William Warren Riggs

William Warren Riggs
University of San Francisco | USFCA · School of Management

PhD, AICP, LEED AP

About

110
Publications
22,625
Reads
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1,084
Citations
Citations since 2016
80 Research Items
1012 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Introduction
Professor Focused on Sustainable Transport, Economics, Housing & Future Tech; Consult and Direct Research at @Sustinereurban; Runner, Cyclist & Musician @billyriggsband
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
University of San Francisco
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2013 - July 2017
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
May 2008 - March 2014
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Principal Planner & Research Scholar

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
In the face of diminished federal and state transportation funding, cities continue to look for creative local funding mechanisms to pay for and implement their multi-modal goals. To understand the types of local funding being used, this study analyzes case study cities across the U.S. to identify best practices, documenting the most widely used me...
Article
As use of mobile technology grows rapidly, planning agencies experiment and adopt new policies to accommodate this increase. While a significant body of literature has extolled the growth and opportunity this technological change presents, little is looking about its use by local government and urban planning organizations. This research investigat...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the inclusiveness of walkable housing in the San Francisco Bay Area. Using a series of regression models that control for an array of factors, this study finds that blacks are more likely to live in less walkable areas, a factor which could result in increased societal costs. These models suggest that this factor may mask other...
Article
"Active living research" has been accused of being overly "physically deterministic" and this article argues that urban planners must continue to evolve research and address biases in this area. The article first provides background on how researchers have dealt with the relationship between the built environment and health over years. This leads t...
Chapter
Research suggests widespread proliferation of automated vehicles (AV) can potentially greatly increase transportation energy use and congestion [1]. One of the ways to mitigate such increases is to increase sharing in order to provide more environmentally and financially sustainable and cost effective services that match consumer demands for reliab...
Article
Providing access to coastal and marine resources has long been a planning priority in many locations. At the same time, housing affordability and the lack of investment in lower-cost overnight accommodations in environmentally sensitive coastal areas have exasperated efforts to provide equitable access. While agencies have funded projects to help i...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on local policy roadmaps. While a significant body of policy has been developed at the national and state levels, very little policy work has identified policy for local government. In this context, this chapter reviews state of technology and policy development and offers potential policy concepts for local government. Suggest...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, there has been rapid growth in the development and infusion of new and disruptive transportation. Some of the pivotal emergent technologies range from micro-mobility and bikeshare to ridesourcing that is set to utilize automated vehicles. This paper introduces and defines minimobility that falls between a regular ridesourcing/...
Article
The transportation and mobility landscape has changed at exponential rates in recent years. This is particularly evident in the spread and use of micromobility, primarily via e-scooters, in the United States. It is widely agreed that municipalities need to regulate the deployment of this new form of mobility to capture some of the benefits that the...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in statements about people’s rights to our streets. Drawing broadly from the literature and from an examination of a comprehensive collection of these rights, this article works toward establishing a comprehensive ethical framework that can be used to guide planning, design and engineering decisions to su...
Article
Past research has explored how travelers make economic decisions, but only a small number of papers look at financial nudges and price anchoring—how they might cause travelers to make snap judgements about value that undermine rational economic principles. This research explores the behavioral response to different kinds of incentives. It finds tha...
Chapter
Building on our discussion of livability ethics, equity and justice, the main purpose of this chapter is to provide a dialogue and guidance around principles and key dimensions of performance, such as our human rights in and around the streets, the issues of safety, speed, access, place-making, and how these forces of the street ecology shape our u...
Chapter
With the rise of automation, Mobility as a Service (MaaS), and electrification of everything from skateboards to baby carriages to cars, we are at a critical inflection point regarding one of greatest transformational forces to our transport and urban form since the emergence of the private automobile a hundred years ago. This chapter dialogues how...
Article
Increasingly large cities find themselves with a scarcity of affordable housing stock and cannot increase inventory quickly enough to meet urban growth trends. Some limitations include, lot size, regulatory barriers as well as environmental concerns. We focus on these barriers, first providing a background on these trends in the United States and t...
Chapter
Autonomous vehicles (AV) have dramatic potential not only to reshape cities. This research surveys 602 US cities to investigate how they are preparing for urban autonomy. To conduct this evaluation, roughly 20 key indicators are evaluated. Based on the evaluation most cities in the United States do not have AV policies. Of these the majority have s...
Chapter
