Winnifred R Louis

Winnifred R Louis
The University of Queensland | UQ · School of Psychology

PhD, McGill University

About

213
Publications
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Introduction
My research looks at the impact of identities and norms in a range of contexts from collective action, politics and religion to health choices or sustainable environmental action. I am interested in topics such as peace and conflict; effective persuasion and advocacy; trajectories of radicalisation and de-radicalisation; prejudice and discrimination; pro-sociality; and environmental action.

Publications

Publications (213)
Article
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Nonprofits address some of the world's most pressing problems, and many rely on donations to fund their essential work. Nonprofit marketers are, therefore, tasked with promoting charitable giving. Research on giving has largely focused on identifying the characteristics that make people generous but has generated inconsistent findings, suggesting i...
Article
Volunteers play critical roles in leading the activities of environmental organizations seeking to address the environmental crisis. Despite their importance, we know little about the factors that motivate individuals to engage in different environmental volunteer behaviors. Drawing on an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model, this study survey...
Article
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Millions of charities compete for donations, yet no empirical study has examined patterns of shared giving behavior across the nonprofit sector. To understand which types of charities are more likely to share donors, we conducted a social network analysis using behavioral data from 1,504,848 donors to 52 large charities in Australia. Three hypothes...
Chapter
When are people willing to advocate for social change, and how do we understand their resistance to such efforts? In this chapter, we provide a brief, broad overview of Social Identity Theory (SIT) and then discuss specific social identity processes which increase intergroup discrimination (i.e., distinctiveness threat, group-value threat, internal...
Article
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The present paper examines longitudinally how subjective perceptions about COVID-19, one’s community, and the government predict adherence to public health measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Using an international survey ( N = 3040), we test how infection risk perception, trust in the governmental response and communications about COVID-19...
Article
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Before vaccines for COVID-19 became available, a set of infection prevention behaviors constituted the primary means to mitigate the virus spread. Our study aimed to identify important predictors of this set of behaviors. Whereas social and health psychological theories suggest a limited set of predictors, machine learning analyses can identify cor...
Article
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Anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement has been associated with adverse health behaviors, such as unhealthy eating, smoking, and drinking. However, most studies have been limited by regional sampling, which precludes the examination of behavioral consequences associated with the pandemic at a global level. Further, few s...
Article
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Advocacy is intended to change people's attitudes and behavior. Yet the psychological and behavioral consequences of advocacy have rarely been considered. Across 3 experiments (combined N = 934) in the contexts of debates around racial discrimination and abortion, we investigated if and how exposure to advocacy can influence collective giving respo...
Article
Identity, injustice, and group efficacy are key motivations for collective action engagement. However, little work has examined factors that influence their emergence. Across 3 studies (Total N = 938), we test whether exposure to different actions (i.e., radical or conventional) and the perceived legitimacy and efficacy of those actions (“the means...
Article
Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is important to inform policy decisions and plan vaccination campaigns. The aims of this research were to: (1) explore the individual- and country-level determinants of intentions to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and (2) examine worldwide variation in vaccination intentions. This cross-s...
Chapter
With more than 10,000 islands scattered over 800,000 square kilometers, Oceania is a region of geographic and environmental extremes. From the white sand atolls in the Marshall Islands to the red dirt of the Australian arid lands, this continent is also on the forefront of experiencing the effects of our global environmental crisis. Rising tides, e...
Article
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Tightening social norms is thought to be adaptive for dealing with collective threat yet it may have negative consequences for increasing prejudice. The present research investigated the role of desire for cultural tightness, triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, in increasing negative attitudes towards immigrants. We used participant-level data from...
Article
The present research addresses a gap in the literature concerning the relationship of identity, game play, and toxicity, using longitudinal research. Time spent playing Defence of the Ancients 2 (DOTA 2; a competitive online team video game) was modelled at Time 1 (N =473) in relation to identity and perceived toxicity. We then examined the same re...
Article
During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors dete...
Article
Social change occurs over years and decades, yet we know little about how people sustain, increase or diminish their actions over time, and why they do so. This article examines diverging trajectories of solidarity-based collective action to support people in developing nations more than 5 years. We suggest that sustained, diminished, and/or increa...
