Wolf L. Eiserhardt

Wolf L. Eiserhardt
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Bioscience

PhD

About

67
Publications
79,558
Reads
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2,610
Citations
Citations since 2016
33 Research Items
2119 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Introduction
Wolf L. Eiserhardt currently works at the Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University. Wolf does research in Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Botany.
Additional affiliations
September 2017 - present
Aarhus University
Position
  • Professor
June 2015 - August 2017
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Position
  • Research Leader, Integrated Monography
May 2014 - April 2016
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Position
  • Marie-Curie Intra-European Fellow
Description
  • Cladogenesis and Niche Evolution in Madagascan Forests (MADCLADES) - http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/108617_de.html

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
Summary' I. 'Introduction' II. 'A brief history of hypotheses' III. 'Age of TRF biome and lineages' IV. 'Frequency of immigration from other biomes' V. 'Speciation and extinction' VI. 'Ecological limits' VII. 'Key methodological challenges' VIII. 'Perspectives' IX. 'Conclusions' 'Acknowledgements' References Tropical rainforest (TRF) is the most sp...
Article
When taxa go extinct, unique evolutionary history is lost. If extinction is selective, and the intrinsic vulnerabilities of taxa show phylogenetic signal, more evolutionary history may be lost than expected under random extinction. Under what conditions this occurs is insufficiently known. We show that late Cenozoic climate change induced phylogene...
Article
Earth's climate has experienced strong changes on timescales ranging from decades to millions of years. As biodiversity has evolved under these circumstances, dependence on these climate dynamics is expected. In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on paleoclimatic legacies in biodiversity and ecosystem patterns. Paleoclimate has h...
Article
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The turnover of phylogenetic clades across space is a fundamental biodiversity pattern that may depend on long-term evolutionary processes, and that has downstream effects on other aspects of diversity including species richness and community structure. Limited niche evolution and limited dispersal are two major processes causing spatial restrictio...
Article
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The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine palm species distributions, community composition and species richness...
Preprint
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The traits of plants determine how they interact with each other and their environment, constituting key knowledge for diverse fields. The lack of comprehensive knowledge of plant traits (the “Raunkiærian shortfall”) poses a major, cross-disciplinary, barrier to scientific advancement. Spatial biases in trait coverage may also lead to erroneous con...
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Species richness varies immensely around the world. Variation in the rate of diversification (speciation minus extinction) is often hypothesized to explain this pattern, while alternative explanations invoke time or ecological carrying capacities as drivers. Focusing on seed plants, the world’s most important engineers of terrestrial ecosystems, we...
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Safeguarding Earth’s tree diversity is a conservation priority due to the importance of trees for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services such as carbon sequestration. Here, we improve the foundation for effective conservation of global tree diversity by analyzing a recently developed database of tree species covering 46,752 species. We q...
Article
The Darwinian shortfall, i.e. the lack of knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, significantly impedes our understanding of evolutionary drivers of global patterns of biodiversity. Spatial bias in the Darwinian shortfall, where phylogenetic knowledge in some regions is more complete than others, could undermine eco‐ and biogeographic inferences....
Article
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The extinction of all Madagascar's megafrugivores ca 1000 years ago, may have left its signature on the current distribution of vertebrate‐dispersed plants across the island, due to the loss of effective seed dispersal. In this study, we dissect the roles of extinct and extant frugivore distributions, abiotic variables, human impact and spatial pre...
Article
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Functional traits play a key role in driving plant community effects on ecosystem function. We examined nine functional traits in various palm (Arecaceae) species and their relationships with moisture, tree-fall gaps, slope, and forest type at 29 transects (500×5 m) in the northeastern region of the Colombian Amazon. Redundancy analysis of mean tra...
Article
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Extinction has increased as human activities impact ecosystems, yet relatively few species have conservation assessments. Novel approaches are needed to highlight threatened species that are currently data-deficient. Many Madagascan plant species have extremely narrow ranges, but this may not have always been the case—it is unclear how the island's...