Shared autonomous systems are an opportunity for cites to improve mobility, yet little discussion has framed their business model and how public and private stakeholders can plan for their deployment. This chapter frames the range of shared services as well as the anticipated opportunities and challenges to shared autonomous mobility ecosystems. It...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging big data resources and practices provide opportunities to improve transportation safety planning and outcomes. However, researchers and practitioners recognise that big data from mobile phones, social media, and on-board vehicle systems include biases in representation and accuracy, related to transportation safety statistics. This study e...
Preprint
Emerging big data resources and practices provide opportunities to improve transportation safety planning and outcomes. However, researchers and practitioners recognise that big data from mobile phones, social media, and on-board vehicle systems include biases in representation and accuracy, related to transportation safety statistics. This study e...
Article
Recent research in city planning has measured “walkability” and multi-modalism through quantification of the built environment. Results have shown correlations with increased property values and neighbourhood stabilisation as well as a lack of spatial distribution of accessible resources based on socio-economic class. Some studies suggest that impr...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past years there have been many revelations that have made it clear autonomous technology will become increasingly prevalent in our communities. Despite optimism about the technology there is a high degree of uncertainty about how they will be deployed in urban environs, particularly with regard to street design. Based on the concepts of a...
Chapter
How can automated vehicles be deployed on city streets to enhance urban and regional livability? This chapter outlines a visioning process where automakers, engineers, planning and policy professionals shared perspectives on how autonomous vehicles can be integrated onto city streets. It provides an engagement process as well as policy and design o...
Chapter
Transport authorities and mobility planning stakeholders have started discussing approaches to planning for road automation in cities and metropolitan areas. We present guiding principles for developing AV ready mobility plans, and show how scenario development, travel demand and transport modelling and participatory street redesign can be part of...
Chapter
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) offer a new entryway into society-wide conversations regarding transportation, functions of cities, the use of streets and, ultimately, urban sustainability. AVs are likely to disrupt urban spaces from city centers to the suburbs and rural edges of cities. This chapter focuses on these places. It tests potential changes to...
Chapter
Transportation policymakers and planners have begun to realize the importance of sustainable transportation with regards to health, social implications, and the climate. Focusing on more active travel is one way that these officials are beginning to evolve cities in a way that supports these broader sustainability goals. In this light, this chapter...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have noted that denser and more accessible environments with higher level-of-service (LOS) tend to encourage higher levels of walking and bicycling activity. As streets are increasingly designed to facilitate safe cycling through built environment interventions, little has been done to evaluate perceptions of safety on different typolo...
Article
This study investigates how changes in cycling encouragement program game mechanics affect measured bicycle riding frequency. The study relies on cycling program participant data from three large-scale and recurring annual encouragement campaigns (the UK National Cycle Challenge, Sydney Rides Challenge, and Atlanta Bike Challenge) with a total of 6...
Article
University campuses have unique characteristics that influence travel demand. They benefit from controlled planning frameworks, can influence almost all aspects of pricing and on-campus transportation infrastructure, benefit from simplified many-to-one travel patterns, and maintain extensive data on nearly the entire campus community. Campuses repr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emerging technologies are fundamentally changing how we plan, develop, and manage our cities. Given trends of increasing mobile use, local governments are being required to adopt and use new technologies to plan, communicate and engage with citizens. In this context, this study then hypothesizes how technology trends will continue to impact plannin...
Article
Problem, research strategy, and findings: Colleges and universities have been planning their campuses for centuries, yet scholars have conducted little empirical research regarding the nature of campus planning in the United States. We review recent scholarship on campus planning, discovering that it is dominated by case studies (sometimes in edite...
Article
The Los Angeles Adaptive Reuse Ordinance (ARO) is an incentive program that encourages building reuse through regulatory exemptions. The ARO was partially intended to reduce vehicle miles travelled (VMT) by encouraging mixed commercial and residential uses in existing buildings within Downtown Los Angeles. Researchers and planners claim that the AR...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Global citizens get few moments to rethink streets and make decisions that will both serve the basic purposes of transportation and address urgent challenges like climate change, rising obesity, social isolation and conflict-all while expanding opportunities for general happiness throughout society. Such a pivotal moment is upon us, as autonomous v...
Article
As many communities across the US convert one-way streets to two-way traffic flow, a growing body of work seeks to understand the implications. While some work indicates that there can be road safety and performance benefits to these conversions, only a small number of papers deal with the economic implications. This paper examines the economic imp...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows a disparity continues to exist between women and men with regard to cycling behavior; women cycle at far lower rates. Cargo bikes have been suggested as one tool to increase the gender balance in bicycle ridership. This research evaluates this suggestion through the lens of: (1) an analysis of survey data regarding cargo bike usage b...
Article
