on the other hand, modulates brain activity. We tried to further determine interactions between cardiac and electrical brain activity by means of EEG. We investigated how the heartbeat modulates...
Article
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Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with t...
Article
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Objective Numerous studies point to the involvement of sleep spindles and slow waves in memory processes, particularly in hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. We have shown previously that the overnight change in recall performance in a declarative word pair association task correlates significantly with increased spindle activity during the n...
Article
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Ovarian sex hormones modulate neuronal circuits not directly involved in reproductive functions. In the present study, we investigated whether endogenous fluctuations of estradiol and progesterone during the menstrual cycle are associated with early cortical processing stages in a cued spatial attention paradigm. EEG was monitored while young women...
Article
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In semantic categorization processes, individuals form a relation between perceived or imagined objects and knowledge about these objects. In the present semantic categorization study, we correlated endogenous 17-β-estradiol levels (E2) with performance as well as amplitude of theta oscillations in young women (age 23.1 ± 3.4 years). The semantic c...
Article
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Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study,...
Article
Language and gesture are viewed as highly interdependent systems. Besides supporting communication, gestures also have an impact on memory for verbal information compared to pure verbal encoding in native but also in foreign language learning. In a within-subject longitudinal study lasting 14 months, we tested the use of gestures in the classroom w...
Article
Full-text available
Retrieval from semantic memory is usually considered within a time window around 300-600ms. Here we suggest that lexical access already occurs at around 100ms. This interpretation is based on the finding that semantically rich and frequent words exhibit a significantly shorter topographical latency difference between the site with the shortest P1 l...
Article
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There is growing evidence of the active involvement of sleep in memory consolidation. Besides hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes and sleep spindles, slow oscillations appear to play a key role in the process of sleep-associated memory consolidation. Furthermore, slow oscillation amplitude and spectral power increase during the night after lear...
Article
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Patients suffering from disorders of consciousness still present a diagnostic challenge due to the fact that their assessment is mainly based on behavioral scales with their motor responses often being strongly impaired. We therefore focused on resting electroencephalography (EEG) in order to reveal potential alternative measures of the patient's c...
Article
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EEG recordings over the sensorimotor cortex show a prominent oscillatory pattern in a frequency range between 12-15Hz (sensorimotor rhythm, SMR) under quiet but alert wakefulness. This frequency range is also abundant during sleep, and is overlapping with the sleep spindle frequency band. In the present pilot study we tested whether instrumental co...
Article
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Alpha-band oscillations are the dominant oscillations in the human brain and recent evidence suggests that they have an inhibitory function. Nonetheless, there is little doubt that alpha-band oscillations also play an active role in information processing. In this article, I suggest that alpha-band oscillations have two roles (inhibition and timing...
Data
Descriptive statistics of sleep cycle parameters and their correlation with memory performance.
Data
Memory change and PVT reaction times. (A) Subjects from the sleep group showed a significantly smaller decline of retrieval performance from initial temporal order recall (RET1) to delayed recall in the next morning (RET2) as compared to sleep-deprived subjects. (B) Time course of overall mean reaction times (±SEMs) while performing the PVT.
Article
Full-text available
The attentional blink phenomenon is the reduced ability to report a second target (T2) after identifying a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli (e.g., letters), which are presented at approximately 10 items per second. Several explanations have been proposed, which focus primarily on cognitive aspects, such as a...
Article
Full-text available
Even though it is known that sleep benefits declarative memory consolidation, the role of sleep in the storage of temporal sequences has rarely been examined. Thus we explored the influence of sleep on temporal order in an episodic memory task followed by sleep or sleep deprivation. Thirty-four healthy subjects (17 men) aged between 19 and 28 years...
Article
Converging evidence suggests that EEG theta is particularly 'responsive' to working memory (WM) demands. However, the question is whether theta reflects global WM processes or more specific subprocesses such as central executive and/or episodic encoding processes. WM represents a limited capacity store both for retaining information over a period o...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Experience-dependent cortical plasticity observed during post-training sleep has been hypothesized to be part of the global process of memory consolidation. Combining the temporal resolution of microstructure detectors and the spatial resolution of low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) makes it possible to investigate...
