William A. Sprigg

William A. Sprigg
The University of Arizona | UA · Department of Atmospheric Sciences/IAP

BS, MS, MPhil, PhD.

About

53
Publications
10,366
Reads
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511
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - August 2014
Chapman University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (53)
Preprint
Full-text available
The risks associated with airborne soil particles (dust) are often underappreciated, and the gap between the knowledge pool and public awareness can be costly for society. This study reviews the emission, chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of dust and its effects on human and environmental health and safety in the Americas. American...
Article
Complexities of virus genotypes and the stochastic contacts in human society create a big challenge for estimating the potential risks of exposure to a widely spreading virus such as COVID-19. To increase public awareness of exposure risks in daily activities, we propose a birthday-paradox-based probability model to implement in a web-based system,...
Article
Full-text available
The long journey of research to lower risks of Coccidioidomycosis (CM) began in the late 19 th century in Argentina and continued north to Mexico, the US and other countries. During this trip, medical science led the way. Although interdisciplinary research is not alien to medical science, e.g. geographic epidemiology, interaction with other discip...
Article
Full-text available
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare vascular disease that, if left untreated, can result in irreparable cardiac damage in children. While the symptoms of KD are well-known, as are best practices for treatment, the etiology of the disease and the factors contributing to KD outbreaks remain puzzling to both medical practitioners and scientists alike. Rec...
Article
The use of bio-mulches to stabilize dust has gained worldwide attention during the last five decades. We report herein on a study of the application of 20 new types of bio-mulches as stabilizing agents. To understand the effect of new bio-mulches on dust stabilization, several tests have been applied for strength, structural stability and wind eros...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the importance of thinking about interdisciplinary approaches to examining extreme weather, health and communities. Weather extremes are a challenge. In sudden storms, long periods of drought, heat waves or cold spells, people either cope or suffer the consequences. World populations today are facing extreme weather in many...
Chapter
Arid regions, the source of most airborne mineral dusts, comprise a third of the Earth’s land surface, where some two billion people are exposed daily to the fine particles raised by wind. Crossing political borders and travelling on air currents around the world, these particles not only affect the health of local communities, but also put many ot...
Chapter
Native American communities along the Gulf of Mexico, separated in significant ways from contemporary tools and technology, experience and cope with weather extremes in unique and largely unknown ways. From one generation to the next there has been little communication between science, where advanced tools of warning and survival can be derived, an...
Article
Full-text available
As regional climate evolves into new climatic states in different parts of the world, humanity will be facing increasing issues associated with migration environment and health concerns. Challenges of major hazards and impacts on human societies, involving water resources, agriculture, economy and energy issues are central issues. This paper examin...
Chapter
Arid regions, the source of most airborne mineral dusts, comprise a third of the Earth’s land surface, where some two billion people are exposed daily to the fine particles raised by wind. Crossing political borders and travelling on air currents around the world, these particles not only affect the health of local communities, but also put many ot...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Direct detection of...
Article
Full-text available
On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities...
Article
Full-text available
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land–atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurat...
Article
Full-text available
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurat...
Article
Full-text available
The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from th...
Article
Full-text available
Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwe...
Article
For countries in and downwind of arid regions, airborne sand and dust present serious risks to the environment, property and human health. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has taken the lead on an international scale to develop and implement SDS-WAS - a system of dust-related research, observations, numerical dust prediction and services...
Article
On July 5th 2011 Phoenix (Arizona) was hit with an intensive dust storm (haboob). The National Weather Service estimated the storm reached a peak height of at least 1500 to 1800 m, with a leading edge stretching nearly 100 miles (160 km). The storm traveled at least 240 km., reducing visibility in Phoenix to zero. At about 7 PM MST the dust storm h...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Direct detection of pollen via satellite is not p...
Article
Public support of climate research is motivated by a desire to identify hazards and anticipate risks. Society's future security and safety depend on predicting often unknown hazards. Laser-like focus on less than the total of Earth's system of systems increases our vulnerability to change. Thus, El-Nino, the oceans and biosphere become essential el...
Conference Paper
