William Moomaw

William Moomaw
Tufts University | Tufts · Center for International Environment and Resource Policy

About

117
Publications
19,946
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3,625
Citations
Citations since 2017
27 Research Items
1650 Citations
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Publications

Publications (117)
Article
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Several key international policy frameworks involve forests, including the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). However, rules and guidelines that treat forest types equally regardless of their ecosystem integrity and risk profiles in terms of forest and carbon loss limit policy effectiveness and can f...
Article
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This paper provides a review and comparison of strategies to increase forest carbon, and reduce species losses for climate change mitigation and adaptation in the United States. It compares forest management strategies and actions that are taking place or being proposed to reduce wildfire risk and to increase carbon storage with recent research fin...
Article
Climate change impacts are accelerating and there is an urgent need to address this global issue. Tackling climate change in an effective and socially just manner needs to involve mitigation strategies that address the underlying causes of climate change, but also adaptation strategies that help us prepare for current and future impacts. Historical...
Article
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‘We have kicked the can down the road once again – but we are running out of road.’ – Rachel Kyte, Dean of Fletcher School at Tufts University. We, in our capacities as scientists, economists, governance and policy specialists, are shifting from warnings to guidance for action before there is no more ‘road.’ The science is clear and irrefutable; hu...
Preprint
Full-text available
For leaders, planners and people around the world facing uncertainty about actions to resolve our planetary crises, we offer a concrete framework for action. We take the six core areas identified for urgent action by humanity from our 2019 paper in BioScience, World Scientists Warning of a Climate Emergency, and convert these into a framework for c...
Article
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(Replaces preprint) We have kicked the can down the road once again-but we are running out of road.'-Rachel Kyte, Dean of Fletcher School at Tufts University. We, in our capacities as scientists, economists, governance and policy specialists, are shifting from warnings to guidance for action before there is no more 'road.' The science is clear and...
Article
Full-text available
The proposed Universal Declaration of the Rights of Wetlands is consistent with the principles of the rights of Nature, and reframes the human–wetlands paradigm away from one of degradation and loss to one of ecological sustainability that supports the Web of Life and continued delivery of Nature’s contributions to people. Given the significance of...
Article
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Record climate extremes are reducing urban liveability, compounding inequality, and threatening infrastructure. Adaptation measures that integrate technological, nature-based, and social solutions can provide multiple co-benefits to address complex socioecological issues in cities while increasing resilience to potential impacts. However, there rem...
Article
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Pre-settlement New England was heavily forested, with trees exceeding 2 m in diameter. The forests have regrown since farm abandonment, representing what is arguably the most successful regional reforestation on record and identified recently in the “Global Safety Net.” Temperate “old-growth” forest and remnant stands demonstrate that native tree s...
Article
We reply to the main concerns raised by Bridgewater (2021) in his response to Davies et al. (2021a), ‘Towards a Universal Declaration of the Rights of Wetlands’. We appreciate the contribution of Bridgewater (2021) to this emerging conversation and, although we disagree with some of his assessments and statements, we do not find his points to be in...
Article
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The carbon stock in Europe's forests is decreasing and the importance of protecting ‘unmanaged’ forests must be recognised in reversing this process. In order to keep carbon out of the atmosphere and to meet the Paris Agreement goals, the remaining primary forests must be protected and secondary forests should be allowed to continue growing to pres...
Article
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Large-diameter trees store disproportionally massive amounts of carbon and are a major driver of carbon cycle dynamics in forests worldwide. In the temperate forests of the western United States, proposed changes to Forest Plans would significantly weaken protections for a large portion of trees greater than 53 cm (21 inches) in diameter (herein re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pre-settlement New England was heavily forested, with some trees exceeding 2 m in diameter. New England’s forests have regrown since farm abandonment and represent what is arguably the most successful regional reforestation on record; the region has recently been identified as part of the “Global Safety Net.” Remnants and groves of primary “old-gro...