In recent years, mortgage credit has become scarce, especially for low-to-middle income (LMI) individuals, including the working class and minorities. This has limited the ability of many of these individuals to purchase in sustainable, transportation accessible urban locations. This paper explores location efficient mortgages (LEM), their effectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Urban sprawl has a negative relationship with regional health outcomes, such as high obesity and chronic diseases related to physical inactivity. At the same time, literature has shown that walkable built environments are connected to lower obesity rates and decreased physical activity. Less understood is the association of modal diversity with tho...
Article
Full-text available
Basic sanitation and hygiene can prevent roughly a million deaths a year. This study examines the rapid prototyping of a pilot school-based handwashing, safe water, and sanitation program in Chennai, India. Our content analysis identified challenges in the classroom (Localization; Curriculum supplies; Program implementation; Communication and langu...
Article
Research exploring the behavioral economic dimensions that drive travel has shown that social and psychological forces often play a role equal to price and economic levers. Yet, more work is needed to evaluate how financial verses social market norms influence economic decisions with regard to transportation. For this study, roughly 500 participant...
Article
Full-text available
Global recognition of the need for more liveable and “complete” streets has allowed for increased funding to bicycle and pedestrian projects. That said, many streets in urban neighbourhoods remain unsafe. This study hypothesises that some of these issues related to safety issues are tied to multi-lane, one-way streets, which exist primarily in urba...
Article
Each year governments and industry around the globe spend billions of dollars in search of treatments and cures for diseases that shorten lives, which often means gadgets, implants, radiation and pills. These “cures”, do not get to the root of the problem. Perhaps it is time for us to adjust our thinking to be more proactive instead of reactive in...
Article
Cargo bikes are increasing in availability in the United States. While a large body of research continues to investigate traditional bike transportation, cargo bikes offer the potential to capture trips for those that might otherwise be made by car. Data from a survey of cargo bike users queried use and travel dynamics with the hypothesis that carg...
Article
In dense urban areas, surface parking often poses an opportunity cost, and reuse of the land for urban development with parking relocated to a multi-story structure may be an attractive option. This paper analyzes the cost of replacing surface parking with a parking structure and finds that it may be equally cost effective to pursue travel demand m...
Article
Full-text available
As the usage of bicycles increases, cities are transforming their planning processes to incorporate this sustainable mode of transportation. In spite of bicycling’s importance to communities, there is a gender gap. Data indicates that only a small number of cyclists are women. This paper addresses that gender gap with an eye toward the marketing st...
Article
There are a number of issues preventing the rollout of cargo bikes as a transportation mode in the United States. One concern that has been raised is whether cargo bikes can function as a gender equitable transportation solution in the United States, given documented gender gaps in national bike riding statistics and ongoing inequities in childcare...
Article
Full-text available
The Homeownership Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) program has marked a shift from larger development to more neighborhood sensitive projects based on small community development models. These developments are integrated with local neighborhoods and responsive to sustainability and smart growth principles. This study examines the exten...
Article
Full-text available
Los Angeles (LA) has the reputation of an auto dependent city. Although the region is served by a robust public transportation system, the majority of the population commutes by automobile and has developed in sprawling manner leading to poor air quality, traffic congestion and unsafe streets. Despite this, in recent years, the LA region has made s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As many communities across the US convert one-way streets to two-way traffic flow, a growing body of work seeks to understand the implications. While some work indicates that there can be road safety and performance benefits to these conversions, only a small number of papers deal with the economic implications. This paper examines the economic imp...
Article
In recent mortgage credit has become scarce, especially for low-to-middle income LMI individuals, including the working class and minorities. This has limited the ability for many of these individuals to purchase in sustainable, transportation accessible urban locations. This paper explores location efficient mortgages (LEM), their effectiveness in...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of web technology creates tremendous opportunity to advance good government, through increased information, interaction with the public, and cost-effective, efficient means of conducting public transactions. Some have proposed that e-government tools have two major roles: (1) receptive and (2) interactive. We argue that there is a thi...
Article
Full-text available
While recent policies directed toward multimodal or complete streets have encouraged increased funding for bicycle- and pedestrian-oriented projects, many streets are still plagued by unsafe conditions. This is especially true for one-way streets, which studies show often create unsafe crossing conditions. This study evaluates changes to street dyn...
Article
A cargo bike is a bicycle designed and constructed specifically for transporting larger loads or multiple people. More common in many European cities than in the United States, cargo bikes may have the potential to capture many trips that would otherwise be taken via car, especially those involving cargo, gear or children (Lovejoy et al., 2012), bu...
Article
Universities with urban campuses and constrained budgets such as the University of California at Berkeley (UC Berkeley) often find that repurposing parking facilities is more cost effective than obtaining new land for expansion. In spring 2013, UC Berkeley began closing off parking sites for building construction. However, rather than exploring the...
Article
Many transportation planning studies focus on mode-of-transportation as a static variable, not accounting for a range of user decisions such as miles traveled or (if driving) the duration of time between departure and arrival. Existing research into parking decisions investigates factors that determine or underlie mode choice decisions (0120, 0135...