William P Weiss

William P Weiss
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Animal Sciences

PhD

About

194
Publications
53,491
Reads
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8,595
Citations
Citations since 2016
49 Research Items
3563 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (194)
Article
Full-text available
In a randomized complete block design, 40 lactating Holstein cows (average 98 d in milk and 41 kg/d of milk yield) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets: (1) containing soybean meal as the major protein supplement (CON diet); (2) CON diet with high-protein dried corn distillers grains at 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis by replacing mainly soybean m...
Article
Reducing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) reduces urine pH and, therefore, has potential to lower NH3 emissions from manure. We determined the effects of decreased DCAD on dry matter intake, production, nutrient digestibility, manure characteristics, and NH3 emissions from manure. An in vitro incubation study was conducted to evaluate the...
Article
The objective was to assess the effect of prepartum vaccination timing relative to pen change with an acidogenic diet at 28 or 21 d before expected parturition (dpp) on lying time (LT), prepartum serum energy status (glucose, IGF-1, and nonesterified fatty acids), urine pH, and serum Ca at calving in pregnant Holstein dairy cows. Pregnant multiparo...
Article
Lowering dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD; Na + K - Cl - S) can reduce urine pH and this may lower manure pH, potentially mitigating ammonia emissions from manure. However, previous studies reported reducing DCAD can negatively affect DMI, production, and fiber digestibility. Therefore, the objective was to examine effects of a diet with r...
Article
The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of prepartum vaccination timing relative to pen change with an acidogenic diet at 28 or 21 d before expected parturition (dpp) on colostral and serum IgG concentrations at calving in pregnant Holstein dairy cows. Pregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 308) from one large dairy herd were...
Article
After parturition, dairy cows mobilize AA from skeletal muscle to meet metabolizable protein (MP) requirements. High mobilization may compromise cow health and longer-term milk production. Postpartum diets with higher MP concentrations, improved AA profiles, or MP increased at the expense of forages rather than nonforage fiber sources may attenuate...
Article
Measurement of urinary energy (UE) excretion is essential to determine metabolizable energy (ME) supply. Our objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of using urinary N (UN) or C (UC) to estimate UE and ultimately improve the accuracy of estimating ME. Individual animal data (n = 433) were used from 11 studies with Jersey cows at the University of...
Article
Increasing the supply of metabolizable protein (MP) and improving its AA profile may attenuate body protein mobilization in fresh cows and lead to increased milk production. Increasing the concentration of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to increase MP supply and replacing RUP sources from forages instead of nonforage fiber sources may further dec...
Article
Because of low feed intake during the first weeks of lactation, dietary concentration of metabolizable protein (MP) must be elevated. We evaluated effects of providing additional rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) from a single source or a blend of protein and AA sources during the first 3 wk of lactation. We also evaluated whether replacing forage f...
Article
Development of indexes based on milk yield of lactating dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets combined with silage quality parameters can provide clear guidance to assess the overall quality of corn silage produced. This study was done to determine the most important minimum number of silage quality parameters for corn silage quality evaluation am...
Article
Heat production (HP) represents a major energy cost in lactating dairy cows. Better understanding of factors that affect HP will improve our understanding of energy metabolism. Our objective was to derive models to explain variation in HP of lactating Jersey cows. Individual animal-period data from 9 studies (n = 293) were used. The data set includ...