Article
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We scientists have a moral obligation to clearly warn humanity of any catastrophic threat. In this paper, we present a suite of graphical vital signs of climate change over the last 40 years. Results show greenhouse gas emissions are still rising, with increasingly damaging effects. With few exceptions, we are largely failing to address this predic...
Article
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The Climate Emergency, Forests, and Transformative Change We appreciate the letters by Pouliot and colleagues (2020) and DellaSala and colleagues (2020) about our recent article “World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency” (Ripple et al. 2020). Pouliot and colleagues (2020) call for more scientists, teachers, and citizens to become engaged a...
Article
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Given the short time-frame to limit global warming, and the current emissions gap, it is critical to prioritise mitigation actions. To date, scant attention has been paid to the mitigation benefits of primary forest protection. We estimated tropical forest ecosystem carbon stocks and flows. The ecosystem carbon stock of primary tropical forests is...
Article
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It is clear that reducing greenhouse gas emissions alone is insufficient to avoid large global temperature increases. To avoid atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases that result in dangerous alterations of the climate, large reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes must be accompanied by an inc...
Article
The rights of Nature, a concept recognised by several courts, legislatures and international governance institutions, is being promoted by some non-governmental organisations, scientists, attorneys, Indigenous peoples, local communities, and others. In this article we propose a Universal Declaration of the Rights of Wetlands, consistent with the 19...
Article
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Scientists have a moral obligation to clearly warn humanity of any catastrophic threat and to “tell it like it is.” On the basis of this obligation and the graphical indicators presented below, we declare, with more than 11,000 scientist signatories from around the world, clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency.
Article
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Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) must be reduced to avoid an unsustainable climate. Because carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and sequestered in forests and wood products, mitigation strategies to sustain and increase forest carbon sequestration are being developed. These strategies require full accounting of forest sector GHG budget...
Article
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Climate change and loss of biodiversity are widely recognized as the foremost environmental challenges of our time. Forests annually sequester large quantities of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2), and store carbon above and below ground for long periods of time. Intact forests-largely free from human intervention except primarily for trails and ha...
Article
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The Second Warning to Humanity provides a clarion call for wetland researchers and practitioners given the loss and degradation of wetlands, the declining availability of fresh water, and the likely consequences of climate change. A coordinated response and approach to policies has the potential to prevent further degradation and support resilient...
Article
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Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon...
Article
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Food security is an urgent global problem. According to the United Nations, nearly one-seventh of the world's population, or one billion people, are regularly undernourished. By 2050, an additional two to three billion new guests will join the global dinner table. The food crisis is a matter of providing not only sufficient calories, but also the p...
Article
Successful science‐based policies build upon the pillar of sound science, while meeting the needs of diverse societies in an economically and politically feasible manner. How do scientists and diplomats interact most productively too achieve a successful outcome? Successful science‐based policies build upon the pillar of sound science, while meetin...
Article
The United States’ legal strategy for addressing climate change in recent years has relied on authority from existing legislation. This has led to measures on a number of different greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, methane and hydrofluorocarbons. However, one greenhouse gas has been largely forgotten: nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is the thi...
Article
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Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle exceeds the safe planetary boundary for the use of reactive nitrogen (Nr). We complement global analysis by analyzing regional mass flows and the relative consequences of multiple chemical forms of Nr as they 'cascade' through multiple environmental media. The goals of this paper are (1) to identify the amount...
Article
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Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of fresh water. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on regional water resources. Many reports have identified the water consumption of various energy production technologies. This paper sy...
Article
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Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on global climate. At the regional scale, however, water resource challenges associated with energy systems are a growing concern. This paper, based on an inventory of national energy portfolios, posits an...
Article
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Small piped water supply systems are often unable to provide reliable, microbiologically safe, and sustainable service over time, and this has direct impacts on public health. Circuit Rider (CR) post-construction support (PCS) addresses this through the provision of technical, financial, and operational assistance to these systems. CRPCS operates i...
Article
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Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N(2)O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international cli...
Article
Water issues are complex because they cross multiple boundaries and involve various stakeholders with competing needs. The origin of many water issues is a dynamic consequence of competition and feedback among variables in the natural, societal and political domains. Together, these interactions generate what we call water networks. As population g...