Article
Efficient encoding of relevant information and suppression of irrelevant information influence working memory (WM) performance, which is limited and declines in adulthood. A cued Sternberg WM task and electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) were used to investigate encoding and control operations in response to to-be-remembered (REM) and not-to-be...
Article
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In the present study we have tested the hypothesis that evoked traveling alpha waves are behaviorally significant. The results of a visual-semantic categorization task show that three early ERP components including the P1-N1 complex had a dominant frequency characteristic in the alpha range and behaved like traveling waves do. They exhibited a trav...
Conference Paper
There is growing evidence for an active involvement of sleep on memory consolidation. Especially sleep spindles and slow oscillations (< 1 Hz) appear to play a crucial role in the process of declarative memory consolidation. In addition, there is convincing evidence that sleep spindles are related to general cognitive abilities because they are ref...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, a theory is presented which assumes that the visual P1 reflects the same cognitive and physiological functionality as alpha (with a frequency of about 10 Hz).Whereas alpha is an ongoing process, the P1 is the manifestation of an event-related process. It is suggested that alpha and the P1 reflect inhibition that is effective during...
Article
Our brain does not process incoming sensory stimuli mechanistically. Instead the current brain state modulates our reaction to a stimulus. This modulation can be investigated by cognitive paradigms such as the attentional blink, which reveal that identical visual target stimuli are correctly reported only on about half the trials. Support for the n...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with altered states of consciousness continue to constitute a major challenge in terms of clinical assessment, treatment and daily management. Furthermore, the exploration of brain function in severely brain-damaged patients represents a unique lesional approach to the scientific study of consciousness. Electroencephalography is one means...
Article
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For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term kno...
Article
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Although behavioral evaluation of awareness in disorders of consciousness is difficult it remains the clinical standard. We believe that the refinement of EEG and analyses techniques would improve our characterization of those patients. We focused on cognitive processing in a sample of 12 control subjects, eight vegetative-state patients, and 13 pa...
Article
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Since years there is a hotly discussed dispute whether event-related potentials are either generated by an evoked component or by resetting of ongoing phase. We argue that phase-reset must not be proven in order to accept the general involvement of phase in ERP-generation as it is only one of several possible mechanisms influencing or generating ce...
Article
It has been claimed that the coordination of neuronal oscillations differing in frequency is relevant for cognition. However, the validity of this claim has scarcely been investigated. Recent studies revealed that cross-frequency phase coupling and modulations of alpha-power dissociate between retention of relevant and suppression of irrelevant inf...
Article
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There is profound knowledge that sleep restriction increases tonic (event-unrelated) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. In the present study we focused on time-locked activity by means of phasic (event-related) EEG analysis during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) over the course of sleep deprivation. Twenty healthy subjects (10 male; mean ag...
Article
The classical frequency bands of the EEG can be described as a geometric series with a ratio (between neighbouring frequencies) of 1.618, which is the golden mean. Here we show that a synchronization of the excitatory phases of two oscillations with frequencies f1 and f2 is impossible (in a mathematical sense) when their ratio equals the golden mea...
Article
Neural correlates of control mechanisms in human working memory are discussed at two levels in this review: (i) at 'item level', where in multi-item working memory information needs to be organized into sequential memory representations, and (ii) at a 'process level', indicating the integration and control of a variety of cognitive functions involv...
Article
Using electroencephalographic recordings (EEG), we assessed differences in oscillatory cortical activity during auditory-oddball performance between children aged 9-13 years, younger adults, and older adults. From childhood to old age, phase synchronization increased within and between electrodes, whereas whole power and evoked power decreased. We...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of information that can be stored in visual short-term memory is strictly limited to about four items. Therefore, memory capacity relies not only on the successful retention of relevant information but also on efficient suppression of distracting information, visual attention, and executive functions. However, completely separable neural...
