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William F. Perez

William F. Perez
Paradigma - Centro de Ciências do Comportamento · Behavior Analysis

Ph.D. Experimental Psychology (Behavior Analysis)

About

46
Publications
12,498
Reads
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300
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
Paradigma - Centro de Ciências do Comportamento
Position
  • Professor
January 2009 - present
Paradigma - Centro de Ciências do Comportamento
Position
  • Professor and Researcher
Education
January 2008 - December 2012
University of São Paulo
Field of study
  • Psychology (Experimental Psychology - Behavior Analysis)
January 2007 - December 2008
University of São Paulo
Field of study
  • Psychology (Experimental Psychology - Behavior Analysis)
January 2002 - December 2006
Universidade Federal de São Carlos
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
A Teoria das Molduras Relacionais, comumen-te chamada no Brasil pela sigla em inglês RFT (Relational Frame Theory; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001), é uma explicação comportamental contemporânea da linguagem e da cognição. Como uma explicação comportamental, sua unidade de análise para a compreensão desses fenômenos parte de uma visão monista e...
Article
O presente estudo teve por objetivo replicar sistematicamente Perez et al. (2019) buscando avaliar a sensibilidade do IRAP à transformação de função dos estímulos em “condições mínimas”, isso é, partindo de um treino relacional com um baixo critério de acerto e na ausência de testes de derivação. Os participantes foram submetidos a um treino relaci...
Article
O presente artigo investigou a transferência de controle contextual funcional (C func) de múltiplas funções derivadas via relações de equivalência. Quatro adultos participaram da pesquisa. Inicialmente, foram estabelecidas duas redes baseadas em relações de equivalên-cia: A1B1C1D1E1 e A2B2C2D2E2. Em seguida, duas funções distintas, uma estabelecida...
Article
Full-text available
Rule-following is affected by multiple variables. A relevant aspect of rules regards whether they "make sense", that is, the extent to which the instruction coheres with previously reinforced patterns of relational responding. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of relational coherence upon rule-following. After mastering a particular...
Article
Contextual control is a key aspect in equivalence research to support the claim that stimuli may have multiple functions or symbols may have multiple meanings. The present study investigated the contex-tual control of multiple derived stimulus functions in two experiments. In Experiment 1, equivalence classes were formed and one stimulus set from e...
Article
Full-text available
O presente estudo avaliou o efeito dos controles por seleção e por rejeição sobre a observação de S+ e S-em treinos de emparelhamento com o modelo. Quatro adultos foram expostos a treinos de discriminação condicional e testes de equivalência. Na condição de Linha de Base (LB), nenhuma relação de controle modelo/comparação específica foi favorecida;...
Article
The establishment of sample/S‐ relations (or reject control) during conditional discrimination training (AB, BC) affects transitivity (AC), equivalence (CA) and reflexivity (AA, BB, CC) test outcomes. The present study parametrically evaluated the effects of different observing patterns to comparison stimuli on the establishment of reject control d...
Article
Studies suggest that fear-related responses might be acquired through the facial expressions of other individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the derived transfer of aversive functions in equivalence classes comprised of facial expressions of fear and happiness. A delayed matching-to-sample task established two equivalence classes betwe...
Article
In exploring the extent to which the Implicit Relational Assessment procedure (IRAP) may function as a measure of the derived transformation of functions, it is important to determine if it is also sensitive to particular moderating variables. This was the purpose of the current study, which focused on manipulating three different motivating condit...
Article
The establishment of reject control during conditional discrimination training disrupts the formation of experimenter-designed equivalence classes. In the matching-to-sample context, reject control describes a situation in which the choice is under control of a sample and S− relation. Specifically, participants learn to choose the correct compariso...
Presentation
Full-text available
O Teacher Behavior Checklist (TBC) é um instrumento com 28 qualidades docentes construídas a partir da percepção de estudantes. Ele é usado na avaliação formativa de professores universitários e na pesquisa sobre ensino de excelência. As evidências psicométricas disponíveis são, predominantemente, de validade de conteúdo, afinal é preciso demonstra...