Article
We hypothesized that dairy cows fed oscillating metabolizable protein (MP) and crude protein (CP) concentrations on a 24-h frequency for a diet formulated to be below MP requirements would use N more efficiently (i.e., increased milk protein yields and less manure N) without increasing mobilization of body protein stores than would cows fed the sam...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional feed composition tables have been a useful tool in the field of animal nutrition throughout the last 70 years. The objective of this paper is to discuss challenges and opportunities associated with creating large feed ingredient composition tables. This manuscript will focus on three topics discussed during the National Animal Nutrition...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to estimate cow variability that can be used to determine the optimal sample size for digestibility trials using lactating dairy cows. Experimental design was randomized complete block design having three blocks and three dietary treatments. Three similarly managed nearby intensive farms were considered as blocks, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Development of indexes based on milk yield of lactating dairy cows when fed corn silage-based diets in combination with silage quality parameters can provide clear guidance to assess the overall quality of the corn silage produced. This study was done to determine the minimum data set (MDS) for corn silage quality evaluation among commonly used par...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing rumen starch digestibility can improve production and feed efficiency. Corn that was developed to contain high alpha-amylase expression (Enogen ® Feed, Syngenta Seeds, LLC, Downers Grove, IL) was evaluated on nutrient digestibility, production, and CH4 emission in lactating cows. Enogen and isoline corn were grown and harvested for corn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effects of reduced dietary cation and anion difference on production, nutrient digestibility, and urine pH in lactating cows. Manure acidification is an effective strategy to lower ammonia emissions from manure and increase its value as fertilizer. Lowering dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) can reduce urine pH and this may acidify manure d...
Chapter
The nutritional value of forage is a function of its chemical composition and digestibility, and its effects on dry matter intake. Laboratory methods are available that can either measure or be used to estimate the concentrations of nutrients, digestibility, and intake potential of forages. This chapter deals with such laboratory methods to evaluat...
Article
Full-text available
Millions of feed composition records generated annually by testing laboratories are valuable assets that can be used to benefit the animal nutrition community. However, it is challenging to manage, handle, and process feed composition data that originate from multiple sources, lack standardized feed names, and contain outliers. Efficient methods th...
Article
The objective of this work was to update and evaluate predictions of essential AA (EAA) outflows from the rumen. The model was constructed based on previously derived equations for rumen-undegradable (RUP), microbial (MiCP), and endogenous (EndCP) protein outflows from the rumen, and revised estimates of ingredient composition and EAA composition o...
Article
An experiment was conducted to examine effects of prepartum, postpartum, or continuous prepartum and postpartum supply of rumen-protected lysine (RPLys) and rumen-protected methionine (RPMet) on performance and blood metabolites of transition cows. The experiment consisted of a prepartum (3 wk), postpartum (3 wk), and carryover (10 wk) period. Eigh...
Article
Nitrogen concentrations in feeds, feces, milk, and urine samples were measured using 2 analytical methods following different drying procedures. Ten samples of corn silage, alfalfa silage, and concentrates collected from 2017 to 2018 at Krauss Dairy Research Center, The Ohio State University (Wooster), were used. A 4-d total collection digestion tr...
Article
Formulating diets with high inclusion rates of a feed that provides necessary nutrients at lower-than-market prices for those nutrients should increase income over feed costs if the feed is not detrimental to yields of milk and milk components. The objective of this study was to determine whether cows fed a diet composed of approximately 53% corn s...
Article
The objective was to evaluate the associations of pre- and postpartum lying time (LT) with serum total calcium (Ca), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and haptoglobin concentrations, hemogram, and health status of dairy cows. A total of 1,052 Holstein cattle (401 nulliparous heifers and 651 parous cows) from 3 commercial da...
Article
The objectives were to evaluate the associations of lying time (LT) during the first 14 d in milk (DIM) with milk yield, cyclicity (CYC), culling within 60 DIM (CULL), and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,052 Holstein cattle (401 nulliparous heifers and 651 parous cows) from 3 commercial dairy farms had electronic data...
Article
Full-text available
The California net energy system (CNES) used a combination of measured and tabular metabolizable energy (ME) values and changes in body composition gain to determine net energy requirements for maintenance and gain and their corresponding dietary concentrations. The accuracy of the CNES depends on the accuracy of the feed ME values. Feed or diet ME...
Article
Full-text available
Information on sources of variation in feed and diet characteristics is needed to develop appropriate strategies to reduce uncertainty and to separate true variation from that associated with measurements. The objectives were to determine sources of variation in DM content and particle size distribution in corn silage (CS) and TMR. Ten dairy farms...
Article
Nutrient balance studies require measuring urine volume, and urinary excretion can be used to assess Mg bioavailability. A less laborious method than total collection of urine could make balance studies more feasible and expand the utility of using urinary Mg as an index of bioavailability, but the method needs to be accurate and sensitive. Samplin...
