William R. Watson

William R. Watson
Purdue University | Purdue · Department of Curriculum and Instruction

PhD

About

66
Publications
37,654
Reads
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1,749
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - present
Purdue University
Position
  • Associate Professor of Learning Design and Technology

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
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Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape o...
Article
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This is the pre-print version. The final publication is available at www.springerlink.com (see link below).
Article
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New approaches to instruction are increasingly being advocated to meet the needs of diverse learners. Educational researchers have identified the further development and application of computer-based instruction technologies for managing differentiated learning for all students as essential for shifting to a learner-centered paradigm of instruction...
Article
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Video games and problem-based learning (PBL) are both significant trends in progressive approaches to education. The literature demonstrates a fit between the two approaches, indicating they may be mutually beneficial. With limited literature on implementing games in the classroom, and a growing body of researchers highlighting the importance of th...
Article
This study examines the case of a sophomore high school history class where Making History, a video game designed with educational purposes in mind, is used in the classroom to teach about World War II. Data was gathered using observation, focus group and individual interviews, and document analysis. The high school was a rural school located in a...
Article
Anthropogenic activities cause environmental degradation-related problems. However, people fail to perform pro-environmental behaviours because they believe that they cannot make a difference or they focus on short-term benefits. Interventions that address specific target groups aimed at breaking barriers and changing behaviours are required. To te...
Article
Environmental sustainability education should create eco-awareness and produce pro-environmental behaviors. Traditional instructional methods create eco-awareness but do not make people act. Purposefully designed digital games for attitudinal instruction provide cognitive knowledge, engage learners emotionally by showing the consequences of harmful...
Article
Environmental responsibilities have evolved beyond controlling the emissions and wastes of industrial production to now incorporating logistics, products and processes. Corporations have become environmentally conscious to satisfy corporate responsibilities and to ensure sustainable development, increasing the demand for environmental engineering p...
Article
Awareness of environmental sustainability issues alone is not enough. Environmental Sustainability Education (ESE) should produce changes in attitude and encourage lifelong behaviors. However, behavioral changes are curtailed by constraints and negative perceptions, necessitating the use of persuasive pedagogical tools in ESE. Digital game-based le...
Article
This study investigated the relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies of English Language Learners (ELL) in a college setting from a social cognitive perspective. Participants in this study were one hundred seventeen ELL college students who enrolled in an English language course at a Midwestern university. The resu...
Article
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High dropout rates have been an unsolved issue in massive open online courses (MOOCs). As perceived effectiveness predicts learner retention in MOOCs, instructional design factors that affect it have been increasingly examined. However, self-regulated learning, self-efficacy, and task value have been underestimated from the perspective of instructo...
Article
This study examined students’ perceptions of attitudinal learning outcomes and instructional activities within a language and cultural exchange (LACE) course at a midwestern U.S. university and explored whether perceptions differed based on students’ prior knowledge, major, and/or demographics. We utilized a mixed-methods approach to gather quantit...
Article
Personalized learning has the potential to transfer the focus of higher education from teacher-centered to learner-centered environments. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to provide an overview of personalized learning theory, learning technology that supports the personalization of higher education, current practices, as well...
Article
In this qualitative comparison study, we examine the perceived efficacy of using personalized learning (PL) activities based on PL principles to support students' psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation in an online course using a traditional one-size-fits-all model. We apply self-determination theory as a framework to investigate...
Article
Students’ self-reported attitudinal learning were compared between two different large courses that incorporated attitudinal learning objectives at a Midwestern US public university- a course on environmental sustainability utilising active learning instruction (100 participants) and a course on international economics utilising traditional lecture...
Article
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This study examines the relationships between self-efficacy, task value, and the use of self-regulated learning strategies by massive open online course (MOOC) learners from a social cognitive perspective. A total of 184 participants who enrolled in two MOOCs completed surveys. The results of Pearson's correlation analysis show a positive correlati...
Article
How to provide effective attitudinal learning in large-enrollment classrooms is a continuing question in higher education. This qualitative single case study investigated instructional design strategies and activities that could effectively be applied to attitude change in large-enrollment learning contexts. By evaluating an undergraduate sustainab...
Article
With more people moving abroad for education and work, many countries are becoming multicultural in population. Hence, developing multicultural attitudes is becoming imperative to prevent negative thoughts and feelings toward minorities that may translate into discriminatory behaviors toward them. One way to ensure this is through multicultural edu...
Thesis
Online higher education courses are often designed using a one-size-fits-all model that treats students as instructional users rather than participants who contribute according to their learning needs and interests. Although many scholars have discussed personalized learning as a means to customize instruction over the past three decades, few have...
