Wilma F Bergfeld

Wilma F Bergfeld
Cleveland Clinic · Department of Dermatology (Children's Hospital)

MD

About

503
Publications
160,470
Reads
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10,492
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
August 1970 - present
Cosmetic Ingredient Review
Cosmetic Ingredient Review
Position
  • Chair
Description
  • I chair the CIR, and have for over 20 years. It is funded by the Personal Care Product Council (former CTFA) and represents a scientific panel assessing the safety of cosmetic ingredients.
July 1969 - present
Cleveland Clinic
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1960 - June 1964
Temple University
Field of study
  • Medicine

Publications

Publications (503)
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 19 skin and connective tissue-derived proteins and peptides, which are reported to function mainly as skin and/or hair conditioning agents in cosmetics. The Panel reviewed the relevant data provided and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices o...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 19 plant-derived proteins and peptides, which function mainly as skin and/or hair conditioning agents in personal care products. The Panel concluded that 18 plant-derived proteins and peptides are safe as used in the present practices of use and concentration as describe...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of Hydroxyethyl-3,4-Methylenedioxyaniline HCl, which is reported to function as a hair dye ingredient. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that Hydroxyethyl-3,4-Methylenedioxyaniline HCl is safe for use as a hair dye ingredient...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 7 ethers and esters of ascorbic acid, which collectively function as antioxidants, skin-conditioning agents, skin protectants, fragrance ingredients, and skin bleaching agents in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of these ingredie...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 6 carbonate salts which function as absorbents, bulking agents, opacifying agents, pH adjusters, buffering agents, abrasives, and oral care agents in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of these ingredients, and concluded that these...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 12 Rosa canina-derived ingredients, which are reported to function as skin conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, cosmetic astringents, anti-acne agents, abrasives, humectants, and exfoliants in cosmetic products. Because final product formulations may contain multi...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 bovine milk proteins and protein-derived ingredients, which function mainly as skin and hair conditioning agents in personal care products. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the presen...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of Hydrofluorocarbon 152a, which functions as a propellant in personal care products. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that Hydrofluorocarbon 152a is safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this s...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 1-Hydroxyethyl 4,5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that 1-Hydroxyethyl 4,5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate is safe in the present practices of use a...
Article
We describe a patient with the keratosis pilaris atrophicans variant of cicatricial alopecia in conjunction with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 46 butyl polyoxyalkylene ethers that share a common structural motif, namely a butyl chain (4 carbon alkyl chain) bound to a polyoxyalkylene (PPG, PEG, or both); 23 of these ethers were previously reviewed by the Panel, and 23 are reviewed herein for the first time. Most...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 33 Citrus flower- and leaf-derived ingredients, which are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as fragrances and/or skin-conditioning agents. The Panel reviewed the available data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulat...
Article
Cutaneous myxoma (CM) is an uncommon benign neoplasm of skin, which may be sporadic or arise in association with syndromes such as Carney complex. There has been only one large case series describing CM. We report 54 additional cases of CM; patients had a mean age of 55 years (range 7-91) with a female: male ratio of 1.3. Most occurred on the trunk...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 8 keratin-derived ingredients, which function mainly as skin and hair conditioning agents in personal care products. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 8 keratin-derived ingredients are safe in the present practices...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reopened the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43, a cosmetic ingredient that is an anthraquinone dye reported to function in cosmetics as a colorant. This colorant has the same chemical structure as Ext. D&C Violet No. 2, which is a certified colorant; however, Acid Violet 43 is not a certifie...
Article
This is a safety assessment of 40 saccharide ester ingredients as used in cosmetics. The saccharide esters are reported to function in cosmetics as emollients, skin-conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, and emulsion stabilizers. The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the relevant data for these ingredients. The Panel...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of inorganic hydroxides, which function in cosmetics primarily as pH adjusters. Representatives from the cosmetic industry have indicated these ingredients are used in depilating and hair waving/straightening formulations to raise pH values. The Panel considered relevant da...
