William Rickard

William Rickard
Curtin University · John de Laeter Centre

PhD

About

141
Publications
29,224
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Introduction
William Rickard currently works at the John de Laeter Centre, Curtin University. William does research in Materials Science and Geoscience.

Publications

Publications (141)
Article
Full-text available
Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 mm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, ind...
Article
Fly ash characteristics cannot be assumed to be constant between power stations as they are highly dependent on the coal source and burning conditions. It is critical to understand the characteristics of fly ash in order to produce geopolymers suitable for high temperature applications. We report on the characterisation of fly ash from three Austra...
Article
This study presents a proposed model for thermally induced microstructural changes in fly ash geopolymers. Two paste mixes with different as-cured microstructures are evaluated for thermal resistance. One mix was a highly reacted, high-strength geopolymer with a compact microstructure and the other mix had higher degree of unreacted fly ash resulti...
Article
Terrestrial impact events have had a profound influence on Earth's geological, geochemical, and biological evolution. However, the record of Precambrian impacts is poorly constrained due to the dynamic nature of plate tectonics, erosion, and deposition of younger rocks that may destroy or cover the evidence. Here we report the first Precambrian occ...
Article
The mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymer concretes were assessed before, during and after high temperature exposure in order to better understand the engineering properties of the material. Fly ash based geopolymer concretes with either quartz aggregate or expanded clay aggregate were exposed to various temperatures up to 750 °C...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying and determining the origin of β-cristobalite, a high-temperature silica polymorph, in natural samples is challenging as it is rarely, if ever, preserved due to polymorphic transformation to α-cristobalite at low temperature. Formation mechanisms for β-cristobalite in high-silica rocks are difficult to discern, as superheating, supercool...
Article
The trace‐element composition of rutile is commonly used to constrain P‐T‐t‐conditions for a wide range of metamorphic systems. However, recent studies have demonstrated the redistribution of trace elements in rutile via high‐diffusivity pathways and dislocation‐impurity associations related to the formation and evolution of microstructures. Here w...
Article
Full-text available
The discordance of U–Th–Pb isotopic systems in geochronometers, and how such data are interpreted, are still major issues in the geosciences. To better understand the disturbance of isotopic systems, and how this impacts the derivation of geologically-meaningful ages, previously studied discordant monazite from the ultrahigh temperature paragneiss...
Article
The circulation of seawater within the oceanic crust promotes cycling of metals and sulfur, as well as development of the subsurface biosphere. Characterization of the full spectrum of sulfide geochemistry in the altered oceanic crust is critical for a complete understanding of global cycling of sulfur and metals, while those in off-axis hydrotherm...
Article
Element mobility is a critical component in all geological processes and understanding the mechanisms responsible for element mobility in minerals is a fundamental requirement for many geochemical and geochronological applications. Volume diffusion of elements is a commonly assumed process. However, linear defects (dislocations) are an essential co...
Article
Full-text available
Selective laser melting (SLM) or powder bed fusion is a type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology with applications in, e.g., the orthopaedics, energy, and aerospace industries. Several studies investigated the localised corrosion behaviour of SLM-fabricated Type 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel. Little is known, however, about the effects of...
Article
The electrochemical behaviour of hexagonally arranged nanopore arrays was studied by simple ion transfer across the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) formed between water|1,2-dichloroethane. The hexagonal nanoITIES arrays were supported at nanopores fabricated by focused ion beam milling into 50 nm thick silicon nitride...
Article
Full-text available
We report the structural and chemical investigation of nine presolar silicate grains from the CH3/CB b 3 chondrite Isheyevo and CR2 chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 801. Five of these grains belong to group 1, likely condensed in low-to intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, super-AGB stars, or core-collapse supernovae, while the re...
Article
Addition of doped ceria to double perovskite oxide such as PrBa0.8Ca0.2Co2O5+δ (PBCC) leads to remarkable performance enhancement of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), however, the challenge is to facilely fabricate nano-structured PBCC cathodes with nanoscale doped ceria without agglomeration of the ultrafine phase during the conventional high temper...