Article
In this paper, we present the development and validation of a new measure of attitudinal learning—the Attitudinal Learning Inventory (ALI). While specific scales are available for measuring attitudes, they largely focus on established attitudes, not the impact of instruction on those attitudes. We developed the inventory with two explicit objectives...
Article
In this paper, we present the development and validation of a new measure of attitudinal learning—the Attitudinal Learning Inventory (ALI). While specific scales are available for measuring attitudes, they largely focus on established attitudes, not the impact of instruction on those attitudes. We developed the inventory with two explicit objective...
Article
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Environmental Sustainability Education (ESE) is a critical element in youth education, as it facilitates learners to understand and realize the importance of creating a sustainable future for themselves and others. Changing learner attitudes and related behaviours is critical in ESE. Digital game-based learning (DGBL) environments offer a suitable...
Article
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The push for technology integration in classrooms calls for examinations of available options, particularly those that have not yet been used to their full potential for various reasons. One such technology is digital commercial games which, though designed for entertainment, may have potential educational benefits. Although there have been several...
Article
This study (N = 427) examined perceived attitudinal learning gains (i.e., cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning) related to the course topic by comparing a self-paced version of a Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) with a fixed-scheduled version. Independent samples t-tests revealed that those in a self-paced classroom were more likely to p...
Article
Stakeholders in the education arena are seeking effective and affordable ways to integrate technology in curriculum. One technology integration approach that has received attention is using commercial digital games as technological tools in the curriculum. Massively Multiplayer Online Games or MMOGs are a sub-genre of commercial, made for entertain...
Article
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Despite arguments about the importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) in massive open online courses (MOOCs) (Terras & Ramsay, 2015), understanding of the topic is limited. This study offers a systematic review of empirical research on SRL in MOOCs. It revealed that the body of literature on SRL in MOOCs has grown from 2014 to 2016. The content a...
Article
This study seeks to examine perceptions of attitudinal change in relation to the primary assessment activity within four Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) that were designed for attitudinal learning. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we sought to understand if by focusing on assessing cognitive learning (quizzes) as opposed to behavio...
Article
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This study examined instructor and learner experiences in a Journalism for Social Change (JSC) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) designed to introduce learners around the world to constructive, solutions-based journalism techniques, as well as engage learners in developing news stories promoting positive change about critical child welfare (CW) iss...
Article
The aims of the study were to investigate learner profiles in a MOOC focused on attitudinal learning, Science of Happiness, based on learner self-assessment of “happiness” and relationships with demographics, attitudinal learning gains and preferred instructional activities. A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used in the attitudinal...
Article
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Despite the increased attention given to MOOCs over the last four years, learners’ voices have been noticeably absent. This virtual ethnographic study was designed to examine the experiences of 12 adult learners with bachelors’ and masters’ degrees, enrolled in a four-week MOOC on the topic of human trafficking. Through the lenses of self-directed...
Article
p class="3">This case study examined a team of instructors’ use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on Animal Behaviour and Welfare (ABW), designed to facilitate attitudinal learning. The study reviewed a team of six instructors’ use of social presence and teaching presence by app...
Article
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This study builds on prior research regarding attitudinal learning MOOCs, and a study examining the quality of MOOCs based on adherence to the first principles of instruction. Nine MOOCs designed for attitudinal instruction were reviewed to rate the degree they incorporated first principles of instruction and first principles of attitudinal instruc...
Article
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have gained significant attention in recent years for their potential to impact education at a global scale. This paper presents the findings from a study that examined the cases of three MOOCs, including Human Trafficking, US Food System, and Animal Behavior and Welfare, that were specifically designed to effect...
Chapter
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Editors' Foreword: Preconditions (when to use the theory) Content • All content. Learners • All students. Learning environments • Learner-centered and personalized rather than teacher-centered and one-size-fits-all. Instructional development constraints • Requires substantial integrated technology support for instruction, communication, collaborat...
Article
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This exploratory case study describes the design and facilitation of a massive open online course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. It examines the course from the learners’, instructor’s, and instructional designer’s perspectives. Two interviews with the instructor and instructional designer were conducted, and data from a...
Article
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This study examines a MOOC instructor’s use of social presence, teaching presence, and dissonance for attitudinal change in a MOOC on Human Trafficking, designed to promote attitudinal change. Researchers explored the MOOC instructor’s use of social presence and teaching presence, using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework as a lens, and examin...
Article
