Skills and Expertise
User ExperienceUsabilityUser StudiesHuman Machine InteractionWeb UsabilityHuman Centered ComputingInteraction analysisUbiquitous ComputingInteraction DesignTask AnalysisAccessibilityUser InterfacePervasive ComputingUser Interface DesignMultimodal InteractionUser Experience DesignUser-Centered DesignHuman Computer InterfaceInterface DesignWeb AccessibilityAssistive TechnologiesWeb-Based ProgrammingHCI designUniversal Design
This work aims to support the automatic construction of graphic abstracts based on Conceptual Maps (CM) through Natural Language Processing (NPL) techniques.
Research Items (35)
Context: Model Driven Development (MDD) elevates the importance of models within the software lifecycle, incorporating them as an integral part of the final product through modeling and code generation techniques, with part of the complexity of the software is hidden inside generators. Problem: Even with the use of the MDD process, the cost associated with case test is still high. Objective: Automate the generation of test cases by incorporating Model Driven Testing (MDT) into an existing MDD process in order to automatically generate acceptance test cases for a legacy system. Justification: Ensure the quality of software generated through a code generation process and reduce overall lifecycle time the software. Method: A proof of concept was carried out to validate the objective of this work and evaluate the effectiveness of the test approach using the Code Coverage metric of the automatically generated test cases. Results: For this study five Graphical User Interface (GUIs) were selected, in which the GUI Insurance Company obtained 98% of code coverage by the test cases, Coin obtained 94.39%, Provider with 95.04%, Item type With 95.95% and finally the GUI Accounting Classification obtained 95.91% coverage of the test cases.
- Mar 2017
Accessibility refers to a quality requirement for web applications. However, current accessibility automatic evaluation tools cannot evaluate dynamic generated content that characterizes Ajax applications and RIAs. In this context, this paper describes an approach for evaluating Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) requirements, by using acceptance tests. The authors implemented a set of disabled user interaction scenarios as acceptance tests in order to verify keyboard accessibility in RIA and automatically evaluate ARIA conformance in widgets. The inclusion of disabled user interaction scenarios in the evaluation process is necessary to analyse ARIA requirements since dynamic changes are accommodated in the DOM structure. Two evaluation tool prototypes were developed and validated in separate case studies. The results show evidence that the proposed evaluation approach is capable of evaluating ARIA conformance in RIA widgets.
- Dec 2016
Cross-Browser Incompatibilities (XBIs) represent inconsistencies in Web Application when introduced in different browsers. The growing number of implementation of browsers (Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome) and the constant evolution of the specifications of Web technologies provided differences in the way that the browsers behave and render the web pages. The web applications must behave consistently among browsers. Therefore, the web developers should overcome the differences that happen during the rendering in different environments by detecting and avoiding XBIs during the development process. Many web developers depend on manual inspection of web pages in several environments to detect the XBIs, independently of the cost and time that the manual tests represent to the process of development. The tools for the automatic detection of the XBIs accelerate the inspection process in the web pages, but the current tools have little precision, and their evaluations report a large percentage of false positives. This search aims to evaluate the use of Artificial Neural Networks for reducing the numbers of false positives in the automatic detection of the XBIs through the CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) and the relative comparison of the element in the web page.
- Apr 2016
- the 31st Annual ACM Symposium
- Mar 2015
This study presents an investigation on how keyboard accessibility has been delivered in RIA -Rich Internet Applications. We conducted an evaluation on 32 websites which contained Tab Widgets and 74 websites which contained Menu Widgets, from the 150 websites of Alexa's top most accessed websites list. The evaluation process consisted of checking if the Widgets implemented ARIA -Accessible Rich Internet Applications requirements, like the use of role/state semantic attributes and presentation of keyboard interaction strategies. The results showed that, even though the ARIA specification achieved the status of W3C Candidate Recommendation in 2011 and W3C Recommendation in 2014, few websites implemented Tab and Menu Widgets according to ARIA in the Web. The study also identified alternative keyboard navigation mechanisms that are accessible to Assistive Technologies users, despite the disadvantages they might rep-resent. Moreover, the study proposes a framework to classify these alternative keyboard navigation mechanisms and map the technological requirements which need to be ad-dressed in order to make the Tab and Menu Widgets implement the ARIA specification.
