Winifred A Gebhardt

Winifred A Gebhardt
Leiden University | LEI · Institute of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

79
Publications
33,728
Reads
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2,554
Citations
Introduction
Winifred A Gebhardt works at the Institute of Psychology, Leiden University. Winifred does research in Health Psychology. She investigates the role of personal goals and identity processes in health behavior change.
Additional affiliations
April 1992 - present
Leiden University
Position
  • Associate professor of Health Psychology
April 1992 - present
Leiden University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
November 1989 - April 1992
Utrecht University
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
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Objective: When lifestyle changes are needed, life events or crises such as COVID-19 may function as “teachable moments”. This study aimed to explore whether the pandemic can provoke a teachable moment regarding lifestyle change in cardiovascular disease patients. Method: In this cross-sectional survey study, 830 cardiovascular disease patients rep...
Article
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Purpose: This study focusses on identifying values and preferences of patients, caregivers and healthcare professionals who have dealt with lower limb amputation for no-option chronic limb threatening ischemia. No-option chronic limb threatening ischemia is defined as limb ischemia for which no treatment options exist and where lower limb amputati...
Article
Background Adolescents and young adults frequently post alcohol-related content (ie, alcoholposts) on social media. This is problematic because both social norms theory and social learning theory suggest that viewing alcoholposts of peers could increase drinking behavior. It is therefore paramount to understand the effects of exposure to alcoholpos...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Adolescents and young adults frequently post alcohol-related content (ie, alcoholposts) on social media. This is problematic because both social norms theory and social learning theory suggest that viewing alcoholposts of peers could increase drinking behavior. It is therefore paramount to understand the effects of exposure to alcoholpos...
Article
The importance of identity in smoking cessation is increasingly becoming recognized by researchers. This study is the first in-depth longitudinal qualitative investigation of identity change processes among smokers who intend to quit. Participants’ accounts of smoking, attempts to quit and sense of identity were explored over time to examine identi...
Article
Healthcare professionals can play a significant role in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Yet there is still relatively little attention to lifestyle counseling, partly because of limited available time and doubts about its effectiveness. During so-called 'teachable moments', patients may be more receptive towards lifestyle advices and...
Article
Objective People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often experience difficulties managing their affairs. This study reviewed self-management interventions for people with mild to moderate ID, studying interventions’ effectiveness and applied behavioural change techniques (BCTs). Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Psy...
Article
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Research has shown that young people post a lot of alcohol-related posts (i.e., alcoholposts) on social media and these posts have been shown to increase drinking behaviors. Because social influencers (i.e., individuals with the potential to influence large audiences on social media) may have a strong influence on young people, it is important to k...
Article
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People with intellectual disabilities (ID) commonly struggle with managing their affairs, while they consider it important to be independent. This study aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of people with ID, legal representatives, and support staff on promoting independence in this population. Two focus groups were conducted with people wit...
Article
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Background Support staff of adults with intellectual disability (ID) play an important role in promoting independence in home and community settings. However, little is known about the types of behaviours staff should use to promote independence and instruments that assess such behaviour do not yet exist. The aim of this study was therefore to deve...
Article
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Background To help people with intellectual disabilities lead a more independent life, it is important to promote their self‐management. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a self‐management training for people with intellectual disabilities directed at independent functioning in daily life. Method In the training, 17 people with intellectua...
Article
This cross-sectional survey study had the aim of clarifying the relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and non-drug-re-lated self-regulation problems (non-drug-related SRPs), including behavioral addictions, and the role of impulsive personality traits therein. Spanish university students (N = 329; Mage = 21.20) completed quest...
Article
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Young people frequently display alcohol-related posts ("alcoholposts") on social networking sites such as Facebook and Instagram. Although evidence exists that such posts may be linked with increases in alcohol consumption, hardly any studies have focused on the content of such posts. This study addresses this gap by applying and extending the alco...
Article
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Objectives: Smoking-related self-identity processes are important for smoking cessation. We examined whether quitter self-identity (i.e. identification with quitting smoking) could be strengthened through a writing exercise, and whether expected social support for quitting, manipulated through vignettes, could facilitate identification with quittin...
Article
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Background: Recent developments in drug use patterns call for an investigation of current party-drug use and associated problems among college students, who appear to be an important target population for harm reduction interventions. Objectives: In addition to reporting on party-drug use prevalence, we investigated whether initial use and conti...