Article
The Teacher Behavior Checklist (TBC) consists of 28 items mainly used to measure college teachers’ performance or to investigate the primary qualities of good teachers. Psychometric studies using the TBC have presented evidence of its validity and reliability in different cultures. However, TBC content validity is exclusively based on self-reported...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment presents a manual-observing procedure as an inexpensive alternative for investigating stimulus control and establishing equivalence classes in a matching-to-sample task (MTS). To illustrate the procedure, we evaluated the effects of different MTS training structures on observing responses and equivalence class formation. Participant...
Article
Studies on equivalence relations have suggested that abstract symbols might acquire emotional functions when related to facial expressions. The present study aimed to investigate the transformation of emotional functions from facial expressions of fear and of happiness to abstract stimuli via equivalence relations. A delayed matching-to-sample task...
Article
Full-text available
Experiential Avoidance (EA) is an attempt to avoid contact with aversive private events or correlated stimuli that might evoke or elicit them. The present research investigated the correlation between an explicit measure of EA, the AAQ-II, and an implicit measure, based on the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). After responding to the...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to investigate whether two experiential avoidance measures, the AAQ-II and an IRAP, would predict the participant’s performance during an avoidance task. The procedure consisted of three phases: (1) answering questionnaires (including the AAQ-II); (2) responding an IRAP developed to assess EE; (3) responding to an avoidance...
Article
Full-text available
O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a transformação de significado de palavras sem sentido via relações de comparação estabelecidas com faces alegres. Adultos foram expostos a um treino em que duas figuras abstratas tinham função de dicas contextuais de comparação, controlando diferencialmente a escolha de diferentes quantidades de obje...
Article
Full-text available
O presente estudo teve por objetivo apresentar as principais explicações presentes na literatura analítico-comportamental acerca da correspondência entre o comportamento verbal e o não-verbal. A correspondência pode ser definida, genericamente, como um rótulo que descreve uma relação específica entre duas classes de respostas que ocorrem em momento...
Article
According to Relational Frame Theory (RFT) Crel denotes a contextual stimulus that controls a particular type of relational response (sameness, opposition, comparative, temporal, hierarchical etc.) in a given situation. Previous studies suggest that contextual functions may be indirectly acquired via transfer of function. The present study investig...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to establish equivalence classes between musical chords, the corresponding chord grids, and the labels for each chord type (major, minor and 7th). Seven adults participated in a computerized matching-to-sample procedure. During training sessions, participants learned relations between chords of the same root note and either...
Presentation
Full-text available
Transformation of emotional functions have been considered, by some researchers, difficult to be observed in abstract stimuli with no topographical characteristic that facilitate this procedure (e.g. it was observed for head silhouettes but not for meaningless words or pictures). The present experiment employed a complex multiple exemplar training...
Article
The establishment of sample/S+ (select) or sample/S− (reject) controlling relations affects equivalence-class formation. The pre- sent experiment aimed to evaluate transitivity and equivalence test results when, during training, some of the baseline relations among stimuli presented during tests were established under reject control and others were...
Poster
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Behavioral therapy has historically made use of interventions that are increasingly dependent on the verbal behavior of both the therapist and the client. To explain the core process of talk therapy, one must be able to explain the behavioral effects of rules provided by the therapist in verbal governance of the client. Considering the di...
Article
Full-text available
In order to investigate whether simultaneous or successive presentation of stimuli is related to the duration of eye fi xation (i.e., the time spent gazing a specifi c stimulus), this study described the eye movements of young adults in simultaneous and successive simple discrimination tasks. Using 12 landscape scenes as visual stimuli, three parti...
Article
The present study used a single-subject design to evaluate the effects of select or reject control on equivalence class formation and transfer of function. Adults were exposed to a matching-to-sample task with observing requirements (MTS-OR) in order to bias the establishment of sample/S+ (select) or sample/S- (reject) relations. In Experiment 1, f...