Article
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Aim Since Wallace's and Engler's 19th-century biogeographical schemes, biogeographers have sought to classify the world into biogeographical regions according to patterns in biotic distribution. Yet, while most of the world's plant biodiversity can be found in the tropics, basic phytogeographical relationships and boundaries within this zone remain...
Article
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The date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, has been a cornerstone of Middle Eastern and North African agriculture for millennia. It was first domesticated in the Persian Gulf, and its evolution appears to have been influenced by gene flow from two wild relatives, P. theophrasti, currently restricted to Crete and Turkey, and P. sylvestris, widespread from...
Article
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The tree of life is the fundamental biological roadmap for navigating the evolution and properties of life on Earth, and yet remains largely unknown. Even angiosperms (flowering plants) are fraught with data gaps, despite their critical role in sustaining terrestrial life. Today, high-throughput sequencing promises to significantly deepen our under...
Preprint
Full-text available
The tree of life is the fundamental biological roadmap for navigating the evolution and properties of life on Earth, and yet remains largely unknown. Even angiosperms (flowering plants) are fraught with data gaps, despite their critical role in sustaining terrestrial life. Today, high-throughput sequencing promises to significantly deepen our under...
Article
Well-supported phylogenies are a prerequisite for the study of the evolution and diversity of life on earth. The subfamily Calamoideae accounts for more than one fifth of the palm family (Arecaceae), occurs in tropical rainforests across the world, and supports a billion-dollar industry in rattan products. It contains ca. 550 species in 17 genera,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera ) has been a cornerstone of Middle Eastern and North African agriculture for millennia. It is presumed that date palms were first domesticated in the Persian Gulf and subsequently introduced into North Africa, where their evolution in the latter region appears to have been influenced by gene flow from the wild re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both historical and contemporary environmental conditions determine present biodiversity patterns, but their relative importance is not well understood. One way to disentangle their relative effects is to assess how different dimensions of beta-diversity relate to past climatic changes, i.e., taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional compositional dis...
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In this article we explain what DNA barcoding means and its utility for palm research and conservation.
Article
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Aim Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) an...
Article
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Aims: Glacial-interglacial climate stability and contemporary climate could affect bird diversity through their direct effects on diversification and physiological tolerance, and indirect effects on plant species richness, which could provide more food and ecological niches. This study aims to quantitatively assess the direct and indirect effects o...
Preprint
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Trees are of vital importance for ecosystem functioning and services at local to global scales, yet we still lack a detailed overview of the global patterns of tree diversity and the underlying drivers, particularly the imprint of paleoclimate. Here, we present the high-resolution (110 km) worldwide mapping of tree species richness, functional and...
Article
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Seed size shapes plant evolution and ecosystems, and may be driven by plant size and architecture, dispersers, habitat and insularity. How these factors influence the evolution of giant seeds is unclear, as are the rate of evolution and the biogeographical consequences of giant seeds. We generated DNA and seed size data for the palm tribe Borasseae...
Preprint
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Although trees are key to ecosystem functioning, many forests and tree species across the globe face strong threats. Preserving areas of high biodiversity is a core priority for conservation; however, different dimensions of biodiversity and varied conservation targets make it difficult to respond effectively to this challenge. Here, we (i) identif...
Preprint
Extinction has increased as human activities impact ecosystems. Conservation assessments for the IUCN red list are a fundamental tool in aiding the prevention of further extinction, yet, relatively few species have been thoroughly assessed. To increase the efficiency of assessments, novel approaches are needed to highlight threatened species that a...
Article
Full-text available
The world’s herbaria collectively house millions of diverse plant specimens, including endangered or extinct species and type specimens. Unlocking genetic data from the typically highly degraded DNA obtained from herbarium specimens was difficult until the arrival of high-throughput sequencing approaches, which can be applied to low quantities of s...
Article
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Sequencing of target-enriched libraries is an efficient and cost-effective method for obtaining DNA sequence data from hundreds of nuclear loci for phylogeny reconstruction. Much of the cost of developing targeted sequencing approaches is associated with the generation of preliminary data needed for the identification of orthologous loci for probe...