Article
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Background: People with intellectual disabilities have increasing difficulties managing their daily affairs. This study examined the effectiveness of a staff training, which teaches staff to promote self-management in people with intellectual disabilities. Method: Effectiveness was assessed with questionnaires addressing clients' (n = 26) indepe...
Article
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Background An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a progressive, generally symptomless disease that could ultimately result in a fatal rupture. Current guidelines advise conservative follow-up, and preventive surgical repair once the risk of rupture outweighs the cost of repair (55 mm in men). In developed countries, the majority of patients are dia...
Article
Objective: Although it has been found that identity constructs related to smoking are associated with changes in smoking behaviour, the direction of causal associations is as yet unclear. This study aims to clarify the nature and direction of these associations. Methods: In this longitudinal study we examined the reciprocal relations between ide...
Article
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Background: Alcohol is often consumed in social contexts. An emerging social context in which alcohol is becoming increasingly apparent is social media. More and more young people display alcohol-related posts on social networking sites such as Facebook and Instagram. Objective: Considering the importance of the social aspects of alcohol consump...
Article
Successful smoking cessation appears to be facilitated by identity change, that is, when quitting or nonsmoking becomes part of smokers’ and ex-smokers’ self-concepts. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine how identity changes over time among smokers and ex-smokers and whether this can be predicted by socioeconomic status (SES) and...
Article
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Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the motivations to place alcohol posts, nor (c) which young peo...
Article
Commentary to: The case for investigating social context in laboratory studies of smoking
Article
Research and anecdotal evidence has shown that burn survivors benefit from peer support participation, but also that relatively few attend such groups. This study investigated Dutch adult burn survivors' views on the reasons that promote or prevent participation in peer support activities. In this study, a distinction was made between those with an...
Article
We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011...
Article
Objectives In this study, we tested whether high levels of daily worrying are associated with linking, a tendency to overvalue the attainment of specific lower level goals for attaining higher level goals, and more specifically the attainment of experiencing happiness.Methods Thirty-two patients suffering from work stress complaints and awaiting a...
Article
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Background: Physical therapists play an important role in the promotion of physical activity (PA) and the effectiveness of PA interventions. However, little is known about the extent to which they implement PA interventions following the intervention protocol and about the factors influencing their implementation behaviors. Objective: The study...
Article
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Objective: Physical activity (PA) can improve well-being and health during older age. This study explored how life events influence PA patterns of older adults. Design: Seventeen interviews with older adults were conducted using a life history method. PA patterns during the life course were identified, including information on when, how and why...
Article
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Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of interventions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in primary health care (PHC), the translation of these interventions to PHC practice does not always happen as desired. To help understand why efficacious PHC-based PA interventions are not effectively translated to practice, this study...
Article
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The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore stakeholders' perceptions on factors influencing the introdu...
Article
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To be able to design effective strategies to improve healthcare professionals' implementation behaviors, a valid and reliable questionnaire is needed to assess potential implementation determinants. The present study describes the development of the Determinants of Implementation Behavior Questionnaire (DIBQ) and investigates the reliability and va...
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This article presents a process evaluation of the implementation of the sex education programme the World Starts With Me (WSWM) for secondary school students in Uganda. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine factors associated with dose delivered (number of lessons implemented) and fidelity of implementation (implementation accordin...
Article
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To improve the implementation of innovations in healthcare settings, it is important to understand factors influencing healthcare professionals' behaviors. We aimed to develop a generic questionnaire in English and in Dutch assessing the 14 domains of behavioral determinants from the revised TDF (Cane et al., 2012) that can be tailored to suit diff...
Article
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The introduction of efficacious physical activity interventions in primary health care is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of effective introduction strategies. This Delphi study aimed to identify factors most relevant for the adoption, implementation, and continuation of physical activity...
Article
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Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acceptance and well-being in adolescents with chronic illness from a daily process perspective. Furthermore, we explored the role of daily experienced interference and facilitation of life goals by treatment goals as mediating mechanisms. Methods: Thirty-eight adol...
Article
This chapter introduces basic issues of self-regulation, including goal setting, goal hierarchy, goal conflict, and regulatory processes, based on M. E. Ford's motivational system theory. The health behavior goal (HBG) model is then described, which incorporates both self-regulation constructs and predictors from earlier health behavior models. The...