This study presents an investigation on how keyboard accessibility has been delivered in RIA - Rich Internet Applications. We conducted an evaluation on 32 websites which contained Tab Widgets, from the 150 websites of Alexa's top most accessed websites list. The evaluation process consisted of checking if the Widgets implemented ARIA - Accessible Rich Internet Applications requirements, like the use of role/state semantic attributes and presentation of keyboard interaction strategies. The results showed that, even though the ARIA specification achieved the status of W3C Candidate Recommendation in 2011, few websites implemented Tab Widgets according to ARIA in the Web. The study also identified alternative keyboard navigation mechanisms that are accessible to Assistive Technologies users, despite the disadvantages they might represent.
The Web is currently the main way of providing computing services, reaching a larger number of users with different characteristics. As the complexity and interactivity of systems is increased, users become more demanding towards all the requirements associated to their distinct needs. Implementing the interaction requirements in the Web has become the main focus of accessibility and usability studies, describing essential design features which provide users with quality, assured systems. The focus on the users reinforced that as the number of users grows and the system became available to a wide variety of users, accessibility and usability features become even more critical to a Web application's success. In this paper, we present ACCESSA, a practical approach to rapidly improve the accessibility of existing Web systems, acting mainly in the interface design with no changes to the functional requirements of systems. The ACCESSA is based on the WCAG 2.0 guidelines and other patterns, choosing the guidelines that present lower implementation costs and represent higher severity accessibility issues.
The Web has become an extremely important source of information and services that have been made widely available. Navigation is an important aspect in designing a Web site in order to make the information easy to find, however the task of organizing and structuring information from a website can become complex as the set of information and services provided increases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of eight different types of menus while performing two tasks for each menu. The target for the experiment was of people aged over 40 and some experience in using the Internet. The experiment revealed that menus which presented properties more commonly found in web applications, the task completion time and number of errors was lower, during the sessions.
Touch-screen interfaces have become a widespread-input-device tendency for computer systems. In this context, many studies investigate how to improve general usability for touch-screen devices. These studies consider different interaction design features that improve the usability for touch sensitive surfaces, considering the low accuracy it presents, given obstacles such as the "fat finger problem", low-perception of pointing mechanisms, difficulties in the selection of small objects, among others. This work aims at presenting the link-offset-scale touch interaction mechanism for improving the usability for touch-screen devices. The link-offset-scale mechanism makes use of web-application-structure meta-data (identifying links) to provide feedback information about the selection of links in touch interfaces, while the surface is touched by the user. The link-offset-scale mechanism's primary goal is to reduce the number of errors that users commit while interacting with touchscreen devices in the Web.
This paper presents an approach for assisting low-literacy readers in accessing Web online information. The Educational FACILITA tool is a Web content adaptation tool that provides innovative features and follows more intuitive interaction models regarding accessibility concerns. Especially, we propose an interaction model and a Web application that explore the natural language processing tasks of lexical elaboration and named entity labeling for improving Web accessibility. We report on the results obtained from a pilot study on usability analysis carried out with low-literacy users. The preliminary results show that Educational FACILITA improves the comprehension of text elements, although the assistance mechanisms might also confuse users when word sense ambiguity is introduced, by gathering, for a complex word, a list of synonyms with multiple meanings. This fact evokes a future solution in which the correct sense for a complex word in a sentence is identified, solving this pervasive characteristic of natural languages. The pilot study also identified that experienced computer users find the tool to be more useful than novice computer users do.
- Sep 2010
2010 saw the launch of the W4A student award scheme, generously supported by Google, to enable two of our most promising web accessibility research students to attend W4A --- the annual International Cross-Disciplinary Research Conference on Web Accessibility. This year's conference was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, on 26--27 April, and our two award winners were Maia Naftali (University of Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Willian Massani Watanabe (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil). Maia and Willian have kindly provided their reflections on the conference below.
