Wolfgang Eichhammer

Wolfgang Eichhammer
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI | ISI · Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Markets

Professor

About

139
Publications
31,930
Reads
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2,388
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • https://www.uu.nl/staff/waeichhammer
January 2012 - April 2020
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI
Position
  • Head of Department
Description
  • https://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/en/competence-center/energiepolitik-energiemaerkte/mitarbeiter/eichhammer.html

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
Full-text available
The Energy Efficiency First (EE1st) principle has recently been placed onto the political agenda in the European Union (EU). While the general rationale for EE1st is described in EU legislation and supporting literature, a common understanding of the principle’s implications for energy-related planning, investment, and policymaking is still missing...
Article
Full-text available
New societal trends are unfolding, such as digitalization, sharing economy and consumer awareness. They will highly influence future energy demand and, depending on their realization, enhance or counteract projected energy efficiency gains. Therefore, these trends have to be accompanied by policies with a strong focus on reducing energy demand (inc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the factors underlying the evolution of the energy consumption for space heating in residential buildings by linking top-down analysis, based on meso-indicators, and bottom-up analysis, based on policy evaluations. The top-down analysis (i.e. the perspective from energy statistics) allows one to separate the change in total energ...
Article
Full-text available
Though sharing a similar practice form, the emission trading scheme is distinguished from traditional financial markets: firms coordinate three abatement options at the micro level, including allowance trading, output adjustment, and low-carbon technology adoption. Then, at the macro level, this leads to dynamic interactions among allowance market,...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we develop a quantitative indicator approach including 20 indicators to measure the multiple benefits of energy efficiency (MB-EE). The MB-EEs are classified into three groups: environmental (e.g. energy savings, emissions), economic (e.g. GDP, employment), and social (health, energy poverty) aspects. We explain the methodological ap...
Article
In 2015, industrial sector installations included in the European emission trading system (EU ETS) emitted 574 Mt CO2-equivalent Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among them are production of clinker, lime and ammonia, blast furnace operations, refineries and others. The emission intensity of these installations is closely tied to the fuel type used....
Article
The flexible use of energy is seen as a key option to facilitate the integration of volatile renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity sector. In this study, we focus on flexibility in the service sector, in terms of flexible technologies, experiences and willingness to participate in demand response (DR) actions. We analyse the technical...
Article
Substantial improvement in traditional energy intensity indicator (4.5% p.a.) for Switzerland in the period 2000 to 2016 points towards strong decoupling of economic growth and energy demand. Since the improved energy intensity could be primarily driven by soaring value added, it is necessary to analyse 1) physical energy efficiency (EE) representi...
Article
Full-text available
To accommodate the increasing share of intermittent renewable energy, options need to be evaluated to maintain a profitable, secure and sustainable energy supply. Besides energy efficiency (EE) as “first fuel”, adapting demand to meet the variable supply needs to be evaluated. We focus on concepts of energy efficiency and load flexibility (further:...
Article
This paper proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the policy settings in the European low-carbon energy scenarios. First, it presents the methodology including ten characteristics for scenario assessment: modelling framework (diversity), ambitiousness of the targets 2050, relations with other (European) countries, stakeholder involvement,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to unravel the effects of both policies and autonomous developments driving the changes of final energy consumption for the European Union (EU28) and its member states complemented with an in-depth analysis of two EU member states, Germany and Poland, for the period of 2000 to 2015 by the logarithmic mean Divisia index methodology (...
Article
The currently high upfront costs of batteries and the low retail electricity prices of households make investments in PV–battery systems not yet economically feasible. However, the experiences/learning curves of renewable generation technologies lead to the assumption that battery prices will rapidly decline with increasing diffusion. Furthermore,...
Article
China has set a goal of 20% non-fossil energy in total primary energy consumption by 2030. The decision of where to invest in renewable energy, and to what extent, needs to be considered from a forward-looking perspective. This article presents a power sector optimization model that integrates unit commitment with long-term generation expansion pla...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the following two key research questions in the context of the change in allocation rules in the move from Phase I/II (2005–2012) to Phase III (2013–2020) of the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS): First, how do allocations compare with actual installation-verified emissions in Phase III? For that purpose we analyse cha...