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The learner-centered paradigm of instruction differs in such fundamental ways from the teacher-centered paradigm that it requires technology to serve very different functions. In 2006, a research team at Indiana University began to work on identifying those functions and published their results in 2008. Subsequently, the team elaborated and refined...
Article
Background. Engagement in praxis, the process of acting and reflecting in a cyclical fashion, fosters the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills among educational game designers. Resulting from this process, designers can apply their learned skills to create highly engaging educational games. Aim. This study examines the game d...
Article
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At-risk student bodies in public school districts have very different cultures of learning from mainstream learning communities. Policies and practices in schools tend to isolate these student bodies for convenience in administration and instruction, and little consideration is given to whether these experiences of isolation from the larger communi...
Article
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Systems engineering increasingly addresses the system lifecycle, as opposed to its more traditional role focusing on design and development. This new situation results in part from the recognition that upstream design and deployment decisions have potentially significant cost and performance implications post-deployment. For military systems, the r...
Article
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Higher education faces increasing pressures to change to better meet the needs of modern society. Systemic change applies systems thinking and systems theory to change a complex system to a new paradigm. This paper argues for the need for the systemic change of higher education and presents educational technologists as particularly well placed to l...
Article
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In order to meet the needs of today’s knowledge economy, education needs to move beyond the industrial age approach of treating all learners as if they are the same and adopt a learner-centered model of education suitable for the information age. To support this model, a new and transformative technology is needed that focuses on mastery and custom...
Article
In this study, the authors examined juvenile offender experiences in Project Tech, a research-based educational pilot program to teach socially responsible serious game development at a major Midwest university's Games Lab. Using open-ended interviews, learner feedback surveys, and learner journaling during the program, the researchers examined two...
Conference Paper
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With much of the current systems engineering workforce reaching retirement age, there is a critical need to develop work experience among new systems engineers. Increasingly, educators and employers are turning to educational technology-based approaches to aid in this process. One such effort is the Experience Accelerator, an on-going research proj...
Conference Paper
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Educational video games are a current hot topic in educational technology, with many advocates who believe that most current, successful video games are already designed to foster in-game learning by players (Gee, 2007a; Gee 2007b; Prensky, 2006). The difficulty comes in successfully integrating games within a standardized curriculum. Expert teache...
Article
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This chapter presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role technology can play in higher education in the current information-age. This article calls for a Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process, which will provide four primary roles fo...
Article
The systems engineering Experience Accelerator (ExpAcc) is a research project in the early stages of definition and development that is focused on validating the feasibility of leveraging simulation technology to create a series of experiences that will accelerate the maturity of systems engineers. This paper leverages the approach being defined fo...
Article
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2007 An increasing number of researchers have acknowledged the deficiencies of current instructional approaches by turning to educational video games. Proponents of educational video games believe that they are the future of instruction, and the number of proponents is increasing as well. The...
Data
This chapter compares a number of systemic change approaches to K-12 school innovation. The approaches reviewed in this chapter range from idealized design to leveraged emergent design, school-wide to district-wide transformation, and key-leader directed to broad-stakeholder-directed transformation. Definitions of each approach are reviewed, along...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter compares a number of systemic change approaches to K-12 school innovation. The approaches reviewed in this chapter range from idealized design to leveraged emergent design, school-wide to district-wide transformation, and key-leader directed to broad-stakeholder-directed transformation. Definitions of each approach are reviewed, along...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses learning management systems (LMS) as a technology necessary for supporting the educational needs of the information age. It defines LMS and argues that the move from the mechanistic, sorting-oriented paradigm of the industrial age to the customized, learning-oriented paradigm of the information age requires the application of...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses learning management systems (LMS) as a technology necessary for supporting the educational needs of the information age. It defines LMS and argues that the move from the mechanistic, sorting-oriented paradigm of the industrial age to the customized, learning-oriented paradigm of the information age requires the application of...
Article
It is important for all Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) members to understand the ways society is changing as people evolve deeper into the information age, and to recognize that these changes require a change in paradigm for education and training systems to be most effective in meeting the needs of individuals and...

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Projects

Project (1)
Archived project
The purpose of this project was to identify the functions that technology needs to serve for the learner-centered paradigm of education or training (competency-based, personalized, project-based, collaborative, and self-directed).