Article
Acral melanocytic neoplasms often pose diagnostic difficulty. Preferentially-expressed Antigen in Melanoma (PRAME) expression and p16 loss of expression have diagnostic utility in melanocytic tumors. We examined PRAME and p16 expression in 30 acral melanocytic neoplasms (n = 11 nevi; n = 2 dysplastic nevi; n = 7 Spitz nevi; n = 10 acral melanomas)....
Article
Full-text available
Objective Determining the amount of hair on the scalp has always been an important metric of patient satisfaction for hair growth and hair retention technologies. While simple in concept, this measurement is a difficult, resource intensive task for the dermatologist and the research scientist. Specifically, counting and measuring hair in phototrich...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Increasing hair fullness is a global unmet need for many men and women. An approach to the problem is to decrease hair fall or shedding by reducing scalp stratum corneum oxidation and barrier damage to increase hair retention. This study evaluated a combination of functional antioxidants and barrier-enhancing cosmetic ingredients to impro...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 80 Citrus fruit-derived ingredients, which are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as fragrances and/or skin-conditioning agents. The Panel reviewed the available data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulations may cont...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 30 Citrus plant- and seed-derived ingredients, which are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as fragrances and/or skin conditioning agents. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern,...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of Phosphoric Acid and its salts (31 ingredients), which are reported to function as buffering agents, corrosion inhibitors, chelating agents, and pH adjusters in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed data relating to the safety of these ingredients and concluded that Phosp...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reassessed the safety of Methylisothiazolinone, which functions as a preservative in cosmetics. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment, and data from the previously published safety assessments of Methylisothiazolinone, and concluded that Methyliso...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reopened the safety assessment of Sodium Sulfate, a cosmetic ingredient that is an inorganic salt reported to function in cosmetics as a viscosity increasing agent—aqueous. The Panel reviewed the relevant new data for the ingredient, including frequency of use and concentration of use, and con...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reassessed the safety of the mixture Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/Methylisothiazolinone (MI), which functions as a preservative in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment, and data from the previously published safety assessm...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Increasing scalp hair fullness is a global unmet consumer need. An approach to decrease hair shedding by reducing scalp stratum corneum oxidation via a combination of antioxidant and barrier-enhancing technologies has been previously demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the individual antioxidant piroct...
Article
Background The current classification for Alopecia Areata (AA) does not provide a consistent assessment of disease severity. Objective To develop an AA severity scale based on expert experience. Methods A Modified Delphi process was utilized. An advisory group of 22 US-based AA clinical experts was formed to develop this AA scale. Representatives...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 47 Citrus peel-derived ingredients, which are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as skin conditioning agents. The Panel reviewed the available data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botani...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 5 acyl sarcosines and 9 sarcosinate salts as used in cosmetics; all of these ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as hair conditioning agents and most also can function as surfactants—cleansing agents. The ingredients reviewed in this assessment are composed...
Article
Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a rare, autoimmune form of scarring alopecia, driven primarily by a Th1 immune response similarly to lichen planus (LP) and psoriasis. Previous studies demonstrated the association between psoriasis, LP and cardiovascular disease (CVD) possibly due to increased pro‐inflammatory cytokines leading to dysregulated metaboli...
Article
Background Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) has become one of the most common causes of cicatricial alopecia worldwide, but lacks clear aetiology and robust clinical trial evidence for efficacy and safety of agents currently used for treatment. Objectives To enable data to be collected worldwide on FFA using common criteria and assessment methods....
Article
Importance: A recent expert consensus exercise emphasized the importance of developing a global network of patient registries for alopecia areata to redress the paucity of comparable, real-world data regarding the effectiveness and safety of existing and emerging therapies for alopecia areata. Objective: To generate core domains and domain items...
Article
Importance: A recent expert consensus exercise emphasized the importance of developing a global network of patient registries for alopecia areata to redress the paucity of comparable, real-world data regarding the effectiveness and safety of existing and emerging therapies for alopecia areata. Objective: To generate core domains and domain items fo...