Article
When derived stimulus relations are established, stimulus functions are altered. The present study aimed to verify whether arbitrary symbols related to meaningful stimuli (facial expressions of happiness) would have their meaning transformed in accordance with relations of sameness or opposition. The experiment started with training to establish th...
Article
Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishme...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments with pigeons have suggested that the way stimuli are arranged in tests affects the demonstration of the stimulus control established during training. The present study aimed to replicate these findings with humans exposed to a simultaneous-discrimination task with compound stimuli. Adults were exposed to a discrimination task, and their...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments investigated correspondence in children’s self-reports about the correctness of their reading responses. Participants were typically developing children aged 9-14, with a poor school performance. Part 1 was conducted in a school setting and Part 2 replicated it in a lab setting. Each trial presented a target word on a computer scree...
Article
Full-text available
Indução de controles por seleção e por rejeição em tarefas de emparelhamento com o modelo: Uma revisão metodológica 1 (Inducing select and reject controls in matching-to-sample tasks: A methodological review) Resumo Em uma tarefa de emparelhamento com o modelo envolvendo duas escolhas, o participante pode aprender tanto a selecionar o estímulo comp...
Article
Full-text available
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o papel da perda ou do ganho de reforçadores no seguimento de regras. Participaram 20 estudantes universitários, designados para dois grupos diferentes: (1) Grupo Negativo e (2) Grupo Positivo. Os participantes do Grupo Negativo iniciavam a sessão com 80 pontos e perdiam um ponto a cada erro; aquele...
Article
Full-text available
RESUmO Os controles por seleção e por rejeição e seus efeitos sobre o comportamento têm sido estudados há déca-das. Frequentemente, dificuldades metodológicas são encontradas no que diz respeito aos procedimentos empregados para inferir a ocorrência de cada um desses controles. O presente artigo traz uma revisão dos procedimentos utilizados para te...
Article
Full-text available
A Análise do Comportamento vem, desde sua fundação até os dias atuais, identificando diferentes processos de aquisição de função de estímulo. Recentemente, a Teoria das Molduras Relacionais (Relational Frame Theory - RFT) tem sugerido que estímulos podem adquirir funções indiretamente, por meio de Respostas Relacionais Arbitrariamente Aplicadas (RR...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior analysis has identified different processes of acquisition of stimulus functions since the formation of the discipline. Recently, Relational Frame Theory (RFT) has suggested that stimuli acquire functions indirectly due to Arbitrarily Applied Relational Responding (AARR). This paper aims to present an introduction to RFT. First, the operan...
Article
Full-text available
Eye-movements produce discriminative stimuli for reading. The objective of the present study was to analyze the eye movements of two participants during anagram reading and to identify the verbal behavior involved in it. The task consisted of vocalizing a word composed of five letters. In Phase 1, the letters formed only one possible word when obse...
Article
Full-text available
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o papel da perda ou ganho de reforçadores no seguimento de regras correspondentes ou discrepantes das contingências. Participaram vinte estudantes universitários, dez designados para dois grupos: (1) Grupo Negativo e (2) Grupo Positivo. O Grupo Negativo começava a sessão com 80 pontos e perdia um po...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to extend the findings of recombinative generalization research in alphabetical reading and spelling to the context of musical reading. One participant was taught to respond discriminatively to six two-note sequences, choosing the corresponding notation on the staff in the presence of each sequence. When novel three- and fou...
Article
Full-text available
Instructional control - the control of the listener’s behavior by the verbal behavior of others, has a major role in learning process, including those responsible for the maintenance of cultural practices through generations. Despite its importance, many questions about behaviors governed verbally remain open to scientific investigation. For exampl...
Article
Full-text available
Contingency analyses of eye movements may reveal variables that are relevant to the stimulus control of observing behavior. The present research tracked the eye movements of four adults exposed to a simultaneous discrimination among four stimuli, two two-dimensional (square and circle) and two three-dimensional (cube and cylinder) monochromatic fig...