Article
Full-text available
The isotopic composition of water in Earth’s oceans is challenging to recreate using a plausible mixture of known extraterrestrial sources such as asteroids—an additional isotopically light reservoir is required. The Sun’s solar wind could provide an answer to balance Earth’s water budget. We used atom probe tomography to directly observe an averag...
Article
Well-defined reconstruction parameters are essential to quantify the size, shape, and distribution of nanoscale features in atom probe tomography (APT) datasets. However, the reconstruction parameters of many minerals are difficult to estimate because intrinsic spatial markers, such as crystallographic planes, are not usually present within the dat...
Article
Full-text available
The upper Ordovician Wufeng Shale and lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale are part of the Fuling shale gas play located in the south-eastern part of the Sichuan Basin, southern China, representing the first commercial shale gas production project outside North America. We studied the occurrence of porosity at the micro- and nano-scale in samples of contr...
Article
We have developed a rapid prototyping approach for creating custom grating magneto-optical traps using a dual-beam system combining a focused ion beam and a scanning electron microscope. With this approach we have created both one- and two-dimensional gratings of up to 400 µm × 400 µm in size with structure features down to 100 nm, periods of 620 n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This contribution focuses on the organic rich intervals of the prospective Mesoproterozoic Velkerri Formation from the Beetaloo Sub-basin, part of the greater McArthur Basin (Northern Territory). It is based on the integration of petrophysical measurements, high-resolution petrographic observations from scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
Article
Full-text available
Glassy melt inclusions are unique geological repositories that preserve evidence of the formation and evolution of mantle and crustal-derived magmas. However, the mechanisms responsible for their preservation in slowly cooled crustal rocks remain contentious, in some part due to their small size (commonly < 10 µm) and the technical difficulty in qu...
Article
To test the potential of deformation twins to record the age of impact events, micrometre-scale size mechanical twins in shocked monazite grains from three impact structures were analyzed by atom probe tomography (APT). Shocked monazite from Vredefort (South Africa; ∼300 km crater diameter), Araguainha (Brazil; ∼40 km diameter), and Woodleigh (Aust...
Article
Full-text available
The geometry and composition of deformation-related low-angle boundaries in naturally deformed olivine were characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and atom probe tomography (APT). EBSD data show the presence of discrete low-angle tilt boundaries, which formed by subgrain rotation recrystallisation associated with the (100)[001]...
Article
Full-text available
Mining of “invisible gold” associated with sulfides in gold ores represents a significant proportion of gold production worldwide. Gold hosted in sulfide minerals has been proposed to be structurally bound in the crystal lattice as a sulfide-gold alloy and/or to occur as discrete metallic nanoparticles. Using a combination of microstructural quanti...
Article
Full-text available
Impact cratering on the Moon and the derived size-frequency distribution functions of lunar impact craters are used to determine the ages of unsampled planetary surfaces across the Solar System. Radiometric dating of lunar samples provides an absolute age baseline, however , crater-chronology functions for the Moon remain poorly constrained for age...
Article
Xenotime (YPO4) is an accessory phase common in low to high‐temperature geological environments. Xenotime is an established geochronometer, though its small size, low modal abundance, and textural complexity make it more difficult to analyse with traditional techniques but makes a prime candidate for nano‐scale analysis. In this study, we develop a...
Article
We report on high resolution analysis of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to detect and assess defects in sub-surface layers. We employ a focussed ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) to sputter and image successive cross sections (slice and view technique) in order to produce a 3D reconstruction of the oxide aperture reg...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrous phyllosilicate minerals, including the serpentine subgroup, are likely to be major constituents of material that will be bought back to Earth by missions to Mars and to primitive asteroids Ryugu and Bennu. Small quantities (< 60 g) of micrometre sized, internally heterogeneous material will be available for study, requiring minimally destru...
Article
Photogrammetric three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is an image processing technique used to develop digital 3D models from a series of two-dimensional images. This technique is commonly applied to optical photography though it can also be applied to microscopic imaging techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The authors propose a...
Article
Microstructural changes and ferrite phase transformation under shock loading, between 8.5 GPa and 17.5 GPa, in a hot-rolled Lean Duplex Stainless Steel (commercially known as LDX 2101) were investigated in as-received and pre-deformed conditions. The latter condition was considered to distinguish classical deformation twins at high strain rates fro...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical twins form by the simple shear of the crystal lattice during deformation. In order to test the potential of narrow twins in monazite to record the timing of their formation, we investigated a ca. 1700 Ma monazite grain (from the Sandmata Complex, Rajasthan, India) deformed at ca. 980 Ma, by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), tran...