Article
The contributions of the core hair research societies and their members over the past 30 years have advanced the field of hair research and the understanding and treatment of hair disorders and normal hair growth.
Article
Background/aim: Satellitosis/in-transit metastasis (S-ITM) has prognostic value in melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma, but is not incorporated into cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) staging. Patients and methods: From our IRB-approved registry, patients with high-risk cSCC, including patients with S-ITM, were identified. Univariate (UVA)...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 6 trimellitic anhydride copolymers as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are related as copolymers in that they all share trimellitic anhydride (ie, 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid anhydride) as a monomer, are reported to function as film formers in cosmetics, and are...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 44 monoglyceryl monoesters that are structurally constituted as the esterification products of glycerin and carboxylic acids (the majority of which are fatty acids); 36 of these monoesters were previously reviewed by the Panel, and 8 are reviewed herein for the first tim...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of ceramides, which function in cosmetics primarily as hair-conditioning agents and skin-conditioning agents—miscellaneous. The Panel considered relevant data related to these ingredients. The Panel concluded that ceramides were safe in cosmetics in the present practices of...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of Hydrolyzed Silk and 9 other silk protein ingredients, which function primarily as skin and hair conditioning agents and bulking agents in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of these ingredients and concluded that 8 ingredients are...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of Polyaminopropyl Biguanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride), which functions as a preservative in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of this ingredient and concluded that Polyaminopropyl Biguanide is safe in cosmetics in...
Article
Background: We previously reported The Alopecia Areata Consensus of Experts (ACE) Study: Results of an International Expert Opinion on Treatments for Alopecia Areata (AA). Objective: To report the results of the ACE international expert opinion on diagnosis and laboratory evaluation for AA. Methods: Fifty hair experts from 5 continents were in...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of polyenes, which are reported to function in cosmetics primarily as film formers and viscosity increasing agents. The Panel reviewed relevant data related to these ingredients, not inggaps in the available safety data for some of the polyenes in this safety assessment. Th...
Article
The phosphoglycerides considered in this safety assessment are reported to function primarily as skin and hair conditioning agents, emulsifying agents, and surfactants in cosmetic products and are used up to a maximum reported concentration of 50%. Although phospholipids exert physiologic effects, these are not reproduced by application of phosphol...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 2-Amino-3-Hydroxypyridine, which is reported to function as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that 2-Amino-3-Hydroxypyridine is safe in the present practices of use and co...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 60 PEGylated alkyl glycerides. PEGylated alkyl glycerides are mono-, di-, and/or triglycerides that have been modified with ethylene glycol repeat units (in the starting material form as epoxide). Most of the PEGylated alkyl glycerides are reported to function as skin-co...
Article
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that may present with non‐scarring alopecic patches to complete hair loss. Since other autoimmune diseases are associated with an increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases, we aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiac and metabolic comorbidities in AA. In this cross‐sectional study, data were...
Article
Eyebrow loss occurs in 40% of patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) and may precede scalp alopecia.1 Topical prostaglandin analogue has been used safely to treat eyebrow loss from FFA which enhanced eyebrow regrowth when applied to the affected areas.2 Herein, we describe three cases of biopsy‐proven FFA with different disease course and t...
Article
Full-text available
Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic, autoimmune disorder that results in non‐scarring hair loss. Analysis of affected follicular unit in acute AA and regrowing white hair showed that the disease preferentially affected the hair bulb melanocytes and differentiating cortical keratinocytes respectively. Reports on sparing of senile white hair suggests t...
Article
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 21 parabens as preservatives in cosmetic products. All of these ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as preservatives; however, 5 are reported to also function as fragrance ingredients. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of these ingredi...
Article
Background Comorbidities are associated with higher health care costs, complex management, and poorer health outcomes. Identification and treatment of comorbid conditions in pediatric alopecia areata (AA) patients could provide an opportunity to improve health outcomes. Objectives To determine the prevalence of comorbidities among pediatric patien...