Book
This monograph presents an empirical analysis of the Australian climate change movement to determine the extent to which activists are incorporating civil resistance into their tactical repertoire, what these actions look like, and what goals they are achieving. Using three movement frameworks as a theoretical foundation, it provides an overview...
Article
Most social movements will encounter setbacks in their pursuit of sociopolitical change. However, little is known about how movements are affected after protestors fail to achieve their aims. What are the effects of failure on subsequent engagement in various conventional and radical actions? Does failure promote divergent reactions among protestor...
Chapter
This chapter provides insight into the achievements and weaknesses of the Chilean transition and its relationship with recent social mobilizations and the present and future of its democracy. We begin by describing the main achievements of the transition, followed by its major shortcomings and how the social unrest (generated by the unresolved issu...
Article
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We propose to extend the current binary understanding of terrorism (vs. non-terrorism) with a Dynamic Matrix of Extremisms and Terrorism (DMET). DMET considers the whole ecosystem of content and actors that can contribute to a continuum of extremism (e.g., right-wing, left-wing, religious, separatist, single-issue). It organizes levels of extremism...
Research
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We conducted a multidisciplinary literature review on terrorist and violent extremist use of the internet.
Article
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This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N = 25,435). The main predictors were (1) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (...
Article
Full-text available
Sustained mass behaviour change is needed to tackle the COVID‐19 pandemic, but many of the required changes run contrary to existing social norms (e.g., physical closeness with in‐group members). This paper explains how social norms and social identities are critical to explaining and changing public behaviour. Recommendations are presented for how...
Article
Extensive research has identified factors influencing collective-action participation. However, less is known about how collective-action outcomes (i.e., success and failure) shape engagement in social movements over time. Using data collected before and after the 2017 marriage-equality debate in Australia, we conducted a latent profile analysis th...
Article
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To be published in Social and Personality Psychology Compass Abstract Sustained mass behaviour change is needed to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, but many of the required changes run contrary to existing social norms (e.g., physical closeness with ingroup members). This paper explains how social norms and social identities are critical to explaining...
Presentation
We conducted a systematic literature review of Terrorist and Violent Extremist Use of the Internet. In our review, we systematically compared our findings in the literature to the real-world incidence as expressed by Google search statistics. We found that the focus of academic research and the real-world incidence of Cyber-extremism diverge. Since...
Article
Environmental organisations use a variety of text based communication formats to mobilize supporters to take collective action on their behalf. Yet we know little about the characteristics of collective action communication used by environmental organizations, nor its mobilization potential. In this paper we investigate whether environmental organi...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common and has a lasting negative impact on the health and well-being of victims and survivors. People’s mental frameworks (schemas) of IPV are central in allowing them to identify and respond to IPV. Early recognition of IPV is essential to reducing the cumulative harm caused by repeated instances of abusive beha...
Article
Nowadays it is customary to incorporate emotions as explanatory variables of protest participation, since numerous studies have provided evidence for their relevance. However, the incorporation of emotions in quantitative research continues to emphasise the effect of a limited set of emotions (normally one or two with negative valence, such as ange...
Preprint
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The Coronavirus is highly infectious and potentially deadly. In the absence of a cure or a vaccine, the infection prevention behaviors recommended by the World Health Organization constitute the only measure that is presently available to combat the pandemic. The unprecedented impact of this pandemic calls for swift identification of factors most i...
Preprint
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In this work, we study how social contacts and feelings of solidarity shape experiences of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown in early 2020. We draw on cross-national data, collected across four time points between mid-March until early May 2020. We situate our work within the public debate on these issues and discuss to what extent the public...
Preprint
Full-text available
According to health behavior theories, perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow these recommendations. Because the U.S. President Trump and U.S. conservative politicians downplayed the risk and seriousness of contracting COVID-19 and the effectiv...
Article
Full-text available
The PsyCorona collaboration is a research project to examine processes involved in the COVID-19 pandemic, such as behavior that curbs virus transmission, which may implicate social norms, cooperation, and self-regulation. The study also examines psychosocial consequences of physical distancing strategies and societal lockdown, such as frustration o...
