Wolf-Peter Schmidt

Wolf-Peter Schmidt
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | LSHTM

About

133
Publications
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Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Objective: To estimate the effect of improving waste collection services on waste disposal behaviour and exposure to environmental risk factors in urban, low-income communities in Pakistan. Methods: We enrolled six low-income communities in Islamabad (Pakistan), four of which received an intervention consisting of a door-to-door low-cost waste c...
Article
Titration assays can be used to define positivity either in terms of a change over time, i.e. seroconversion, or relative to a fixed threshold. The operating characteristics of these definitions depend on the precision of the assay. We present methods for estimating the distribution of errors, at the level of a single replicate, from the distributi...
Article
Objective The clinical and serological characteristics of spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) infections in South Asia are poorly understood. We studied the clinical presentation and the IgM/IgG response in cases enrolled at two health care centres in South India. Method We enrolled 77 patients. 57 of these were recruited at a tertiary care cen...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in 48 rural villages of Ethiopia to assess the effect of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) on the diarrhea incidence of children. Twenty-four villages were randomly assigned to the intervention group and the other 24 were assigned to the control group. A CLTS intervention was implemented from January 2016...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a controlled before-and-after trial to evaluate the impact of an onsite urban sanitation intervention on the prevalence of enteric infection, soil transmitted helminth re-infection, and diarrhea among children in Maputo, Mozambique. A non-governmental organization replaced existing poor-quality latrines with pour-flush toilets with sep...
Article
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Background Scrub typhus is a dominant cause of febrile illness in many parts of Asia. Immunity is limited by the great strain diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi . It is unclear whether previous infection protects from severe infection or enhances the risk. Methods/principal findings We studied IgG antibody levels against O . tsutsugamushi at pres...
Article
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Inadequate menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices have been associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to describe MHM practices among schoolgirls from rural Gambia and assess risk factors associated with urogenital infections and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescent schoolgirls in thirtee...
Article
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Background: Effective and scalable behaviour change interventions to increase use of existing toilets in low income settings are under debate. We tested the effect of a novel intervention, the ‘5 Star Toilet’ campaign, on toilet use among households owning a toilet in a rural setting in the Indian state of Gujarat. Methods: The intervention include...
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted a controlled before-and-after trial to evaluate the impact of an onsite urban sanitation intervention on the prevalence of enteric infection, soil transmitted helminth re-infection, and diarrhea among children in Maputo, Mozambique. A non-governmental organization replaced existing poor-quality latrines with pour-flush toilets with sep...
Article
Scrub typhus and spotted fever group rickettsioses are thought to be common causes of febrile illness in India, whereas murine typhus is rarely tested for. This cross-sectional study explored the risk factors associated with scrub typhus, tick-borne spotted fever, and murine typhus seropositivity in three different geographical settings, urban, rur...
Article
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Background There are many different traps available for studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to find the most suitable trap to collect synanthropic fly populations to assess the impact of increased latrine coverage in the state of Odisha, India. Methods Different baits were assessed for use in sticky pot traps (60% sucrose solution,...
Article
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Enteric pathogens can be transmitted within the household and the surrounding neighborhood. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of neighborhood-level sanitation coverage on contamination of the household environment with levels of fecal indicator bacteria in rural Bangladesh. We conducted spot-check observations of sanitation f...
Article
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Background Enteric infections are common where public health infrastructure is lacking. This study assesses risk factors for a range of enteric infections among children living in low-income, unplanned communities of urban Maputo, Mozambique. Methods & findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 17 neighborhoods of Maputo to assess the preva...
Data
Description of compound selection criteria for larger MapSan trial. (DOCX)
Data
Additional methods for multiple imputation. (DOCX)
Data
Flow diagram of enrollment and data collection activities. (TIF)
Data
Definitions and coding schemes for analysis variables. (DOCX)
Data
Crude and adjusted risk ratios from the multiple imputation risk factor analyses for four measures of enteric infection: Any enteric infection, any bacterial infection, any protozoan infection, and any viral infection. Multivariable models are adjusted for child age and sex, caregiver education, household wealth, and breastfeeding practices. (DOCX)
Data
Crude and adjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of caregiver reported diarrhea and enteric infection. Multivariable models are adjusted for child age and sex, caregiver education, household wealth, and breastfeeding practices. (DOCX)
Article
Changing hand hygiene behavior at scale in the community remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of Unilever's school-based "School of 5" handwashing campaign on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in schoolchildren and their mothers in the Indian state of Bihar. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in two districts....
