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Willy Lens

Willy Lens
KU Leuven | ku leuven · Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences

PhD

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108
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Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Achievement goal theory is an important framework to understand students' achievement goals, motivation, and engagement in academic situations and to study teachers' instructional practices. There has been a debate about whether optimal motivation involves the pursuit of mastery goals only (i.e., mastery goal perspective) or the combined pursuit of...
Article
Drawing from self-determination theory, this study examines how does perceived parenting and psychological needs relate to identity development and psychosocial adjustment in Portuguese 12th-grade students (N = 462) who prepare the transition to higher education or to the job market. Path model results revealed two distinct pathways: a “growth-orie...
Book
In the 12th grade, students are called to make a decision about their intention to proceed for higher education or to entering the job market. The accomplishment of this task mobilizes multiple psychological processes that not always translate into career choices aligned with the individual´s true interests, values and career goals, and quite often...
Article
Drawing from Self-Determination Theory, this study examines how perceived parenting styles and psychological needs relate to identity development and psychosocial adjustment for Portuguese 12th grade students (N = 462) that prepare the transition to higher education or to the job market. Path model findings revealed two distinct pathways: a “growth...
Article
Full-text available
This research comprises two studies based on Self Determination Theory. In Study 1, we translate and examine the factor structure of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS; Chen, Vansteenkiste et al., 2015) in a sample of Portuguese undergraduate students. Further, in Study 2 we used an independent longitudinal sam...
Presentation
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A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Psychology (Specialty area of Educational Psychology) at the University of Coimbra and the University of Lisbon, under the supervision of Doctor Maria Paula Paixão, PHD, and co-supervision of Doctor Marlies Lacante, PHD. Research Project Funded by: Found...
Article
In this study we propose an integrated framework of the antecedents of identity development and well/ill-being for high school students (N = 462) in the transition to higher education/job market. One study was conducted to investigate the effects of basic psychological need-satisfaction/ frustration (as proposed within self-determination theory) an...
Article
In two short-term diary studies, conducted in an educational and a sport context, we investigated whether adolescents' domain-specific and situation-specific selfdetermined motivation, along with future time perspective, could explain intrapersonal variation of and interpersonal differences in psychological functioning. In both studies intrapersona...
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We examined the psychometric properties of the Parenting Questionnaire in a sample of Portuguese high school students. Two measurement models were specified. Model 1m,f specifies a bi-dimensional structure of parental need-support and behavioral control. Model 2m,f proposes a tripartite structure of parental need-support, psychological control and...
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The present study examined the role of parenting styles and basic psychological needs in the adoption of goals and aspirations of learners, as well as for their psychological wellbeing (positive versus negative affect) for a South African sample of learners. A cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study with a sample of 853 learners at pu...
Article
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El presente artículo se sustenta en una investigación trans-cultural que describe la relación entre las variables Perspectiva de Tiempo Futuro (PTF) y satisfacción con la vida. Para desarrollar el estudio se evaluó 648 estudiantes universitarios de tres países del continente americano: Costa Rica (n=202); Perú (n=217) y Estados Unidos (n=229). El m...
Article
a b s t r a c t The present study investigated whether autonomous and controlled situational achievement motivation function as mediating processes through which dispositional achievement motives are manifested in affective and behavioral outcomes. Structural Equation Modeling with three student samples (Greek N = 440; Belgian N = 283; German N = 2...
Article
Background The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achi...
Article
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An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals’ achievement goals, a distinction central to...
Article
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In the current study we aimed to examine the antecedents and outcomes associated with the variability in competitive volleyball players' (N = 67; Mage = 19.45; SD = 5.13) situational achievement goal pursuit and its underlying autonomous and controlling reasons. Players were followed during six consecutive games and data were analyzed through multi...
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The present study investigated whether satisfaction and frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, as identified within Basic Psychological Need Theory (BPNT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inquiry 11:227-268, 2000; Ryan and Deci, Psychol Inquiry 11:319-338, 2000), contributes to participants' well-being and ill-being...
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Grounded in self-determination theory, this longitudinal study examined the academic correlates of middle and high school students’ (N = 923; 33.4% male) intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations (i.e., life goals) and the type of aspirations that they perceive their parents to promote to them. Person-centered analysis revealed 3 meaningful groups: a rel...
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In the first part we briefly discuss the concept of future time perspective (FTP) as a cognitive-motivational construct. By setting goals in the rather near or more distant future, human beings develop their individual FTP that can be characterized by its content (i.e., what people are striving for) and extension or depth (i.e. how far into the fut...