Respiratory diseases such as asthma can be triggered by environmental conditions that can be monitored using Earth observing data and environmental forecast models. Frequent dust storms in the southwestern United States, the annual cycle of juniper pollen events in the spring, and increased aerosol and ozone concentrations in summer, are health con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dust is emitted from diverse settings. Geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, land-use, and climatic conditions interact in these settings to promote or suppress dust emission and to determine dust composition. New knowledge about dust sources, conditions of dust emission, and composition of dust can now be applied to evaluate potentially adverse effects...
Article
Thirty-four percent of Earth's land surface is arid, home to two billion people routinely exposed to airborne dust and increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. The NASA-supported Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing project has improved the process of simulating and predicting when and where dust storms will occur and the c...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a framework for managing climate change as a human endeavor, and it indicates how the other papers of this Special Issue contribute to discussion of the framework. The framework consists of three well-known strategies: mitigation, adaptation and geoengineering and this paper suggests how these can interact in a comprehensive app...
Article
Airborne dust originating pricipally from arid and semi-arid regions of the globe affects social, economic and environmental systems and influences weather and climate. The serious consequences of airborne dust have encouraged more than 4o nations to recommend action by the World Meteorological Organization to develop a better understanding of dust...
Article
Olson World Ecosystem (OWE) land cover data based on data sources of the 1970s and 1980s with a 10-min spatial resolution, and up-to-date Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover data with a 30-s resolution, were used, respectively, in modeling wind-blown desert dust in the southwest United States. The model using different...
Article
Full-text available
Dust is known to aggravate respiratory diseases. This is an issue in the desert southwestern United States, where windblown dust events are common. The Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing (PHAiRS) project aims to address this problem by using remote-sensing products to assist in public health decision support. As part of PHAiRS, a model fo...
Article
Full-text available
A model for simulating desert dust cycle was adapted and applied for a dust storm case in the southwest United States (US). This is an initial test of the model's capability as part of a future public health early warning system. The modeled meteorological fields, which drive a dust storm, were evaluated against surface and upper-air measurement da...
Chapter
The role of solar variability in climate variability and change has been debated for a long time. Now, new results from various space experiments monitoring the radiative and particle emissions from the Sun together with detailed studies of their terrestrial impacts have opened an exciting new era in both solar and atmospheric physics. Being so clo...
Article
Full-text available
The Sino-U.S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection ("Centers") (University of Arizona, 2002), co-located at the Northwest Sci-Tech University for Agriculture and Forestry (NWSUAF) and the University of Arizona (UA), were formally established in a May 20, 2002, ceremony at the NWSUAF in Yangling, Shaanxi Province, Chi...
Book
Full-text available
When Congress established the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) in 1990, federal research agencies were directed to develop and coordinate “a comprehensive and integrated research program that will assist the nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to humaninduced and natural process of global change.” Further, C...
Article
A theoretical model of atmospheric diffusion of a polydispersed material from an elevated line source is used to predict downwind deposition of large particles (nominally 100 μ diameter) released during six separate field diffusion experiments. Two equations are used. One, where diffusion is dependent on the distribution of particles as advected in...
Article
The present systems for obtaining meteorological and climatological data and forecasts are described. Current forecast capability is discussed. Prospects for improving meteorological information and forecasts are analyzed. The greatest advancements over the next several years are expected to come in development of long range climate forecasting. 11...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory diseases caused or aggravated by dust or smoke (PM10 and PM2.5) are of concern to health officials in arid and semiarid regions where windblown dust constitutes a serious threat to public health. This paper presents early results of work on Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing (PHAiRS), a project that seeks to integrate NASA rem...
Article
Following is a continuation of the list of titles and authors: Measurement of Trace Stratospheric Gases by Inverting Thermal Infrared Limb Radiance Profiles. By John C. Gille, James M. Russell III, Paul L. Bailey and Frederick B. House. Atmospheric Turbidity Measurements with the Dual-Wavelength Sunphotometer. By E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K....

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Push the international community to implement a Global Dust/Health Early Warning System, DHEWS). Emphasis is on airborne dirt/dusts, their health consequences and international actions to reduce health risks from sand and dust storms.