Article
Despite major efforts, the reduction of reactive nitrogen (Nr) using traditional metrics and policy tools for the Chesapeake Bay has slowed in recent years. In this article, we apply the concept of the Nitrogen Cascade to the chemically dynamic nature and multiple sources of Nr to examine the temporal and spatial movement of different forms of Nr t...
Article
It began with micro-organisms millions of years ago, was enhanced by the burning of fossil carbon in the last several hundred years, and was magnified by a patent filed one hundred years ago. Today, the combined actions of cultivation-induced biological nitrogen fixation, fossil fuel combustion and the Haber-Bosch process have exceeded natural terr...
Article
Partially in response to the increasing complexity of governance structures in the international environmental arena, international scholars have adopted a distinction between “Type 1” and “Type 2” international agreements. The former refer to agreements between governments, whereas the latter refer to agreements between governments and nonstate ac...
Article
We have investigated the global warming potential (GWP) of CFC-I I, CFC-12, and their replacements, HCFC-I23 and HFC-I34a, based on a life-cycle methodology for refrigeration. We have extended the definition of the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), which considers the GWP (direct) and GWP (indirect) warming potential of each chemical compound...
Article
The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N(2). We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC...
Article
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A de facto "system" of global environmental governance already exists. The de facto system of global environmental governance is neither neat nor simple; it works in a rather messy, non-linear, non-hierarchical, and intertwined fashion. However it is a system that has proved to be resilient as well as prolific. This paper argues that although there...
Article
We have developed a home energy conservation exercise that illustrates the ways in which heat energy is lost from a home and ultimately, how it can be conserved. Students are asked to calculate the heat loss from a model home before and after applying energy conserving modifications. The difference in these calculations represents the amount of hea...
Article
Asserts that moving higher education onto a sustainable trajectory requires that administrators, trustees and staff, faculty, and students participate in a transparent process of setting and implementing goals. Suggests that planners have the opportunity to become true visionaries of higher education who help faculty and administrators combine teac...
Article
Nitrogen oxides are released during atmospheric combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, and during the production of certain chemicals and products. They can react with natural or man-made volatile organic compounds to produce smog, or else can be further oxidized to produce particulate haze, or acid rain that can eutrophy land and water. The react...
Article
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Human efforts to produce food and energy are changing the nitrogen (N) cycle of the Earth. Many of these changes are highly beneficial for humans, while others are detrimental to people and the environment. These changes transcend scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries, and political structures. They challenge the creative minds of natural...
Article
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Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) analysis links changes in environmental quality to national economic growth. The reduced form models, however, do not provide insight into the underlying processes that generate these changes. We compare EKC models to structural transition models of per capita CO2 emissions and per capita GDP, and find that, for th...
Chapter
A major debate is currently being waged regarding the causes of environmental problems. Those with a Malthusian perspective argue that environmental problems are ultimately population-driven, and that the rapid growth of population in developing countries is a major cause of local and global environmental deterioration.1 Others argue that the indus...
Book
This book brings together research on the relations between people and the planet's living and non-living resources. Its three main foci include the methodological approaches to the study of relationships between people and land use, patterns of consumption, population trends and the availability of food and water resources; an examination of evide...
Article
The hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) depends upon the assumption that countries pass through a similar environmental impact trajectory as they experience income growth, implying that income levels determine pollution levels. The authors present evidence that this is not representative of the way many individual country's pollutio...
Article
Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) analysis links changes in environmental quality to national economic growth. The reduced form models, however, do not provide insight into the underlying processes that generate these changes. We compare EKC models to structural transition models of per capita CO2 emissions and per capita GDP, and find that, for th...
Article
The multilateral consensus that led to the signing and ratification of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and its London (1990) and Copenhagen Amendments (1992), resulted in the near-complete phase-out of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) use in industrialized countries by the end of 1995. To meet their economic development needs, the treaty permits developing c...