Article
Full-text available
The improvement of energy efficiency in industrial companies plays a crucial role for the energy transition. Although significant economic potentials have been identified, the concerned actors are still struggling to realize them fully. To support the implementation of energy efficiency measures by passing policies, a deeper understanding of the ba...
Article
Full-text available
This paper contributes to the existing literature on carbon leakage by using a range of different publically available datasets in order to develop a systematic approach for identifying whether products are potentially at risk of carbon leakage. The scope of this paper focuses on the cement and aluminium sectors at different levels of product aggre...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring the progress of the European Union and its Member States towards the EU’s energy efficiency target is a crucial part of the mandatory process as defined in the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU. In this paper, we conduct index decomposition analyses to show the effects of both policies and autonomous developments driving the changes...
Article
Full-text available
The paper aims at explaining why large-scale energy-intensive industries—here the German iron and steel industry—had a period of slow uptake of major energy-efficient technologies from the mid 1990s to mid 2000s (Arens and Worrell, 2014) and why from the mid 2000s onwards these technologies are increasingly implemented again. We analyze the underly...
Article
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In view of the 2030 energy and climate objectives of the European Union, there is a need to evaluate the different options to shape the future framework for renewable energy sources (RES) policies and targets. The Special Issue focuses in seven papers on the following dimension of this future framework: (i) interactions between support for RES in t...
Article
This paper deals with possibilities of targeting energy efficiency potentials in German companies by delivering information and support within a cooperative management system “Learning Energy Efficiency Networks” (LEEN). Information deficits are pointed out as a relevant barrier to implementing energy efficiency measures in literature that can be a...
Article
The iron and steel industry is a major industrial emitter of carbon dioxide globally and in Germany. If European and German climate targets were set as equal proportional reduction targets (referred to here as “flat” targets) among sectors, the German steel industry would have to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions from about 60 million metric tons...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 4th ASEAN Energy Outlook (AEO4) not only aims to provide policy makers with an understanding of the energy trends and challenges being faced by the region up to the year 2035, but also to strongly involve all ASEAN Member States (AMS) in the process. The AEO4 will complement the implementation of the ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation...
Article
Even though environmental innovations are generally considered a key element towards a green growth strategy, especially for the case of energy efficiency innovations, the impact of innovation on climate goals has been subject to a long-running debate. On the one hand, energy efficiency innovations provide a huge cost-effective potential for reduci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Ecodesign Directive (EDD) is a key instrument of the EU’s energy policy framework and is expected to have a substantial impact on energy efficiency and energy demand in the European economy. We have conducted a model-based ex-ante assessment of the energy savings induced by the EDD until 2020 and 2030 for the sectors industry, tertiary and hou...
Article
The cement industry is the second-largest CO2 emitting industrial sector in China, and it is faced with increasing worldwide criticism to pressure China to reduce its CO2 emissions to acceptable level. In this study, the effects of potential technological improvement to China’s cement industry are evaluated and compared to the International Energy...
Article
The European Union has set a system of climate and energy targets comprising target values for greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), Emission Trading Sectors ETS and non-ETS sectors, energy efficiency and renewable energies until 2020. A new framework up to 2030 is just being developed. We analyse what lessons can be learned from the EU 2020 target syste...
Article
Full-text available
Emission trading schemes (ETS) are being employed by an increasing number of countries as a market-based policy instrument to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and so address climate change. Although traditional environmental economics has laid a strong foundation for ETS design, the existing schemes of GHG trading in different countries are fa...
Article
As Europe is not on track in meeting its 2020 energy savings target, there has been quite some debate to make the energy savings target binding instead of indicative. Although the final draft text of the Energy Efficiency Directive left the option of a binding target explicitly open for the period beyond 2014, this statement has watered down in the...
Article