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To assess access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among people with disabilities at the household and individual level. Design Cross-sectional surveys. Setting Data were included from five district-level or regional-level surveys: two in Bangladesh (Bangladesh-1, Bangladesh-2), and one each in Cameroon, Malawi and India...
Article
Full-text available
Information provision, which is a common behavior-change strategy, is only effective if the information is credible. Infectious disease prevention messages that rely on the germ theory may fail to persuade people who are unfamiliar with microbes. A novel program in rural Pakistan augments conventional hygiene instruction by demonstrating with micro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household's water home from off-plot s...
Article
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Background: Community health clubs are multi-session village-level gatherings led by trained facilitators and designed to promote healthy behaviours mainly related to water, sanitation, and hygiene. They have been implemented in several African and Asian countries but have never been evaluated rigorously. We aimed to evaluate the effect of two vers...
Article
While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India. We conducted a mixed-method study...
Data
Household survey to assess sanitation decision making: “DM—survey.docx”. (XLSX)
Data
Discussion guide—Latrine installation and its decision making in rural households of Odisha: “DM—IDI & FGD guidance.docx”. (DOCX)
Data
Data set—Sanitation decision making in rural households in Odisha: “DM—dataset—10-02-16.xlsx”. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This pape...
Article
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Introduction Monitoring of sanitation programs is often limited to sanitation access and coverage, with little emphasis on use of the facilities despite increasing evidence of widespread non-use. Objectives We assessed patterns and determinants of individual latrine use over 12 months in a low- income rural study population that had recently recei...
Article
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In this study, we report on the results of a trial of an intervention to improve five food hygiene behaviors among mothers of young children in rural Nepal. This novel intervention targeted five behaviors; cleanliness of serving utensils, handwashing with soap before feeding, proper storage of cooked food, and thorough reheating and water treatment...
Article
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Background: Effective prevention and control of diarrhoea requires caregivers to comply with a suite of proven measures, including exclusive breastfeeding, handwashing with soap, correct use of oral rehydration salts, and zinc administration. We aimed to assess the effect of a novel behaviour change intervention using emotional drivers on caregive...
Article
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A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239)...
Article
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Although large-scale programs, like India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), have improved latrine coverage in rural settings, evidence suggests that actual use is suboptimal. However, the reliability of methods to assess latrine use is uncertain. We assessed the reliability of self-reported use, the standard method, by comparing survey-based respo...
Article
Full-text available
Surface and groundwater contamination with fecal pathogens is a public health concern especially in low-income settings where these sources are used untreated. We modeled observed Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in community ponds (n=94; 79% contaminated), deep tubewells (DTWs) (n=107; 17%), and shallow tubewells (STWs) (n=96; 19%) during...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to eradicate open defecation and improve sanitation access are unlikely to achieve health benefits unless interventions reduce microbial exposures. This study assessed human fecal contamination and pathogen exposures in rural India, and the effect of increased sanitation coverage on contamination and exposure rates. In a cross-sectional stu...
Article
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To explore associations of environmental and demographic factors with diarrhoea and nutritional status among children in Rusizi district, Rwanda. We obtained cross-sectional data from 8,847 households in May-August 2013 from a baseline survey conducted for an evaluation of an integrated health intervention. We collected data on diarrhoea, water q...
Article
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Background: The purpose of this review was to understand whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products could increase the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap (HWWS) in low-income settings. Methods: A review of experimental studies comparing the effects of HWWS with antimicrobial soap and waterless hand sanitizer on heal...
Article
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Background As part of the Total Sanitation Campaign (1999–2012), the Indian Government promoted construction and use of tens of millions of household latrines to improve public health in rural communities, areas where tubewells are often the main source of drinking water. In this study, we aimed to identify causes of tubewell contamination with the...