Article
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Four new palm species are described in the genus Dypsis: three tree palms from the Masoala peninsula in north-eastern Madagascar (D. mijoroana sp. nov., D. ovojavavy sp. nov. and D. rabepierrei sp. nov.), and one understorey palm, D. aurantiaca sp. nov. from eastern-central Madagascar. Illustrations, a distribution map and conservation status are p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sequencing of target-enriched libraries is an efficient and cost-effective method for obtaining DNA sequence data from hundreds of nuclear loci for phylogeny reconstruction. Much of the cost associated with developing targeted sequencing approaches is preliminary data needed for identifying orthologous loci for probe design. In plants, identifying...
Article
Full-text available
Providing science and society with an integrated, up‐to‐date, high quality, open, reproducible and sustainable plant tree of life would be a huge service that is now coming within reach. However, synthesizing the growing body of DNA sequence data in the public domain and disseminating the trees to a diverse audience are often not straightforward du...
Article
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Taxonomy is a scientific discipline that has provided the universal naming and classification system of biodiversity for centuries and continues effectively to accommodate new knowledge. A recent publication by Garnett and Christidis [1] expressed concerns regarding the difficulty that taxonomic changes represent for conservation efforts and propos...
Article
In the face of climate change, populations have two survival options - they can remain in situ and tolerate the new climatic conditions ("stay"), or they can move to track their climatic niches ("go"). For sessile and small-stature organisms like alpine plants, staying requires broad climatic tolerances, realized niche shifts due to changing biotic...
Article
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The Masoala Peninsula is arguably the most celebrated destination for palms in Madagascar, and yet much of the region is inaccessible and remains unexplored. Here, we report the findings of an expedition in November 2015, during which we visited both the west side of the peninsula and the scarcely known east, encountering extraordinary palm diversi...
Article
Coastal dune plant communities along the western coast of Jutland and across the world – phylogeny, disturbance and management Coastal dunes provide habitat for many specialized, threatened and rare species, and are listed on the EU Habitats Directive as habitats that we need to protect. Furthermore, coastal dunes are interesting habitats for plant...
Article
Several attempts have been made to generate complete species-level phylogenies for large clades, enabling comprehensive analyses of ecological or evolutionary hypotheses at the species level. No such phylogeny has, however, been generated for any major plant group yet, but here we generate such a phylogeny for the palm family (Arecaceae). We do thi...
Article
Using conifers as a model system, we aim to test four hypotheses. H1: the processes that shape the phylogenetic structure of regional species assemblages depend on climate. H2: apparent effects of current climate can be equally well explained by past climate. H3: strong Quaternary climate oscillations have led to phylogenetically non-random assembl...
Article
1The effects of variation in taxonomic opinion between “splitters” and “lumpers” have been debated intensely in conservation biology and have also been discussed in macroecology. However, the impact on diversification analyses has received little attention and has largely been ignored by many end-users of macro-evolutionary analyses.2Using simulate...
Article
Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present...
Article
Farth's climate has experienced strong changes on timescales ranging from decades to millions of years. As biodiversity has evolved under these circumstances, dependence on these climate dynamics is expected. In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on paleoclimatic legacies in biodiversity and ecosystem patterns. Paleoclimate has h...
Article
The concepts of phylogenetic community structure (PCS) and phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) allow ecologists to address the role of species’ evolutionary history in community assembly. It is important to test the role of historical legacies relative to environmental constraints at local scales, where communities are assembled. We studied phylo...
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Arctic ecosystems face strong changes in snow conditions due to global warming. In contrast to habitat specialists, species occupying a wide range of microhabi-tats under different snow conditions may better cope with such changes. We studied how growth and reproduction of the dominant dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum varied among three habitat...
Article
The extent to which species’ ecological and phylogenetic relatedness shape their co-occurrence patterns at large spatial scales remains poorly understood. By quantifying phylogenetic assemblage structure within geographic ranges of >8000 bird species, we show that global co-occurrence patterns are linked – after accounting for regional effects – to...
Article
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Aims Studies integrating phylogenetic history and large-scale community assembly are few, and many questions remain unanswered. Here, we use a global coastal dune plant data set to uncover the important factors in community assembly across scales from the local filtering processes to the global long-term diversification and dispersal dynamics. Coas...