The increase of aging people and the possibilities that are extended to the Internet users have led studies into improvement of web accessibility solutions for older people . Most older adults present some decline in their cognitive, visual, hearing and motor skills . Nowadays, however, the Web faces new technological challenges that extend the initial idea of cross-platform and inter-operational nature of the HTML and HTTP. The challenges are posed as accessibility barriers and consider the skills, capabilities, culture, languages, disabilities, among other characteristics related to the user as a human being, in contrast to the hardware and software requirements previously addressed. The human characteristics of the challenge can be seeing as the ultimate barrier of the initial Web requirements of cross-platform and inter-operational environment, and goes towards social inclusion of people whatever differences they might present in the Web. In this paper we propose the establishment of a new set of success criteria that address older users accessibility into the normative document of WCAG 2.0. The proposed recommendations were identified from a composition of usability studies with real older users and were tested for different scenarios.
Accessibility is an important quality attribute for Web applications. The W3C has defined a set of guidelines that must be followed to deploy accessible web applications, however there is no process that support WCAG requirements during the software development lifecycle. This work proposes the inclusion of the WCAG 2.0 accessibility concerns in a Model-Driven Development, more specifically in the WebML process.
In Brazil, 21.7% of the population is classified as functional illiterate (defined by UNESCO as the percentage of the population aged 15 or over with less than 4 years of study) . These individuals present difficulties to understand texts depending on their size and complexity and, by doing so, have restricted access to the technologies that use texts as the primary means of communication. The pre-eminent reference when considering Web accessibility , WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) already has presented recommendations that address the difficulties faced by those users (functional illiterate), who have difficulty in reading. However, the WCAG model of accessibility requires a manual implementation of technological and design solutions by Web developers and content authors . Therefore, there is no guarantee that the guidelines will be followed. Freire et al., for example, conducted a survey about accessibility awareness of people involved in Web development in Brazil  and an accessibility evaluation of Brazilian Municipalities websites . Their conclusions were that web accessibility is far from being actually considered in Brazil and that much work remains to be done. It is worth noticing that WCAG documents address not only structure and technological aspects. Guideline 14 in WCAG 1.0 (to ensure that documents are clear and simple) and Guideline 3.1 (to make text content readable and understandable) in WCAG 2.0, for example, provide recommendations about how the content should be made available to users. However, Web developers are not always responsible for content preparation and authoring in a Website. Moreover, in the "Web 2.0" context, in which users, without any prior knowledge about the guidelines, directly participate on the content authoring process of Web applications, it becomes extremely difficult to develop completely WCAG conformant Websites. In this context, I am developing the Facilita application. The Facilita is a Web applications that aims at facilitating reading of Portuguese textual content of Web sites and applications. Facilita acts as an assistive technology assisting users to read textual content available on the Web, applying NLP (Natural Language processing) operations (Syntactic Simplification , Automatic Summarization , Lexical Elaboration and Named entities recognition ) on the text. The NLP operations are used as a form of automatically adapting Web sites possibly inaccessible textual content, available on Web applications, in accessible textual content. Facilita is part of a bigger project - PorSimples  - on Text Simplification for Brazilian Portuguese language, which aims at producing tools for aiding web text authors to produce simpler texts and for assisting (poor) readers to have access to relevant written material. Facilita have already being deployed in two different versions: • Facilita: implements the Syntactic Simplification and Automatic Summarization operations. Available at: http://vinho.intermi-dia.icmc.usp.br:3001. • Educational Facilita: implements the Lexical Elaboration and Named Entities Recognition operations. Available at: http://vinho.intermidia.icmc.usp.br-/watinha/Educational-Facilita.
During the development of web-based applications, communication and interaction issues have become even more important, due to the variety of user types that can work together. In this paper we describe the adoption of Model-Driven Development (MDD) approach to support a feasible way to help developers to take into account the issues, regarding to the Web users variety. In general, a good design of the interactions and communication issues implies in high cost and time consuming tasks, and requires that developers be flexible and rapidly change the conception of the interfaces. The meta-models approach presented in this paper aims to map interaction and communication requirements in a practical and useful way during the web application development.