Article
It is unclear how best to go about improving child feeding practices. We studied the effect of a novel behaviour change intervention, Gerakan Rumpi Sehat (the Healthy Gossip Movement), on infant and young child feeding practices in peri-urban Indonesia. The pilot intervention was designed based on the principles of a new behaviour change theory,...
Article
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Background: Open defecation is widely practiced in India. To improve sanitation and promote better health, the Government of India (GOI) has instituted large scale sanitation programmes supporting construction of public and institutional toilets and extending financial subsidies for poor families in rural areas for building individual household la...
Article
In some common episodic conditions, such as diarrhea, respiratory infections, or fever, episode duration can reflect disease severity. The mean episode duration in a population can be estimated if both the incidence and prevalence of the condition are known. In this article, we discuss how an estimator of the average episode duration may be obtaine...
Article
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Access to safe sanitation in low-income, informal settlements of Sub-Saharan Africa has not significantly improved since 1990. The combination of a high faecal-related disease burden and inadequate infrastructure suggests that investment in expanding sanitation access in densely populated urban slums can yield important public health gains. No rigo...
Article
Exposure to animal livestock has been linked to zoonotic transmission, especially of gastrointestinal pathogens. Exposure to animals may contribute to chronic asymptomatic intestinal infection, environmental enteropathy and child under-nutrition in low-income settings. We conducted a cohort study to explore the effect of exposure to cows on growth...
Article
Full-text available
The provision of information, which is a common public health strategy, may be ineffective if recommendations are not privately optimal for message recipients. This paper evaluates the response to a hygiene information campaign in rural Pakistan. In a theoretical model, baseline hygiene and health proxy for preferences, prices, and wealth, which jo...
Article
An intervention trial of the 'SuperAmma' village-level intervention to promote handwashing with soap (HWWS) in rural India demonstrated substantial increases in HWWS amongst the target population. We carried out a process evaluation to assess the implementation of the intervention and the evidence that it had changed the perceived benefits and soci...
Article
A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of I...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1) detect recontamination after handwashing; (2) reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3) be applicable to large populations. The study was done in rural Andhr...
Article
Full-text available
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) have traditionally been linked to acute gastro-intestinal infections. More recently it has been hypothesized that an important pathway through which inadequate WASH access impacts on the burden of disease is via a chronic inflammatory state in the intestines named environmental enteropathy. This condition is str...
Conference Paper
In rural India where humans and livestock animals share water sources and living spaces, and sanitation is poor, exposure to the protozoa pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important potential public health concerns. We present results from a study to measure the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia oocysts/cysts in community water source...
Article
Full-text available
Our group conducted a cluster-randomised trial in 100 villages of Orissa, India to measure the impact of a rural sanitation intervention implemented under the government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign, on diarrhoea and soil-transmitted helminth infections. This paper reports on a process evaluation conducted in the context of the trial. Proce...
Conference Paper
Giardia lamblia, is an intestinal parasite commonly found in both humans and animals worldwide that can remain infectious for days to months in the environment and cause infection with a relatively low dose. In developing countries, such as rural India, the practice of open defecation and living in close proximity to livestock creates a situation w...
Article
Full-text available
Diarrhoea and respiratory infections are the two biggest causes of child death globally. Handwashing with soap could substantially reduce diarrhoea and respiratory infections, but prevalence of adequate handwashing is low. We tested whether a scalable village-level intervention based on emotional drivers of behaviour, rather than knowledge, could i...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a hospital-based descriptive study to describe the changing pattern of patient numbers, characteristics, and mortality rates among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in northern Thailand over 15 years. The survival status on October 31, 2010 of all HIV-infected adults who attended an HIV center in a government hospita...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A mix of secondary and primary research was conducted to examine the hypothesis that access to an at-house water supply will deliver significantly greater health, social and economic benefits than those derived from a shared public water supply. The research was carried out by a team from the University of Leeds, University of North Carolina, Unive...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive population-based data on the role of respiratory viruses in the development of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) remain unclear. We investigated the incidences and effect of respiratory viruses single and multiple infections on risk of LTIs in Vietnam.Population-based prospective surveillance and case-control study of hospitalised p...