Article
The global industrial sector accounts for approximately 47% of energy related carbon dioxide emissions, and significant quantities of additional greenhouse gases (GHGs) are released as industrial process gases. CO2 development trajectories of emissions relative to GDP growth are found to vary considerably among countries. A survey of individual sub...
Article
When considering sustainability in the urban context, it is clear that one is considering something other than the production of natural resources or industrial goods. A sustainable urban society must be one that does not deplete the natural resource base upon which it draws its sustenance. In some sense, it must, like industry, be eco-efficient, b...
Article
The hydrogen-bonded complex of pyrazine and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFP) is strongly bound in the ground and first excited n pi* singlet states. Ground-state vapor-phase FTIR and supersonic-jet fluorescence excitation spectroscopy were utilized to obtain estimates of the binding energies in both states. The results, accurate to approxima...
Article
Artworks and other documents on paper often suffer damage from the growth of several species of fungi. These fungi appear to utilize trace mineral elements in the paper for their metabolism and gradually consume the paper itself as a carbon source. In the process, they often produce stains on paper that may arise from colored, organic metabolic was...
Article
The vibrationless 0(0) state of the S1(A approximately 1B1) <-- S0(X approximately 1A1) transition in difluorodiazirine was excited with UV light by using a narrow-bandwidth (0.3 cm-1) pulsed dye laser. For the first time it was shown that dissociation occurs at this low energy and molecular nitrogen is a dissociation product. After photolysis, N2...
Article
Human activity is altering the composition of the atmosphere in unprecedented ways. Fossil fuel combustion, which currently releases 5.6 billion metric tons of carbon annually, in combination with deforestation, has increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide 25% above pre-industrial levels. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap...
Conference Paper
In order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide even at current elevated levels, computer models suggest the need to reduce emission rates by approximately 75%. An analysis of policy options shows that a combination of vastly improved energy efficiency strategies and carbon-free energy production technologies will be essential to...
Article
Human-induced global climate change poses an immense potential threat to our society, and a challenge to our ingenuity. Fossil fuel combustion, which currently releases 5.6 billion metric tons of carbon annually, in combination with deforestation, has increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide 25% above pre-industrial levels. Carbon dio...
Article
The effect of ring strain on the bonding, ionization potentials, and basicities of quinoline and pyridine is explored. A systematic analysis of the photoelectron spectra of alkyl- and cycloalkylquinolines and a comparison with the corresponding naphthalenes confirm the assignment of the third ionization potential of quinoline at 9.4 eV to the n-orb...
Article
In the complex of pyrazine-hexafluoroisopropanol, the $0_{0}^{0}$ of the lowest $n\pi^{\ast}$ transition is as sharp as that of the parent and is blue-shifted $408 cm^{-1}$, with lifetime shorter than 3 ns. This blue shift roughly gives the hydrogen bond energy in the $S_{1}(nx^{\ast})$ of $2740 cm^{-1}$. Our interpretation to the short lifetime is...
Article
Complexes were formed in acetonitrile solution between trivalent europium and ytterbium and the crown ethers 15-crown-5, benzo-15-crown-5, and naphtho-15-crown-5. Contrary to previous reports, the authors find that these ligands produce crystal field splittings on the order of 100 cm⁻¹ for several europium f in equilibrium f transitions and larg...
Article
Infrared and ultraviolet solution spectra of pyrimidine in the presence of fluorinated alcohols have confirmed the formation of strongly bound ground-state hydrogen-bonded complexes. Electronic absorption spectra support the existence of singly and doubly complexed pyrimidine. While fluorescence spectra suggest that the nπ* excited-state hydrogen-b...
Article
The laser induced fluorescence excitation spectrum of the lowest $n\pi^{\ast}$ transition of pyrimidine has been measured in a free jet expansion. A complex system of vibronic bands is observed over a range of $3100cm^{-1}$. The previously noted irregular vibrational spacings of most of the major features are reproduced in this study, and some addi...
Article
We have attempted to measure the laser induced fluorescence excitation spectrum of several hydrogen bonded complexes of pyrimidine in a supersonic jet. No evidence of complex formation with water was obtained. Seeding the driver gas with hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol caused the sharp vibronic bands of pyrimidine to disappear. Intermediate concentrati...