- Jan 2009
- Proceedings of the XV Brazilian Symposium on Multimedia and the Web
This article sets out some considerations for the design, development and evaluation of Web multimodal interfaces by means of the analysis and the results of the implementation of three case studies. In the case studies it was applied two usability evaluation methods, one analytical and one empirical, inserted in the MultiModal Web Approach (MMWA). The main objective was to facilitate the design activities provided by the MMWA with the capture and retrieval of Design Rationale from previous projects and improve the usability and user experience using the design patterns for multimodal interaction.
Texts are the media content primarily available on Web sites and applications. However, this heavy use of texts creates an accessibility barrier to those who cannot read fluently in their mother tongue due to both text length and linguistic complexity. To offer an accessible alternative to these readers, shorter and simplified versions of text content should be provided. Taking that into consideration, this paper introduces Facilita, an assistive technology to help lower-literacy users to understand the text content of Web applications. Facilita generates an accessible content from Web pages automatically, using summarization and simplification techniques. It is also important to consider interface design requirements, since Facilita's target audience (the functionally illiterate) is often classified as computer illiterate as well. Thus, interaction and user interface design were developed considering the limitations and skills of the functionally illiterate.
Although there are recently multiple ways of delivering me- dia on the web, most web contents are still mainly presented in the textual form. The heavy use of texts pose an acces- sibility barrier to those who do not read uently because of both the length and linguistic complexity of the written texts. To deal with that barrier, this paper presents the Fa- cilita, an assistive technology to help lower literacy users to comprehend web applications' textual content. Facilita au- tomatically generates accessible content from web pages, us- ing syntactic simplication and summarization techniques. It is also described the use of technologies aiming at keep- ing users interactions simple, since lower literacy users, fre- quently, also show lower computer skills.
- Jan 2009
Although there are recently multiple ways of delivering media on the web, most web contents are still mainly presented in the textual form. The heavy use of texts pose an accessibility barrier to those who do not read fluently because of both the length and linguistic complexity of the written texts. To deal with that barrier, this paper presents the Facilita, an assistive technology to help lower literacy users to comprehend web applications' textual content. Facilita automaticallygenerates accessible content from web pages, using syntactic simplication and summarization techniques. It is also described the use of technologies aiming at keeping users interactions simple, since lower literacy users, frequently, also show lower computer skills.
In this paper it is described an approach to develop Web multimodal applications using X+V and widgets. The X+V technology itself doesn't suffice the development of rich multimodal applications. So it's required to implement the integration in VoiceXML with the aid of EcmaScript in order to make the interface's component manipulation more intuitive. A case study of such components implementation with the Dojo toolkit filtering select widget and X+V is reported. The issues involved in the development as well as the limitations of such integration are described in this paper.
Web accessibility studies work towards implementing processes and recommendations that lead to the development of interfaces which have their access granted for users regardless of their disabilities. Although many efforts have been done to develop client-side applications in order to provide their in- terface accessible, few works actually aim the development of the web appli- cations for low literacy individuals. In this context, the present study focus on identifying web design principles which ensure access into web applications by illiterate and functional illiterate users. The principles were extracted from Human-Computer Interface studies reported in literature, through a systematic review process. Resumo. O tema Acessibilidade na web tem por finalidade a implementac ¸ ˜ ao
In tasks that require the use of technical documentation, the quality of the texts is critical. If the documentation is imprecise, incomplete or too complex, it increases the cost of realizing the tasks and might lead to higher accident rates. This work reports on how the procedural relationships (Goldman's procedural relations of Generation and Enablement) are represented in portuguese technical manuals and can be used to generate an automatic term extraction method, specifically in the context of technical manuals. We also present the adaptation of a simplified texts authoring system to assist the elaboration of technical manuals. The adaptation of the authoring system uses the list of candidate terms extracted to: (a) help identify words that should not be simplified by lexical simplification methods, and (b) elaborate the technical terms, to improve the understanding of texts. usa a lista de candidatos a termos extraídos para: (a) auxiliar na identificação de palavras que não devem ser simplificadas pelo método de simplificação léxica, e (b) elaborar tais termos, facilitando o entendimento dos textos.