Article
Full-text available
In a prevous study it was evaluated whether the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli can generate emergent conditional relations. Responses emitted in the presence of «correct» compounds (A1B1, A2B2, A3B3, B1C1, B2C2 and B3C3) were followed by points. Responses emitted in the presence of «incorrect» compounds (A1B2, A1B3, A2B1, A2B3, A3B1, A3B2...
Article
Full-text available
Falhas na formação de classes de estímulos equivalentes têm sido explicadas, ocasionalmente, em função dos controles de estímulo (ou topografias de controle de estímulo) que ocorrem ao longo dos treinos de discriminação condicional e nos testes de equivalência. O presente artigo pretende apresentar, didaticamente, as implicações de dois controles d...

Network

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
The National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Teaching INCT-ECCE is a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary research network, focusing on behavioral science and technology addressing symbolic functioning and deficits in symbolic repertoires. The network currently integrates basic, translational and applied research and fosters the development of teaching/intervention programs for three major types of symbolic repertoires: language, social and academic skills (focused on literacy, mathematics, second language, music, etc). Symbolic processes and repertoires are of interest in their own right, but the Institute is also interested in broadening the degree to which the target repertoires contribute to the solution of societal problems. Programs developed by the institute are expected to gradually grow in scale, reaching progressively larger samples of learners.
Archived project
Abstract This Institute focuses the behavioral science and technology on symbolic functioning and its deficits, particularly in children (e.g., dysfunctional communication skills, delayed language development due to congenital deafness, failure in reading and math, etc.). The institute’s research program included studies on behavioral processes that are involved when children and adults function symbolically. It also included studies with non-humans, which can help to elucidate or create models for symbolic behavior. Expanding the scope of research on dimensions of symbolic functioning (with a broad and diverse population of children with deficits in symbolic functioning), the main research goals were the scientific analysis of symbolic functioning and its determinants, including, but not limited to: (1) identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for the development of age-appropriate symbolic functioning, (2) development/refinement of procedures for dealing with the inter-individual variability in educational or therapeutic procedures to improve symbolic functioning and manage to remediate deficits in symbolic function, (3) research and development of methodology for establishing symbolic functioning. Other goals included support to accelerate the professional development of young scientists in the group, train new Masters and PhD’s in the area, and disseminate results to scientists in related fields, to professionals in education and health, and to the public. The research program involves three main components: Basic Science, Translational, and Applied. This report presents a summary of the main achievements of INCT-ECCE from 2009 to 2016, related to the programs of Research, Training of Human Resources, Transfer of Knowledge and (social/Behavioral) Technology, and Education and Scientific Dissemination. With a team of 32 Brazilian researchers and hundreds of students, in the past 8 years the INCT published 477 articles in scientific journals (315 in Brazilian journals and 162 in international journals), 23 books, and 120 chapters. Team members supervised 179 Master Theses, 94 doctoral dissertations, 34 postdoctoral projects and approximately 250 scientific initiation projects. The support provided by the core INCT (MCTI/CNPq/FAPESP) Program had a very positive impact in strengthening and expanding (including further internationalization) the network of researchers focused on the scientific investigation of symbolic processes, and in the development of comprehensive teaching programs aiming at expanding the cognitive abilities and the knowledge domain of the populations that have benefited from such programs. Substantial progress has been made in the development of laboratory models of symbolic functioning and its precursors (including animal models) and the development of methodology for 1) assessment and remediation of symbolic communication deficits, 2) early implementing interventions with babies and young children (with or without neuro-developmental disorders), 3) prevention and remediation of deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics. The INCT-ECCE network grew stronger over the years. Due to such network, every accomplishment (research, teaching, publishing, delivering services to schools and parents) reached a dimension that could never be achieved otherwise by individual members. Keywords: Relational Learning, Symbolic Behavior, Cognition, Instructional Technology, Academic Repertoires