Article
The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of TMCBD has been interpreted in terms of four [R. Spafford, J. Baiardo, J. Wrobel and M. Vala, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 5217(1976)] and three [R. D. Gordon, M. Caris and D. G. Newman, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 130(1976)] low-lying $^{1}n\pi^{*}$ states. We report valence bond calculations, which emphasize the localize...
Article
Previous theoretical work has shown that the lowest excited singlet state of pyrazine, the ..pi..* ¹Bâu state, is best described in terms of interacting excitations localized on each nitrogen. The present work refines the localized excitation model and considers its implications for the geometry of the ¹Bâu state. Hartree-Fock calculations show t...
Article
We have studied the electronic structure and stability of hydrogen bonded complexes in the ground and electronic excited states of several nitrogen heterocycles. Use has been made of the PRDDO molecular orbital approximation, and HF has been used as the hydrogen bonder. It is found that in the case of pyrazine that both singly and doubly hydrogen b...
Article
A recent publication has demonstrated the importance of using symmetry broken wave functions to describe the $^{1}B_{3\mu}$ and $^{1}B_{2g} n\pi ^{\ast}$ states of $pyrazine.^{1}$ In the present work we utilize the PRDDO approximation to examine both singlet and triplet states of $n\pi^{\ast}$ and $n\pi^{\ast}$ character for several azines. In most...
Article
The purpose of this article is to comment on two basic questions arising from previous work: (a) should chemistry instruction begin at the concrete level as the advocates of the descriptive approach have suggested and (b) what procedures can be used to introduce abstract or final thinking among those students who have not progressed beyond the conc...
Article
Electronic structure calculations are reported for quinoline, 2,3-dimiethylquinoline, cyclobuta-B-quinoline, cyclopenta-B-quinoline and cyclobuta-G-quinoline, The fused rings perturb the calculated ionization potentials of the quinoline moiety. Analysis of the electronic wave function in terms of localized molecular orbitals elucidates the nature o...
Article
Extensive SCF and VB calculations of the energies and wave functions of the $^{1}B_{3u}$ and $^{1}B_{2g}, n\pi^{*}$ states of pyrazine have been carried out. The symmetry unrestrained SCF calculation of the $^{1}B_{3u}$ state is found to undergo symmetry breaking to $C_{2v}$ symmetry even though the nuclei are constrtrained to $D_{2h}$ geometry. Th...
Article
The lowest excited electronic state of pyrazine (para $C_{4}H_{4}N_{2}$) has been studied both theoretically and spectroscopically in recent years. It’s assignment as an $n\Pi^{*}$ state of $^{1}B_{3u}$ appears to be well established. In the present investigation we are exploring features of transitions involving this state, and the appropriate the...
Article
A purification scheme has been developed which is capable of separating the two isomers quinoline and isoquinoline. The emission spectra of the purified compounds were measured at 77 K in a 3-methylpentane (3MP) glass and in a 3MP glass with small amounts of hydrogen bonder added. The hydrogen bonders used were hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), trifluo...
Article
In the absence of a hydrogen bonder, quinoline only exhibits phosphorescence in a 3-methypentane glass at 77 K. Under these conditions isoquinoline both fluoresces and phosphoresces weakly. The addition of a weak hydrogen bonder such as ethanol induces structured ultraviolet fluorescence originating from the lowest excited singlet state. More acidi...
Article
An experiment to investigate molecular multiplet structure is described. The phosphorescence spectrum and lifetime from the lowest triplet state of naphthalene is measured by optical spectroscopy, and the zero-field splitting parameters and the lifetime of paramagnetic resonances of this photoexcited state are determined by electron paramagnetic re...
Article
It has been known for many years that the fluorescence quantum yield of quinoline and isoquinoline is far larger in a hydrogen bonding solvent than in a non-polar hydrocarbon. Other features of the fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra such as polarization and vibronic activity, and phosphorescence lifetimes have also been found to be quite diff...