Article
The functions of human alpha oscillations ( approximately 10 Hz) were related to cognitive processes such as memory and top-down control. Recent models suggest that alpha phase serves as a mechanism especially relevant for the timing of neural activity, whereas alpha amplitude is important for the inhibition of task-irrelevant brain areas. This stu...
Article
The involvement of oscillatory activity, especially at theta and gamma frequency, in human working memory has been reported frequently. A salient pattern during working memory is electroencephalographic frontal midline theta activity which has been suggested to reflect monitoring functions in order to deal with a task. In general, theta activity ha...
Article
A central topic in cognitive neuroscience is the question, which processes underlie large scale communication within and between different neural networks. The basic assumption is that oscillatory phase synchronization plays an important role for process binding--the transient linking of different cognitive processes--which may be considered a spec...
Article
More intelligent persons (high IQ) typically present a higher cortical activity during tasks requiring the encoding of visuo-spatial information, namely higher alpha (about 10 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD; Doppelmayr et al., 2005). The opposite is true ("neural efficiency") during the retrieval of the encoded information, as revealed by...
Article
In this comment we argue that a proof of phase reset is difficult for a variety of reasons. We suggest that a theoretical analysis of the assumptions and empirical evaluation of predictions of the phase reset model offers a promising way to shed new light on mechanisms generating ERPs. The crucial assumption is that the purpose of phase reset is th...
Article
In this comment we argue that a proof of phase reset is difficult for a variety of reasons. We suggest that a theoretical analysis of the assumptions and empirical evaluation of predictions of the phase reset model offers a promising way to shed new light on mechanisms generating ERPs. The crucial assumption is that the purpose of phase reset is th...
Article
Full-text available
To test whether instrumental conditioning of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR; 12-15 Hz) has an impact on sleep parameters as well as declarative memory performance in humans. Randomized, parallel group design 10 instrumental conditioning sessions, pre- and posttreatment investigation including sleep evaluations 27 healthy subjects (13 male) Interventions:...
Article
To investigate electrophysiological correlates of action observation electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants observed repetitive biological (human) or non-biological movements (at a rate of 2 Hz). Steady-state evoked potentials were analyzed and their neural sources were investigated using low resolution electromagnetic tomograph...
Article
There is growing interest in the functional meaning of rhythmical brain activity. For oscillatory brain activity around 10 Hz in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) it is discussed whether it is associated with the level of cortical excitation. However, it is not clear whether the relation between 10 Hz EEG oscillatory activity and cortical excita...
Article
An integrative theoretical approach about memory related oscillations is presented. The basic assumptions are that memory related oscillations are probably confined to theta and upper alpha and that other frequencies particularly in the gamma range are important for memory primarily because they become coupled to lower frequencies and/or because th...
Article
The efficient use of our memory does not only require remembering encoded information, it also requires forgetting old out-of-date information. That such memory updating is part of our memory system is suggested by numerous behavioral studies. The physiological correlates of this process, however, still remain elusive. In this study we explore osci...
Article
In the present study, we investigate the role of upper alpha oscillations for semantic access and retrieval processes. In each of a series of trials, subjects were presented trains of distorted pictures (with decreasing levels of degradation), and were asked to respond as quickly as possible when they recognize the meaning of the picture. The resul...
Article
The present study attempts to demonstrate functional similarities between the P1 component of event-related potentials and alpha oscillations that are predicted by the 'alpha inhibition-timing' hypothesis. On the basis of findings showing that the frequency characteristic of the P1 component lies in the alpha range and that alpha oscillation is fun...
Article
Spatial attention amplifies the neural response, i.e. spike rates, brain metabolism, and oscillatory activity at gamma frequency (beyond 30 Hz). In this study we show that when a visual target is attended enhanced synchrony between gamma phase (30 to 50 Hz) and theta phase (4 to 7 Hz), representing bottom-up and top-down activity, respectively, can...