Article
Full-text available
Photogrammetric three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is an image processing technique used to develop digital 3D models from a series of two-dimensional images. This technique is commonly applied to optical photography though it can also be applied to microscopic imaging techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The authors propose a...
Article
The geochemical analysis of trace elements in rutile (e.g., Pb, U, and Zr) is routinely used to extract information on the nature and timing of geological events. However, the mobility of trace elements can affect age and temperature determinations, with the controlling mechanisms for mobility still debated. To further this debate, we use laser-abl...
Article
Monazite U‐Th‐Pb geochronology is widely used for dating geological processes, but current analytical techniques are limited to grains greater than 5 μm in diameter. This limitation precludes the analysis of both micrometre‐scale discrete monazite grains and fine textures within monazite crystals that are commonly found. Here, we analyse reference...
Article
Aragonite formation and stabilisation in seawater is still an area of active investigation since the thermodynamically stable product at room temperature is calcite. In this manuscript, purely inorganic systems that were found to stabilise aragonite were analysed by various techniques. Dynamic Light Scattering was used to characterise the nucleatio...
Article
Hydrothermal activity is a common phenomenon in the wake of impact events, yet identifying and dating impact hydrothermal systems can be challenging. This study provides the first detailed assessment of the effects of shock microstructures and impact-related alteration on the U-Pb systematics and trace elements of titanite (CaTiSiO5), focusing on s...
Article
Cristobalite is a low-pressure, high-temperature SiO2 polymorph that occurs as a metastable phase in many geologic settings, including as crystals deposited from vapor within the pores of volcanic rocks. Such vapor-phase cristobalite (VPC) has been inferred to result from silica redistribution by acidic volcanic gases but a precise mechanism for it...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Primitive extraterrestrial materials like carbonaceous chondrite matrices and interplanetary dust particles contain tiny dust grains that were formed in the winds of red giant branch, or asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB) and in the ejecta of novae and supernovae (SNe) explosions before the formation of our solar system. Presolar grai...
Article
Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to quantify atomic-scale elemental and isotopic compositional variations within a very small volume of material (typically <0.01 µ m ³ ). The small analytical volume ideally contains specific compositional or microstructural targets that can be placed within the context of the previously characterized surface in...
Article
Full-text available
Atom probe tomography is an analytical technique that provides quantitative three‐dimensional elemental and isotopic analyses at sub‐nanometre resolution across the whole periodic table. Although developed and mostly used in the materials science and semiconductor fields, recent years have seen increasing development and application in the geoscien...
Article
Orogenic Au deposits have contributed the majority of Au recovered globally throughout history. However, the mechanism that concentrates Au to extremely high bonanza grades in small domains within these deposits remains enigmatic. The volume of fluid required to provide extreme Au endowments in localized occurrences is not reflected in field observ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aragonite formation and stabilisation in seawater is still an area of active investigation since the thermodynamically stable product at room temperature is calcite. In this manuscript, purely inorganic systems that were found to stabilise aragonite were analysed by various techniques. Dynamic Light Scattering was used to characterise the nucleatio...
Article
Unravelling complex microbial activity in modern hydrothermal vents can provide crucial insights into the evolution of ancient life on Earth. It is well established that microorganisms in hydrothermal vents have a significant impact on the cycling of metals and mineral formation. However, the detailed roles played by microorganisms in driving sulfi...
Article
Full-text available
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the primary ore mineral for copper, but leaching of this mineral under atmospheric conditions is slow due to the formation of surface passivating phases such as elemental sulphur and jarosite. Here, we studied chalcopyrite leaching in a sulphuric acid solution at 75 °C and 750 mV (relative to the standard hydrogen electrode...
Article
Goethite (α-FeOOH) is dispersed throughout Earth’s surface and its propensity to recrystallize in aqueous solutions determines whether this mineral is a source or sink for critical trace elements in the environment. Under reducing conditions, goethite commonly co-exists with aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq), which accelerates recrystallization by coupled...