Article
Having condoms available has been shown to be an important predictor of condom use. We examined whether or not personal norm and goal enjoyment contribute to predicting having condoms available in the context of cognition specified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Prospective survey study, with a baseline and follow-up measurement (at 3 mo...
Article
This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally...
Article
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Objective: In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. Design: In 2010, 18 lower-educated daily smokers were interviewed. Transcri...
Article
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Condom purchasing is an important preparation for condom use. The present study examined if products surrounding condoms in the store play a role in preferences for where to buy condoms among young people. Sixty-nine men and 111 women (<30 years) completed an online questionnaire on their preferences for condom placement, associated embarrassment w...
Chapter
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Perseverative cognition (PC), such as worry and rumination, is a common reaction to stressful events in everyday life. According to the PC hypothesis, prolonged cognitive representations of stressful events will increase the total amount of time that these events have a “wear and tear” effect on the human body. In this chapter, we provide an overvi...
Article
Ambivalence can be viewed as a normal temporary psychological state in a decision process, for example, on quitting smoking. However, when ambivalence is still present after the decision has been made, it may undermine the motivation to stick to the decision. In smoking cessation, ambivalence can be expected to increase the risk for relapse. In a c...
Article
The relationship between recurrent headache and reduced psychological well-being among adolescents has been well documented. Evidence also suggests that headache is associated with greater impediment to successful goal pursuits, which in turn is related to reduced well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate both the independent and interac...
Article
Two new psychological concepts related to relapse in smoking cessation were tested. 'Temporal comparisons' are ex-smokers' evaluations of their present situation compared to their situation as a smoker. 'Exposure evaluations' are evaluations of situations ex-smokers encountered when they used to smoke. In a cohort study among 323 ex-smokers, both c...
Article
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Forming implementation intentions (i.e. action plans that specify when, where and how a person will act) could be effective in promoting condom use on a large scale. However, the technique implies that people are able to form high quality implementation plans that are likely to induce behaviour change. Young single females, aged 16–30 years old, we...
Article
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Perseverative cognition, such as worry and rumination, is a common reaction to stressful events. In this review, we present a self-regulation perspective on perseverative cognition and propose that it forms part of the default response to threat, novelty and ambiguity. This default response is enhanced in chronic worriers who show difficulties in r...
Article
Integration of a multiple goal theory approach into the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate how the perceived facilitating and conflicting relationships in multiple goal pursuit predict performance of a health-related behaviour. Prospective design with 8-week follow-up. At baseline, perceived intergoal facilitation and intergoal confli...
Article
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In this cross-sectional study among 1502 female singles between the ages of 18 and 50, commitment to the goal of finding a partner was negatively related to satisfaction with life. In line with our expectations, this relationship was fully mediated by ruminating about being and remaining single. The relationship between rumination and lower satisfa...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between goal frustration, coping and well-being in the context of adolescent headache. Firstly, we investigated whether adolescents with weekly, monthly or no headache complaints differed with regard to the importance assigned to their personal goals, experience of goal frustration, coping...
Article
To investigate both concurrent and prospective relationships between daily frustration, cognitive coping and coping efficacy on the one hand and daily headache occurrence on the other. Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13-21 completed an online daily diary for 3 weeks. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Daily frustration of goal pursuits was...
Article
In this study the full array of personal goals pursued by adolescents was examined using an idiographic goal-elicitation procedure. The aims of the study were twofold. Firstly, we investigated individual differences in self-generated goals and goal process appraisals based on sociodemographic characteristics. Secondly, we investigated the relations...
Article
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The objective of this study is to investigate whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention), fluctuations in motivation over time, and variables from the Prototype-Willingness Model (i.e. behavioural expectation and behavioural willingness to have unprotected sex) predict prepa...
Article
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The aim of this article is to provide an overview and discussion of the literature from various areas of psychology on adolescent goal content and pursuit since the publication of Nurmi’s review in 1991. Ninety-four studies were identified which incorporated a measure of adolescent goal content/processes. We explore and discuss the theories employe...