Article
Phylogenetic information can provide important insight into the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical rainforest communities. The hierarchical nature and scale dependency of phylogenetic community structure can be used to disentangle complex networks of assembly mechanisms. Here, we outline how particular assembly mechanisms can be identified by analy...
Article
Coastal dunes are a globally distributed ecosystem characterized by roughly linear geography, strong habitat connectivity, and strong small-scale internal gradients in disturbance and stress. Disturbance, stress and competition are often considered the main ecological forces driving plant community assembly, but their relative importance in coastal...
Article
Aim It is a central issue in ecology and biogeography to understand what governs community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity in tropical rain forest ecosystems. A key question is the relative importance of environmental species sorting (niche assembly) and dispersal limitation (dispersal assembly), which we investigate using a large data...
Article
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Despite long-standing interest in the origin and maintenance of species diversity, little is known about historical drivers of species assemblage structure at large spatiotemporal scales. Here, we use global species distribution data, a dated genus-level phylogeny, and paleo-reconstructions of biomes and climate to examine Cenozoic imprints on the...
Article
Full-text available
Palm community diversity and abundance was studied in the subandean zone and adjacent lowlands in 65 transects (5 × 500 m) covering 16.25 ha distributed over an area of 700 × 125 km in north-central Bolivia. A total of 38 palm species were found. The most diverse palm community was in lowland evergreen terra firme forest (28 palm species/4080 palm...
Article
Full-text available
Palm community diversity and abundance was studied in the subandean zone and adjacent lowlands in 65 transects (5 x 500 m) covering 16.25 ha distributed over an area of 700 x 125 km in north-central Bolivia. A total of 38 palm species were found. The most diverse palm community was in lowland evergreen terra firme forest (28 palm species/4080 palm...
Article
To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. American palm communities surveyed had 4–48 (median 16) sp...
Data
Maps of American palm species richness and climatic variables. (A) Palm species richness, (B) mean annual temperature, (C) mean temperature of the coldest month, (D) potential evapotranspiration, (E) actual evapotranspiration, (F) water deficit, (G) annual precipitation, and (H) minimum precipitation of the driest month. (TIF)
Data
Model selection for GWR with moving window kernel, b = 1200 km. AP: annual precipitation; MPDM: minimum precipitation of the driest month; WD: water deficit; MAT: mean annual temperature; MTCM: minimum temperature of the coldest month; PET: potential evapotranspiration; ΔAICC is the difference between the corrected Akaike information criterion valu...
Data
Model selection for GWR with bi-square kernel, b = 1800 km. AP: annual precipitation; MPDM: minimum precipitation of the driest month; WD: water deficit; MAT: mean annual temperature; MTCM: minimum temperature of the coldest month; PET: potential evapotranspiration; ΔAICC is the difference between the corrected Akaike information criterion values o...
Data
Model selection for GWR with moving window kernel, b = 1800 km. AP: annual precipitation; MPDM: minimum precipitation of the driest month; WD: water deficit; MAT: mean annual temperature; MTCM: minimum temperature of the coldest month; PET: potential evapotranspiration; ΔAICC is the difference between the corrected Akaike information criterion valu...
Data
Model selection for GWR with bi-square kernel, b = 1200 km. AP: annual precipitation; MPDM: minimum precipitation of the driest month; WD: water deficit; MAT: mean annual temperature; MTCM: minimum temperature of the coldest month; PET: potential evapotranspiration; ΔAICC is the difference between the corrected Akaike information criterion values o...
Article
Full-text available
Water and energy have emerged as the best contemporary environmental correlates of broad-scale species richness patterns. A corollary hypothesis of water-energy dynamics theory is that the influence of water decreases and the influence of energy increases with absolute latitude. We report the first use of geographically weighted regression for test...
Article
Full-text available
The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) of southern Africa is characterised by large, endemic radiations of flowering plants, the so-called 'Cape Clades', but it is unknown whether such radiations are also found in non-angiosperms. We hypothesise that GCFR-endemic lineages exist in the xeric adapted cheilanthoid ferns. To test this hypothesis with...