Article
Full-text available
Several examples of zircon grains from high- to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelites exhibit a characteristic, yet atypical, core–rim interface domain < 5-μm wide observed in cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. The interface domain is located immediately against the magmatic core and is comprised of an irregular, 0–2-μ...
Article
Despite the excellent power conversion efficiency of multiple-cation mixed halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the underlying mechanisms in its efficiency improvement remain unclear. To promote the research and development of advanced PSCs, it is essential to understand the influence of mixed inorganic cations on the morphological, structural, an...
Article
This paper studies the crystallographic and substructural details in copper wire bonds on integrated circuit chips. Copper is regarded a potential replacement of gold wire bonding technology used in electronic device manufacturing. The innovative manufacturing process adopted in this work involves simultaneous application of laser heat and ultrason...
Article
Spatial Reconstruction of Atom Probe Data from Zircon - Volume 25 Supplement - D.W. Saxey, D. Fougerouse, W.D.A. Rickard, S.M. Reddy
Article
Layered Ruddlesden-Popper La2NiO4+δ (LNO) is reported to possess excellent oxygen surface and bulk transport properties, but its application as the cathode of solid oxide fuel cells is restrained by the relatively poor electrocatalytic activity. Here, we report the incorporation of highly ion-conducting Er-stabilized Bi2O3 (ESB) into LNO and assemb...
Article
The Hall–Petch relation has long been used to relate the yield strength of a metal to its grain sizes in which the effectiveness of grain size strengthening in the metal is dictated by the Hall–Petch coefficient (slope). Therefore, understanding the microstructural dependence of the Hall–Petch slope would be very useful in designing new high-streng...
Article
In a hypervelocity impact event, the temperatures and pressures generated by the shock waves far exceed the values produced by endogenic processes. The shock-induced processes can modify the distribution of trace elements in zircon grains located in target rocks, potentially affecting the geochemical reliability of zircon, but also providing an opp...
Article
We report on neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of isotopically (⁶⁴Zn) enriched ZnO nanorods to produce material with holes as the majority mobile carrier. Nanorods of ZnO enriched with ⁶⁴Zn were synthesised and the abundance of ⁶⁴Zn in these samples is ∼ 71%, compared to the natural abundance of ∼ 49 %. The enriched material was irradiated with th...
Article
Since the introduction of laser-assisted atom probe, analysis of nonconductive materials by atom probe tomography (APT) has become more routine. To obtain high-quality data, a number of acquisition variables needs to be optimized for the material of interest, and for the specific question being addressed. Here, the rutile (TiO 2 ) reference materia...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal energy storage properties of dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, from three sources (commercial, mined, and synthetic) are investigated as a potential solid-gas thermochemical energy store for concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants. The reversible carbon dioxide release/absorption cycle can be used to store and release large quantities of the...
Article
Shale samples of the Marcellus Shale from a well drilled in northeastern Pennsylvania were used to study diagenetic effects on the mineral and organic matter and their impact on petrophysical response. We analyzed an interval of high gamma ray and anomalously low electrical resistivity from a high thermal maturity (mean maximum vitrinite reflectanc...
Article
Bismuth oxide is as an active promoter in enhancing the ionic conductivity and electrocatalytic activity of manganite oxygen electrodes of solid oxide cells, but there are very limited reports on the formation and evolution of electrode/electrolyte interface of bismuth oxide-manganite composite electrode under the influence of electrochemical polar...
Article
A dendritic porous supported microstructure simultaneously creates small pore size and broad gas diffusion pathways in a solid oxide fuel cell anode membrane. This microstructure also achieves pore sizes that reduce with increasing depth within the membrane without increasing the structure tortuosity. Such a microstructure supplies high triple phas...
Article
Active and stable oxygen electrode is probably the most important in the development of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) technologies. Herein, we report the successful development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) perovskite oxides directly assembled on barrier-layer-free yttria-stabilized zirconi...
Article
Atom probe microscopy (APM) is a relatively new in situ tool for measuring isotope fractions from nanoscale volumes (< 0.01 μm³). We calculate the theoretical detectable difference of an isotope ratio measurement result from APM using counting statistics of a hypothetical dataset to be ± 4δ or 0.4% (2s). However, challenges associated with APM meas...