Chapter
Health Goals and the Social-Cognitive PerspectiveGoals and Self-RegulationAdopting Health Behavior as a Personal GoalEmpirical Evidence for the Influence of Personal Goals on Health BehaviorConclusion References
Article
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In a sample of 1287 adolescents, it appeared that weekly exercise facilitates a variety of goals; particularly those related to being or remaining healthy, feeling relaxed, not being bored, feeling physically good, not being stressed, and attaining high achievements were endorsed. Sedentary and active adolescents reported a similar order of 10 spec...
Article
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The theory of planned behavior identifies important proximal determinants of behavior, including attitude toward the behavior, perception of subjective norms exerted by significant others, and perception of perceived control over performance of the behavior. Because research in the planned behavior tradition has focused on desirable target behavior...
Article
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In this article it is argued that people behave unhealthily or change their unhealthy behaviour, not primarily out of the wish to be healthy, but to feel good and positive about themselves. First it is explained that people continue to perform their health-related behaviours because they feel the need to be self-consistent. Second, it is demonstrat...
Article
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This study examined the extent to which cognitive planning and motives for sex can explain condom use at first intercourse with young females' most recent partner. A total of 133 female adolescents completed a questionnaire on cognitive planning (i.e., mentally preparing oneself for discussing condom use and for managing condoms), motives for havin...
Article
Personal goal facilitation through work refers to perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals. In line with the self-regulation literature and b1Edwards' (1992) cybernetic model of organisational stress, personal goal facilitation through work was predicted to show positive associations with job a...
Article
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Health behavior plays an important role in the development, detection and course of cancer of the head and neck. Relevant health behavior includes prompt medical care seeking, and smoking and drinking cessation after diagnosis. This study examines the relationship between these health behaviors and health value and control beliefs, as well as psych...
Article
To investigate the extent to which need for intimacy in relationships and motives for sex are capable of distinguishing between adolescents who always have protected sex and adolescents who do not, with reference to both steady and casual relationships. Seven-hundred-and-one adolescents (424 males and 277 females) aged 15 to 23 years filled out a q...
Article
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Desire for control (DC) or need for control has frequently been proposed as an important personality characteristic and as a possible crucial moderator within the fields of achievement, psychological adaptation, stress, and health. However, unlike locus of control, hardly any effort has been undertaken to assess the construct. An exception is the w...
Article
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The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of parental bonding and cognitive coping in the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A sample of 1310 adolescents attending an intermediate vocational education school filled out a questionnaire. Adolescents with a poor parental bonding relati...
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To review the social-cognitive theories that have predominated in research on determinants of healthbehaviors. Based on a literaturesearch,the theorieswere compared and critically analyzed. Although the theories are somewhat successful in predicting health behaviors, the social-cognitive perspective is restricted to a unidirectional, nondynamic vie...
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Our objective was to examine the psychometric properties of a Dutch translation of the Health Hardiness Inventory (HHI), and to determine relationships between health hardiness scales and self-reported health and preventive health behavior. Data from a cross-sectional study with two samples [a general population sample (n = 205) and a student sampl...
Article
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Our objective was to examine the psychometric properties of a Dutch translation of the Health Hardiness Inventory (HHI), and to determine relationships between health hardiness scales and self-reported health and preventive health behavior. Data from a cross-sectional study with two samples [a general population sample (n 205) and a student sample...
Article
In prior investigations of the psychology of drinking behavior, drinkers' positive expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol have been studied extensively. From a social cognitive point of view, however, several additional psychological factors also deserve attention, namely negative expectancies, social influence, and self-efficacy expectation...
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190 nonexercisers foresaw regular exercise (> or = 3 times a week) as interfering with day-to-day activities. Most frequently mentioned were various social activities, doing household chores, and watching TV. The impediment of all activities, except watching TV, was expected to be at least rather bothersome. Interventions should focus on these part...
Article
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In this longitudinal study of 504 nursing staff members from seven Dutch nursing homes, which transitions in exercise behaviour had occurred over a 12-mo. period were investigated. For this purpose, latent transition analyses were employed. Latent transition analysis is an extension of Markov chain modelling and of Latent class analysis and has bee...
Article
Full-text available
Surnmay.-In this longitudinal study of 504 nursing staff members from seven Dutch nursing homes, ivhich transjtions in exercise behaviour had occurred over a 12-mo. period were investigaced. For this purpose, latent transition analyses were employed. Latent transition analysis is an extension of Markov chain modelling and of Latent class analysis a...