Article
Spray-dried plasma protein (SDP) compared with blood meal (BM) may contain various functional and active components that may benefit animal health. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding SDP or BM on production and blood profile in dairy cows during the transition and early-lactation periods. Seventy-two Holstein...
Article
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Out...
Article
The interaction of monensin and 2 supplemental Mg sources (MgO and MgSO4) on total-tract digestion of minerals and organic nutrients and milk production was evaluated in lactating dairy cattle. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows (139 ± 35 DIM) were used in a split-plot experiment with 0 or 14 mg/kg diet DM of monensin as the whole-plot treatments a...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to determine the effects of dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), and diet characteristics on total tract digestibilities of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch (DMD, NDFD, and StarchD, respectively) in high-producing dairy cows. Our database was composed of 1,942 observations from 662 cows in 54 studies from Mich...
Article
Many nutrition models rely on summative equations to estimate feed and diet energy concentrations. These models partition feed into nutrient fractions and multiply the fractions by their estimated true digestibility, and the digestible mass provided by each fraction is then summed and converted to an energy value. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) is use...
Article
The first few weeks after parturition is marked by low, but increasing feed intake and sharply increasing milk production by dairy cows. Because of low intake, the nutrient density of the diet may need to be higher during this period to support increasing milk yields. We hypothesized that feeding higher levels of metabolizable protein (MP) or a pro...
Article
Excess rumen-soluble Cu and Zn can alter rumen microbial populations and reduce fiber digestibility. Because of differences in particle size and chemical composition, ruminal and total-tract digestibility of fiber from forage- and by-product–based diets can differ. We hypothesized that, because of differences in mineral solubility, diets with hydro...
Article
Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of source of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn (sulfates or hydroxy) on apparent absorption of minerals when fed in either a forage- or by-product–based diet. The by-product diets were formulated to have greater concentrations of NDF...
Article
Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty a...
Article
The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs...
Article
The effects of supplementing diets with sulfate or glycinate Cu, Zn, and Mn on blood neutrophil function were examined in 27 late-lactation Holstein cows having a mean (± standard deviation) days in milk at time of neutrophil assays of 216 ± 31 d. Cows were assigned to 9 blocks of 3 and were grouped by parity, milk production, and days in milk. Cow...
Article
Appropriate trace mineral supplementation can improve immune response and hoof health in cattle and at much higher rates of supplementation to swine and poultry can alter microbial colonization of the gut, resulting in improved gut health. Diet can influence fecal microbial excretion in cattle, and the fecal microbiome may serve as a means for asse...
Article
Full-text available
The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is rel...
Article
A large project involving commercial dairy farms was undertaken to identify important sources of variation in composition data of common feeds and mixed diets. This information is needed to develop appropriate sampling schedules for feeds and should reduce the uncertainty associated with the nutrient composition of delivered diets. The first subpro...
Article
The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce th...
Article
Endotoxin tolerance (ET) can develop in mammals that have been challenged repeatedly with sublethal amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous research has shown that subclinical ruminal acidosis can increase circulating concentrations of LPS. We investigated whether ET would develop in Holstein cows that were subjected to chronic subacute rumin...
Conference Paper
Abstract Text: Overfeeding crude protein (CP) is a common practice in the dairy industry to reduce the risk of a loss in milk; however, overfeeding CP increases costs and negatively impacts the environment. We hypothesized that oscillating dietary CP concentrations to equal the average concentration of a diet limited in metabolizable protein (MP)...
Article
Accurate estimates of mean nutrient composition of feeds, nutrient variance (i.e., standard deviation), and covariance (i.e., correlation) are needed to develop a more quantitative approach of formulating diets to reduce risk and optimize safety factors. Commercial feed-testing laboratories have large databases of composition values for many feeds,...
Article
Full-text available
Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 k...
Article
Full-text available
Requirements and factors that affect dietary requirements for several trace minerals and vitamins in ruminants are poorly defined. Most B vitamins and vitamin K are believed to be synthesized by bacteria in the rumen in adequate amounts to meet the requirement of the animal. Nonetheless, several studies indicate that supplementing high-producing da...