Article
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Millions of charities compete for donor dollars, yet why people prefer to give to particular charities remains poorly understood. Informed by the social identity approach, and using mixed methods, we analyzed open‐ended responses from a global donor survey (N = 1,849 from 117 countries) to understand why participants see their favorite charity as i...
Article
The present research demonstrates intergenerational influences on collective action participation, whereby parents’ past and current participation in collective action (descriptive family norms) shape their children’s participation in conventional and radical collective action via injunctive family norms (perception that parents value such particip...
Article
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Mapping the Moods of COVID-19: Global Study Uses Data Visualization to Track Psychological Responses, Identify Targets for Intervention
Article
While substantial research has been conducted on intimate partner violence (IPV), comparatively little research has examined peoples’ perceptions of which behaviors comprise this form of abuse. Early identification of IPV is critical to ending abuse, however, forms of IPV that typically occur earlier in a relationship (e.g., nonphysical abuse) may...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N=25,435). The main predictors were (i) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (ii...
Article
Collective action is volatile: characterized by swift, unexpected changes in intensity, target, and forms. We conduct a detailed exploration of four reasons that these changes occur. First, action is about identities which are fluid, contested, and multifaceted. As the content of groups’ identities change, so do the specific norms for the identitie...
Article
The present research applies self‐determination theory (SDT) to the context of unhealthy eating. The extent to which each of the six types of motivations stemming from the SDT continuum applies to unhealthy eating is examined, as well as the contribution of each motivation for eating unhealthily in predicting psychological well‐being and frequency...
Article
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To reduce the escalation of intergroup conflict, it is important that we understand the processes related to the detection of group-based threat and reconciliation. In the present study, we investigated the neural mechanisms of such processes using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Functional neuroimaging techniques may shed light on qu...
Article
A sustained groundswell of grassroots advocacy is required to trigger the urgent action required to solve our many global environmental problems. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics, issue focus, tactics and targets of this grassroots advocacy, we analyzed the website communications of 497 environmental movement organizatio...
Article
Climate change is a global problem requiring a collective response. Grassroots advocacy has been an important element in propelling this collective response, often through the mechanism of campaigns. However, it is not clear whether climate change campaigns organised by environmental advocacy groups are successful in achieving their goals, nor the...
Article
This paper introduces a model of the internalisation of normative social harmdoing: the MINSOH. This model seeks to explain how group members internalise harmful social norms such that they personally endorse their groups’ normative actions. To this aim, the MINSOH integrates two divergent yet complementary theoretical perspectives: self‐determinat...
Article
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Even though religious extremism is currently a hotly debated topic, it is often reduced to a unidimensional construct that is linked to religious violence. We argue that the contemporary use of the term “extreme” fails to capture the different interpretations, beliefs, and attitudes defining extreme religious identity. To address this issue, we unp...
Preprint
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Note: this manuscript has been peer reviewed and is published in Meta-Psychology. Please cite as: Prochilo, G. A., Louis, W. R., Bode, S., Zacher, H., & Molenberghs, P. (2019). An Extended Commentary on Post-publication Peer Review in Organizational Neuroscience. Meta-Psychology, 3. https://doi.org/10.15626/MP.2018.935 | While considerable progress...
Article
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While considerable progress has been made in organizational neuroscience over the past decade, we argue that critical evaluations of published empirical works are not being conducted carefully and consistently. In this extended commentary we take as an example Waldman and colleagues (2017): a major review work that evaluates the state-of-the-art of...
Article
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There are many different ways that people can express their support for the animals that exist in factory farms. This study draws on insights from the social identity approach, and adopts novel methods (latent profile analysis [LPA]) to examine the qualitatively different subgroups or profiles that comprise broader community positions on this issue...
Article
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Changing human behavior and attitudes are key to conserving global biodiversity. Despite evidence from other disciplines that strategic messaging can influence behavior and attitudes, it remains unclear how to best design messages to benefit biodiversity. We conducted a systematic literature review to investigate the status of conservation messagin...