Article
Self-Determination Theory is a theory of motivation that aims to explain individuals’ goal directed behaviour. Grade 11 learners are naturally in a stage of pursuing certain life goals and aspirations in the process of completing their schooling careers. Often the circumstances or environment provide the opportunities for individuals to be motivate...
Article
In South Africa when learners are in Grade 11 near the end of their school life, the new, but also difficult, transition into adult life now begins. This critical period of development brings forth an array of new challenges: exercising free will, being independent, an increased focus of self, and the decision on what path is to be taken after scho...
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In 2 quasi-experimental field studies in a real-life physical education (PE) setting, the authors investigated whether the interest-enjoyment and vitality of Greek pupils (age range, 10-12 years) varied from class-to-class as a function of the class-to-class variation in the manipulated motivational environment (Studies 1 and 2) and pupils' relativ...
Article
In two cross-sectional studies, we investigated to what extent elementary (Study 1) and middle school (Study 2) students pursue similar, yet distinct, masteryrelated and performance-related goals in physical education. We found that students were more likely to endorse outcome goals in conjunction with masteryrelated goals and ability goals in conj...
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We relied on self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) to investigate to what extent autonomy-supporting corrective feedback (i.e., feedback that coaches communicate to their athletes after poor performance or mistakes) is associated with athletes' optimal motivation and well-being. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional s...
Article
Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a short-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college students...
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In two cross-sectional studies we investigated whether soccer players' well-being (Study 1) and moral functioning (Studies 1 and 2) is related to performance-approach goals and to the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying their pursuit. In support of our hypotheses, we found in Study 1 that autonomous reasons were positively associated with...
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The call for a positive psychology has stimulated research on optimal functioning both in general and in the context of work. The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) might provide a useful framework in which positive work and organisational psychology can be grounded and might stimulate theoretical developments in this field. Starting from a positive c...
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The present research complements extant variable-centered research that focused on the dimensions of autonomous and controlled motivation through adoption of a person-centered approach for identifying motivational profiles. Both in high school students (Study 1) and college students (Study 2), a cluster analysis revealed 4 motivational profiles: a...
Article
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Various motivational frameworks converge to suggest that highlighting the relevance of a learning activity yields benefits for students' learning and performance. Herein, we review a set of studies grounded in self-determination theory's distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals, which show that the beneficial effect of a learning activity'...
Article
Based on the Achievement Goal perspective [Dweck, C. S., Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273; Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346] and on Pekrun et...
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RESUMEN: En este artículo se discutirá cómo los profesores, directores, consejeros escolares y otros profesionales de la educación pueden mejorar la cantidad y la calidad de la motivación de los estudiantes, trabajando en el “qué” los motiva (metas de logro académico, por ejemplo) y en el “por qué” (razones) ellos luchan por alcanzar estas metas. C...
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Op iedere leeftijd wordt ons gevraagd om activiteiten uit te voeren die we spontaan niet zouden doen, omdat we ze niet boeiend vinden. Dit betekent niet noodzakelijk dat we deze activiteiten op een weerspannige wijze uitvoeren. Naar gelang we erin slagen om de reden van opgedragen activiteiten te internaliseren, zullen we ze met een groter gevoel v...
Article
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Previous work within self-determination theory has shown that experimentally framing a learning activity in terms of extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals results in poorer conceptual learning and performance, presumably because extrinsic goal framing detracts attention from the learning activity and is less directly satisfying of basic psychologic...
Article
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Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants' well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In...
Article
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Nesse artigo, discutiremos como os professores em suas aulas e os diretores, orientadores educacionais, entre outros profissionais atuantes no nível escolar, podem aumentar a quantidade e a qualidade da motivação dos alunos, influeindo naquilo para que os alunos estão motivados (ou seja, a realização dos seus objetivos acadêmicos) e as razões porqu...
Article
ObjectivesBased on self-determination theory [SDT; Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The “what” and the “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268], the present study examines whether the negative effect of framing an exercise activity in terms of an extrinsic, relative to an intrin...
Article
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In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations and...
Article
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We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multi...
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Self-Determination Theory argues that relatedness and autonomy represent innate and universally critical needs and that, when satisfied, both needs should yield an independent positive effect on well-being and adjustment for all individuals. In contrast, some cross-cultural perspectives suggest that the pursuit of autonomy hampers the development o...
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Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To r...
Article
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Examination of motivational dynamics in academic contexts within self-determination theory has centered primarily around both the motives (initially intrinsic vs. extrinsic, later autono- mous vs. controlled) that regulate learners' study behavior and the contexts that promote or hin- der these regulations. Less attention has been paid to the goal...