In order to achieve national or EU-wide energy efficiency targets, a variety of policies is available. Apart from the traditional set of regulative, financial, fiscal and informative instruments, market-oriented instruments as e. g. energy efficiency obligations (EEOs) become more and more important. The new EU Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) eve...
Article
In the past, many countries have financed schemes to promote energy efficiency and renewable heat generation mainly through public budgets; support schemes to renewable electricity already have a broader financing basis but have been criticised for providing too little incentives for market integration of renewables. This is why it is essential to...
Chapter
Welchen Beitrag kann die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Industrie zur Energiewende in Deutschland leisten? Um diese Frage zu beantworten wird für die energieintensiven Branchen, welche insgesamt etwa 70% des Energiebedarfs der Industrie ausmachen, eine modellgestützte Analyse der vorhandenen Energieeffizienzpotenziale durchgeführt. Aufbauen...
Book
Welchen Beitrag kann die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Industrie zur Energiewende in Deutschland leisten? Um diese Frage zu beantworten wird für die energieintensiven Branchen, welche insgesamt etwa 70 % des Energiebedarfs der Industrie ausmachen, eine modellgestützte Analyse der vorhandenen Energieeffizienzpotenziale durchgeführt. Aufbaue...
Book
In the “Policy Scenarios for Climate Protection VI” project the greenhouse gas emissions for Germany are assessed based on model analyses for detailed specific energy and climate policy instruments. In the Current Policy Scenario (CPS) all measures which have been implemented by 8 July 2011 (and those which entered into force for the first time or...
Article
In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We evaluate the program's impact in terms of energy s...
Article
Competences for green technologies in Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs) are becoming increasingly urgent from a global perspective. We define NIC as countries which undergo rapid economic growth with a corresponding change in economic structure from mostly agricultural societies to a society dominated by the industrial sector and increasing se...
Article
Paper production is an energy-intensive process and accounted for about 9% of industrial energy demand in Germany in 2008. There have only been slow improvements in energy efficiency in the paper industry over the past twenty years. Policies can accelerate the progress made, but knowledge about the remaining efficiency potentials and their costs is...
Article
Full-text available
Bei Einführung der ökologischen Steuerreform im Jahr 1999 wurden Unternehmen des Produzierenden Gewerbes sowie der Land- und Forstwirtschaft Vergünstigungen bei der Strom- und Energiesteuer eingeräumt. Die Bundesregierung plant, diese Vergünstigungen auch in Zukunft beizubehalten. Dazu müssen sie nach 2012 von der EU erneut beihilferechtlich genehm...
Article
This paper considers which design of a binding energy savings target for the EU is the most feasible to both make it work and to ensure it can be evaluated in an efficient and transparent manner. We look at four possible design options. We conclude that a binding target at Member State level applied to end-users is the most feasible. Such design op...
Conference Paper
The German Energy Concept of 2010 proposes measures for industry to advance energy efficiency in the industry sector e.g. energy management system (EMS). In our study, we characterize various experiences with policy instruments to accelerate the improvement of energy efficiency. We define
Technical Report
Full-text available
Electric motor systems account for about 60 percent of global industrial electricity consumption and close to 70 percent of industrial electricity demand. Electric motors drive both, core industrial processes, like presses or rolls, and auxiliary systems like compressed air generation, ventilation or water pumping. They are utilized throughout all...
Book
Full-text available
Given the risks associated with global warming and its potential consequences due to the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), the European Union (EU) has pledged to reduce its emissions by at least 20 percent until 2020 and by at least 80 percent until 2050 compared to 1990 levels. In this context, the energy sector plays a crucial role, since app...
Article
The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does no...
Article
Europe's 2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target consists of two sub-targets: one for the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) sectors and one for the non-ETS sectors. The non-ETS target covers CO2 emissions in buildings, transport and non-ETS industry and non-CO2 GHG emissions. The non-ETS target is known as Europe's Effort Sharing Decision. This art...
Article
The goal of this paper is to review bottom-up models for industrial energy demand with a particular focus on their capability to model barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The integration of barriers into the models is an important prerequisite for a more detailed and realistic modeling of policies for energy efficiency. Parti...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing energy efficiency is discussed as an effective way to protect the climate, even though this is frequently associated with additional (investment) costs when compared to standard technologies. However, the investment costs of emerging energy-efficient technologies can be reduced by economies of scale and experience curve effects. This als...
Article
The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such conclusion is provided in our recent study, which forms part of t...