Article
Power inequities are omnipresent in contexts like mining where companies have the capacity to significantly impact the wellbeing of community stakeholders. One aspect arises in attention to Social Licence to Operate (SLO), which – conceptually and in practice – supports a greater provision of power to certain stakeholders by privileging their voice...
Article
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M en have an important role as allies in reducing discrimination against women. Following the Social Identity Model of Collective Action (SIMCA), we examined whether men's identification with women would predict their allied collective action, alongside moral convictions, efficacy, and anger. We also examined whether identification with their own i...
Article
This paper describes an emerging body of work on intergroup prosociality, drawing together parallel literatures and highlighting some of the themes of the recent research. A broad distinction between benevolence and activism serves as the foundation to explore forms of intergroup prosociality, such as charitable giving, displays of empathy and affi...
Preprint
Members of groups in conflict may take collective action: actions to improve conditions for their group as a whole. The psychological antecedents of collective action for groups that are party to conflict and inequality are well-established. Comparatively little is known about how uninvolved outsiders respond to an external intergroup conflict. We...
Preprint
The present research adopts an extended theory of planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N=119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implic...
Article
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Indonesia has seen recent expansions of fundamentalist movements mobilising members in support a change to the current constitution. Against this background, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, we explored the intersection of religious and national identity among Indonesian Muslims quantitatively, and in Study 2, we qualitatively examined relig...
Article
Gender, age, religiosity, and political orientation are often associated with a propensity to give to charity. However, these broad associations mask inconsistencies that are not yet understood. Just as identity plays an important role in shaping consumer choices generally, donors’ identities could explain diverging associations between demographic...
Article
Americans’ support for policies targeting Muslims was hotly debated during the 2016 presidential campaign. This study of U.S.‐born White Americans seeks to move beyond explanations of this political polarization as a matter of liberal versus conservative, Democrat versus Republicans by focusing on the content of the superordinate American identity,...
Article
Online peer-to-peer giving is an emerging charity context that has rarely been investigated. Using a unique combination of survey and behavioral data from 1,647 online peer-to-peer fundraisers (whom we call “champions”), we tested empirically the influence of different best practices on fundraising success in this novel giving context. Across two s...
Article
Full-text available
Intergroup biases can manifest themselves between a wide variety of different groups such as people from different races, nations, ethnicities, political or religious beliefs, opposing sport teams or even arbitrary groups. In this review we provide a neuroscientific overview of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies that have revealed...
Article
Drawing on the Appraisal-Tendency Framework of emotion we tested a conditional pathway model across two experiments with community members (N = 235 and N = 388) using pro-environmental messages that included images eliciting either disgust or sadness. We tested the effects of images on message engagement (i.e., attitudes, knowledge, and behavioural...
Article
Volunteers are behind much of the ecological restoration work done in Australia. Private landholders, environmental nongovernment organisations (ENGOs) and community groups all donate time and money to much‐needed restoration and revegetation efforts. Biodiversity offsetting has emerged as a potential source of financial support for such work. We c...
Article
Social licence to operate (SLO) acknowledges the need for extractive industries to move beyond regulatory requirements into social accountability, which requires engagement between companies and their stakeholders. Engagement efforts point to dialogue as being integral for increasing the inclusivity of, for example, land-use decision-making in rura...
Article
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Two two-wave studies were used to examine the proposition that identity centrality enhances the effectiveness of stressor acceptance in the face of group-based stressors. Study 1 was conducted in newly commencing psychology students (N=154). Stressor intensity, psychology student identity centrality, and attempted stressor acceptance were measured...
Article
This special issue explores the role of social movements in bringing about, or failing to bring about, political and social transformation. We have included articles that examine this topic broadly, from a wide range of perspectives with psychology as a central theme. The focus includes the relationship among social movements, radicalization, and n...
Article
Whitehouse adapts insights from evolutionary anthropology to interpret extreme self-sacrifice through the concept of identity fusion. The model neglects the role of normative systems in shaping behaviors, especially in relation to violent extremism. In peaceful groups, increasing fusion will actually decrease extremism. Groups collectively appraise...