Article
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In order to understand and predict students 'achievement and persistence at learning activities, many contemporary motivational models consider how much students are motivated for their school work. However, students' achievement and persistence might not only be affected by their amount of study motivation, but also by the motivation to engage in...
Article
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Various cross-cultural researchers state that autonomy is not valued in Eastern cultures and, hence, is unlikely to predict optimal study functioning and well-being. In contrast, self-determination theory (SDT; R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) maintains that autonomous or volitional study motivation is universally important and should predict better...
Article
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Previous unemployment research has directly tested hypotheses derived from expectancy-value theory (EVT; Feather, 1982, 1990), but no comparative analysis has been executed with another motivational framework. In one large study with 446 unemployed people, separate analyses provided good evidence for predictions derived from both EVT and self-deter...
Article
The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect perfo...
Article
Recent studies show that teachers suffer more than other professional groups from the occupational lack of motivation. A global understanding of teacher motivation requires an adequate framework for its study. The main goal of the current research was to propose and test a model of teacher motivation that integrates constructs from several cognitiv...
Article
The fields of religious and motivation psychology have quite independently developed their own conceptualizations and research agendas. Few schol- ars, however, have examined issues that are at the intersection of both fields and, if so, most researchers in the psychology of religion did not make use of existing general motivational frameworks to e...
Article
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According to expectancy-value theories, increasing the utility value of a learning activity should result in higher motivation and better learning. In contrast, self-determination theory posits that the content of the future goals (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) that enhance the utility value of the learning activity needs to be considered as well. Contr...
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Leerkrachten in het middelbaar en hoger onderwijs worden steeds vaker geconfronteerd met spijbelende leerlingen (Casier & Thys, 1993; De Bleeckere, Schouppe & Thys, 1995). Van de leerlingen die wel naar school komen, lijken er vele ongeïnteresseerd en apathisch te zijn. Inderdaad, onderzoek heeft uitgewezen dat de spontane interesse en geboeidheid...
Article
Two theories in the field of motivation and achievement, namely the future time perspective theory and goal theory, result in conflicting recommendations for enhancing students' motivation, because of their differential emphasis on the task at hand and on the future consequences of a task. We will present a framework consisting of four types of ins...
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Three field experiments with high school and college students tested the self-determination theory hypotheses that intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) goals and autonomy-supportive (vs. controlling) learning climates would improve students' learning, performance, and persistence. The learning of text material or physical exercises was framed in terms of intr...
Article
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The goal of the present study was to examine partially conflicting hypotheses derived from two motivational theories, namely self-determination theory (SDT) and future time perspective theory (FTPT). In line with SDT, it was found that framing an exercise activity in terms of future intrinsic goal attainment has a positive effect on effort expendit...
Article
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An overview of the conceptual development of future time perspective theory [Nuttin, J. R. (1984). Motivation, Planning and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Nuttin, J., and Lens, W. (1985). Future Time Perspective and Motivation: Theory and Research Method, Leuven University Press and Erlbaum, Leuven, Belgium and Hil...
Article
Two studies (n = 273 and 254) used self-determination theory (SDT) to examine unemployed people's motivation both to search and not to search for a job. The self-regulation questionnaire format (Ryan & Connell, 1989) was used to assess participants' autonomous and controlled job-search motivation (the ‘why’ of job search) as well as their amotivati...
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This review examines the impact of future goals on motivation and learning in multicultural classrooms. Across cultures, schooling is a future-oriented investment. Studies of minority students' school achievement have advanced future goals as a crucial protective factor in the face of frequent school failure. At the same time, cultural discontinuit...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that the reason a person engages in a physical education activity (instrumentality) has an effect on his or her state goal orientation, time spent practicing, task enjoyment, motivation, effort, and ultimately on his/her performance. Participants, 695 college students (340 M, 355 F; mean age 19.7 years, range=18-22)...
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Three studies tested whether Gollwitzer and Brandstätter’s (1997) failure to find an implementation effect for easy goals was due to a ceiling effect, to the moderating effect of previously formed habits, or to a moderating effect of earlier implementation intentions. The studies strongly indicated that easy goals did benefit from forming implement...
Article
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In this paper, we test the idea that self-control and working memory tasks tap a common resource. Earlier studies found that self-control is depletive and that exerting self-control deteriorates performance in subsequent working memory tasks. In study 1, engagement in working memory tasks (solving difficult multiplication problems) was shown to dec...
Article
There is a general consensus in the educational community that `learning to learn' is an important educational goal. Despite this consensus, it is not clear how `learning to learn' is or should be implemented. Actually, teachers are using `learning to learn' in many different meanings and it is being implemented in many different variations. We int...