WCAG Conformance is a difficult task to be achieved in Web sites. Specially now with the raise of WCAG 2.0 technology independent model and Web 2.0 context, in which the users themselves are given tools to directly participate in the au-thoring and deployment of Web content. This work presents a user agent strategy towards the automatic adaptation of available Web sites into WCAG conformant ones. We pro-pose the use of natural language processing techniques to improve the conformance of web sites with the Success Cri-terias 3.1.3 and 3.1.5 of WCAG 2.0.
In this paper, we present a solution combining a Web tech-nology and Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems to adapt web content for poor literacy readers. Particularly, we explore the NLP tasks of lexical elaboration and named entity labeling.
The Web 2.0, with its Rich Internet Applications (RIAs), exploits dynamic interactivity to provide a rich interactive environment for web users. On important common denominator is the support to user collaboration via the highly dynamic "desktop like" generated content. Such a context makes it difficult for the designer to tackle a diversity of users, in particular in terms of accessibility issues. WAI-ARIA is a specification that focuses on accessibility issues when developing RIAs. This paper describes an algorithm to automatically evaluate EcmaScript code commonly deployed in RIAs, and presents a case study applied to pop-up windows.
This research addresses the topic of Textual Elaboration for low-literacy readers, i.e. people at the rudimentary and basic literacy levels according to the National Indicator of Functional Literacy (INAF, 2009). Text Elaboration consists of a set of techniques that adds extra material in texts using, traditionally, definitions, synonyms, antonyms, or any external information to assist in text understanding. The main goal of this research was the proposal of two methods of Textual Elaboration: (1) the use of short definitions for Named Entities in texts and (2) assignment of wh-questions related to verbs in text. The first task used the Rembrandt named entity recognition system and short definitions of Wikipedia. It was implemented in PorSimples web Educational Facilita tool. This method was preliminarily evaluated with a small group of low-literacy readers. The evaluation results were positive, what indicates that the tool was useful for improving the text understanding. The assignment of wh-questions related to verbs task was defined, studied, implemented and assessed during this research. Its evaluation was conducted with NLP researches instead of with low-literacy readers. There are good evidences that the text elaboration methods and resources developed here are useful in helping text understanding for low-literacy readers. Resumo. Esta pesquisa aborda o tema da Elaboração Textual para um público alvo que tem letramento nos níveis básicos e rudimentar, de acordo com a classificação do Indicador Nacional de Alfabetismo Funcional (INAF, 2009). A Elaboração Textual é definida como um conjunto de técnicas que acrescentam material redundante em textos, sendo tradicionalmente usadas a adição de definições, sinônimos, antônimos, ou qualquer informação externa com o objetivo de auxiliar na compreensão do texto. O objetivo deste projeto de mestrado foi a proposta de dois métodos originais de elaboração textual: (1) via definição das entidades mencionadas que aparecem em um texto e (2) via definições de perguntas elaboradas direcionadas aos verbos das orações de um texto. Para a primeira tarefa, usou-se um sistema de reconhecimento de entidades mencionadas da literatura, o Rembrandt, e definições curtas da enciclopédia Wikipédia, sendo este método incorporado no sistema Web FACILITA EDUCATIVO, uma das ferramentas desenvolvidas no projeto PorSimples. O método foi avaliado de forma preliminar com um pequeno grupo de leitores com baixo nível de letramento e a avaliação foi positiva, indicando que este auxílio facilitou a leitura dos usuários da avaliação. O método de geração de perguntas elaboradas aos verbos de uma oração é uma tarefa nova que foi definida, estudada, implementada e avaliada neste mestrado. A avaliação não foi realizada junto ao público alvo e sim com especialistas em processamento de língua natural que avaliaram positivamente o método e indicaram quais erros influenciam negativamente na qualidade das perguntas geradas automaticamente. Existem boas indicações de que os métodos de elaboração desenvolvidos podem ser úteis na melhoria da compreensão da leitura para o público alvo em questão, as pessoas com baixo nível de letramento.