Article
Background Purpura fulminans, an uncommon syndrome of intravascular thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarction of the skin, is often accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multi‐organ failure and may ultimately lead to death. Methods Herein we document 13 skin biopsies from 11 adult patients with the clinical diagnosis of sepsis...
Article
Background A systematic review failed to identify any systemic therapy used in alopecia areata (AA) where use is supported by robust evidence from high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objective To produce an international consensus statement on the use and utility of various treatments for AA. Methods Fifty hair experts from 5 contin...
Article
Full-text available
Wood’s light examination further defines the missing hairline in the frontal, temporal and occipital scalp in patients with established FFA. This heightens the accuracy of clinical assessment objectively which will then enable disease activity and treatment response to be determined. This also allows high quality research to be undertaken especiall...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dermatologists play an important role in diagnosing and managing hospitalized patients with cutaneous abnormalities. Skin biopsies remain an indispensable tool for aiding dermatologists in accurate diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to determine the range of conditions, and the most common conditions, prompting skin biopsy by dermatolog...
Article
This is a safety assessment of Avena sativa (oat)–derived ingredients. The reported functions of these ingredients in cosmetics include abrasives, antioxidant, skin conditioning agents, absorbents, and bulking agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients. Because final product formulations may contain multi...
Article
This is a safety assessment of glycerin as used in cosmetics. Glycerin functions as a denaturant, fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, humectant, oral care agent, oral health-care drug, skin protectant, skin conditioning agent—humectant, and viscosity-decreasing agent. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant...
Article
Cosmetic ingredients derived from Camellia sinensis (tea) plant parts function as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents—humectant and miscellaneous. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients. The use of the leaf ingredients in beverages results in much larger s...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reassessed the safety of 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and sodium PCA; the Panel added 3 previously unreviewed salts (calcium, magnesium, and potassium) of PCA to this safety assessment. 2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid and its salts are reported to function in cosmetics as skin conditionin...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 20 sorbitan esters; this report included sorbitan esters that were reviewed in 1985 and 2002, as well as 3 previously unreviewed sorbitan esters (sorbitan undecylenate, sorbitan sesquicaprylate, and sorbitan palmate). Most of the sorbitan esters are reported to function in c...
Article
The Expert Panel assessed the safety of 28 alkyl phosphates and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the current practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. The ingredients in the alkyl phosphate family share a common phosphate core structure, and vary by the identity of the alkyl chains attached therein. Most of...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 14 citrus-derived peel oil ingredients and concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetic products when finished products, excluding rinse-off products, do not contain more than 0.0015% (15 ppm) 5-methoxypsoralen, and when formulated to be nonsensitizing and nonirrita...
Article
Full-text available
A 48‐year‐old premenopausal woman presented with thinning of her eyebrows for one year. She also had progressive scalp alopecia which occurred for six months. Examination revealed bilateral loss of eyebrows and recession of her anterior hairline which was associated with perifollicular erythema and scale. Histopathology from scalp biopsy revealed p...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamines, which function primarily as antistatic agents in cosmetic products. The relevant animal and human data reviewed for these ingredients indicate that they are potential dermal sensitizers that may be due in part by the sensitizing impurit...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of methylisothiazolinone (MI), which functions as a preservative. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and in a previously published safety assessment of MI and concluded that MI is safe for use in rinse-off cosmetic products at c...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 25 monosaccharides, disaccharides, and related ingredients and concluded these are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment. Many of these ingredients are common dietary sugars, dietary sugar replacements, or very closely rela...
Article
Background Proliferating tricholemmal tumor (PTT) is a rare neoplasm of controversial biological behavior for which distinction from other more common tumors is essential. Similarly, trichoblastoma (TB) remains a debatable entity that may represent a variation of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Our goal is to correlate the staining pattern of calretini...