Article
Within-farm variation in forage composition can be substantial and potentially costly, and it presents challenges for sampling the forage accurately. We hypothesized that day-to-day variation in forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) concentrations and diet variation caused by sampling error would have negative effects on production measures in lact...
Article
Transient changes in the dry matter (DM) concentration of silages often occur, which will cause transient changes in the ration. To determine the effects of a transient change in silage DM, 24 Holstein cows (116 d in milk) were used in an 8 replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control, (2) unbalanced (UNBAL),...
Article
Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjus...
Article
Full-text available
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are diff...
Article
The nutrient composition of diets can vary from batch to batch because of variation in the nutrient composition of ingredients. The concentration of fat in distillers grains can be highly variable and, coupled with a high dietary inclusion rate, can result in substantial variation in the fat concentration of the total diet. Our hypothesis was that...
Article
An experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm to determine the effects of propane flaming on bacterial populations of common environmental mastitis pathogens in recycled sand bedding. One row of freestalls was flamed within 12 h after recycled bedding was added to stalls and then daily for the next 6 d. Bedding in a control row of freestal...
Article
Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of 3 supplemental Cu concentrations on feedlot performance, mineral absorption, carcass characteristics, and ruminal S metabolism of cattle fed diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were evaluated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted with 84 Angus-cross yearling steers and heifers (initial BW = 238 ±...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the ratio of volatile N to non-volatile specific minerals or total ash in manure can potentially be used to estimate losses of N from manure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of using specific minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na) or total ash as markers to estimate volatile N losses from incubated manure slurries. Holstein c...
Article
The digestibility of starch provided by coarsely ground corn is often low, which reduces the digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet. We hypothesized that adding exogenous amylase to diets based on coarsely ground dent corn would increase dietary DE resulting in greater milk production. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was measured in a...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a team-based educational program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based, nutrition information to dairy veterinarians. A comprehensive dairy cattle nutrition curriculum was developed and participants from 11 veterinary practices located in 5 states (IN, NY, PA, NM, and OH...
Article
To examine behavioral and physiologic effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in lactating dairy cows. 20 Holstein cows. Cows were assigned to 5 blocks (4 cows/block) on the basis of parity and number of days in lactation. Intramammary infusion and IV treatments were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows within each block wer...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of fat supplements that differed in fatty acid composition (chain length and degree of saturation) and chemical form (free fatty acids, Ca salts of fatty acids, and triacylglyceride) on digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet and DE intake by lactating cows were measured. Holstein cows were fed a control diet [2.9% of dry matte...
Article
Total urine collection from female cattle requires the use of indwelling urinary catheters or an external device requiring secure attachment with adhesive to the animal; neither method is ideal for the welfare of the cattle. A urine collection device was developed to enable total urine collection in female dairy cattle without the use of adhesive t...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the Fe status of cows in late gestation and early lactation and determine whether measures of Fe status and milk production were affected by feeding supplemental organic Fe. Starting 60 d before anticipated calving, cows and heifers were fed diets with 0 or 30 mg/kg of supplemental Fe (Availa-Fe,...
Article
Intake of net energy for lactation (NE(L)) is often the limiting factor for milk production and is affected by stage of lactation and dietary concentrations of forage and fat. Because of the mechanisms involved, interactions are likely between those 2 diet components and stage of lactation. We conducted an experiment with 72 Holstein cows starting...
Article
The effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), type of carbohydrate, and their interactions on nutrient digestibility and production were evaluated using a central composite treatment design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Rumen-degradable protein co...
Article
Effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), and type of carbohydrate on manure excretion by dairy cows and production of ammonia from that manure were evaluated using a central composite experimental design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Diets contai...
Article
The response of a biological process to various factors is generally nonlinear, with many interactions among those factors. Although meta-analyses of data across multiple studies can help in identifying and quantifying interactions among factors, missing latent variables can result in serious misinterpretation. Eventually, all influential factors h...
Article
A method that accurately quantifies changes in the supply of metabolizable Met following a dietary change will allow accurate economic comparisons of various Met sources. This paper describes a novel method of estimating the relative supply of metabolizable Met based on changes in the concentration of Se in milk. Selenized yeast (Se-yeast) contains...