Web accessibility studies work towards implementing pro-cesses and recommendations that lead the development of interfaces that have their access granted for users regardless of their disabilities. However few works actually aims the development of these web applications for low literacy indi-viduals, although many effort has been given into develop-ing client-side applications with that goal. Considering that the present study focus on the identification of principles that take for granted access into web applications by illit-erate and functional illiterate users. These principles were extracted from Human-Computer Interface studies, through the proccess of systematic review.
The large capacity of Web for providing information leads to multiple possibilities and opportunities for users. The development of high performance networks and ubiquitous devices allow users to retrieve content from any location and in different scenarios or situations they might face in their lives. Unfortunately the possibilities offered by the Web are not necessarily currently available to all. Individuals who do not have completely compliant software or hardware that are able to deal with the latest technologies, or have some kind of physical or cognitive disability, find it difficult to interact with web pages, depending on the page structure and the ways in which the content is made available. When specifically considering the cognitive disabilities, users classified as functionally illiterate face severe difficulties accessing web content. The heavy use of texts on interfaces design creates an accessibility barrier to those who cannot read fluently in their mother tongue due to both text length and linguistic complexity. In this context, this work aims at developing an assistive technologies that assists functionally illiterate users during their reading and understanding of websites textual content. These assistive technologies make use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques that maximize reading comprehension for users. The natural language techniques that this work uses are: syntactic simplification, automatic summarization, lexical elaboration and named entities recognition. The techniques are used with the goal of automatically adapting textual content available on the Web for users with low literacy levels. This work describes the accessibility characteristics incorporated into both resultant applications (Facilita and Educational Facilita) that focus on low literacy users limitations towards computer usage and experience. This work contributed with the identification of accessibility requirements for low-literacy users, elaboration of an accessibility model for automatizing WCAG conformance and development of accessible solutions in the user agents layer of web applications A grande capacidade de disponibilização de informações que a Web possibilita se traduz em múltiplas possibilidades e oportunidades para seus usuários. Essas pessoas são capazes de acessar conteúdos provenientes de todas as partes do planeta, independentemente de onde elas estejam. Mas essas possibilidades não são estendidas a todos, sendo necessário mais que o acesso a um computador e a Internet para que sejam realizadas. Indivíduos que apresentem necessidades especiais (deficiência visual, cognitiva, dificuldade de locomoção, entre outras) são privados do acesso a sites e aplicações web que façam mal emprego de tecnologias web ou possuam o conteúdo sem os devidos cuidados para com a acessibilidade. Um dos grupos que é privado do acesso a esse ambiente é o de pessoas com dificuldade de leitura (analfabetos funcionais). A ampla utilização de recursos textuais nas aplicações pode tornar difícil ou mesmo impedir as interações desses indivíduos com os sistemas computacionais. Nesse contexto, este trabalho tem por finalidade o desenvolvimento de tecnologias assistivas que atuem como facilitadoras de leitura e compreensão de sites e aplicações web a esses indivíduos (analfabetos funcionais). Essas tecnologias assistivas utilizam recursos de processamento de língua natural visando maximizar a compreensão do conteúdo pelos usuários. Dentre as técnicas utilizadas são destacadas: simplificação sintática, sumarização automática, elaboração léxica e reconhecimento das entidades nomeadas. Essas técnicas são utilizadas com a finalidade de promover a adaptação automática de conteúdos disponíveis na Web para usuários com baixo nível de alfabetização. São descritas características referentes à acessibilidade de aplicações web e princípios de design para usuários com baixo nível de alfabetização, para garantir a identificação e entendimento das funcionalidades que são implementadas nas duas tecnologias assistivas resultado deste trabalho (Facilita e Facilita Educacional). Este trabalho contribuiu com a identificação de requisitos de acessibilidade para usuários com baixo nível de alfabetização, modelo de acessibilidade para automatizar a conformidade com a WCAG e desenvolvimento de soluções de acessibilidade na camada de agentes de usuários