William F McDonough

William F McDonough
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Geology

Ph.D.

About

384
Publications
202,342
Reads
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70,745
Citations
Citations since 2017
46 Research Items
27750 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,0005,000
201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,0005,000
201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,0005,000
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - June 2017
Tohoku University
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • I will spend the first half of the year at Tohoku U and the second half at U Maryland for the next 5 years.
January 2007 - December 2012
August 1994 - July 2000
Harvard University
Education
September 1983 - July 1987
Australian National University
Field of study
  • Geochemistry
August 1980 - June 1983
Sul Ross State University
Field of study
  • Geochemistry

Publications

Publications (384)
Article
Full-text available
Earth's internal heat drives its dynamic engine, causing mantle convection, plate tectonics, and the geodynamo. These renewing and protective processes, which make Earth habitable, are fueled by primordial and radiogenic heat. For the past two decades, particle physicists have measured the flux of geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos emitted during...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides a global assessment of the abundance of the major oxides in the deep continental crust. The combination of geochemistry and seismology better constrains the composition of the middle and lower continental crust better than either discipline can achieve alone. The inaccessible nature of the deep crust (typically >15 km) forces re...
Article
Ungrouped iron meteorites Tishomingo, Willow Grove, and Chinga, and group IVB iron meteorites, are Ni-rich. Similarities include enrichments of 10-100 × CI for some refractory siderophile elements, and equivalent depletions in more volatile siderophile elements. Superimposed on the overall enrichment/depletion trend, certain siderophile elements (P...
Article
Full-text available
Debate abounds regarding the composition of the deep (middle + lower) continental crust. Exhumed medium‐ and high‐grade metamorphic rocks, which range in composition from mafic to felsic, provide information about the bulk composition of the deep crust. This study presents a global compilation of geochemical data on amphibolite (n = 6,500), granuli...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are differentiated into three layers: a metallic core, a silicate shell (mantle and crust), and a volatile envelope of gases, ices, and, for the Earth, liquid water. Each layer has different dominant elements (e.g., increasing iron content with depth and increasing oxygen content to the surface)...
Article
Full-text available
Chondrites are sediments of materials left over from the earliest stage of the solar system history. Based on their undifferentiated nature and less fractionated chemical compositions, chondrites are widely considered to represent the unprocessed building blocks of the terrestrial planets and their embryos. Models of chemical composition of the ter...
Article
Full-text available
Trace elements, distinguished by their low abundances (parts per million by weight (ppmw)), track local, regional, and planetary-scale processes in samples sourced from throughout the solar system. Such analyses of lunar samples have provided insights on its surface rocks and interpretations of its deep interior. However, returned samples, sourced...
Article
Full-text available
Composition of terrestrial planets records planetary accretion, core-mantle and crust-mantle differentiation, and surface processes. Here we compare the compositional models of Earth and Mars to reveal their characteristics and formation processes. Earth and Mars are equally enriched in refractory elements (1.9 × CI), although Earth is more volatil...
Article
Full-text available
Potassium (K) informs on the radiogenic heat production, atmospheric composition, and volatile element depletion of the Earth and other planetary systems. Constraints on the abundance of K in the Earth, Moon, and other rocky bodies have historically hinged on K/U values measured in planetary materials, particularly comparisons of the continental cr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chondrites are undifferentiated sediments of materials left over from the earliest stage of the solar system history, and are widely considered to represent the unprocessed building blocks of the terrestrial planets. Compositional models of the planets generally find chondritic relative abundances of refractory lithophile elements (RLE) in the bulk...
Article
Full-text available
Noble gas plasmas are commonly used as ion and excitation sources in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission and mass spectrometry for organic and inorganic chemical analysis. However, the high power (∼kW) and voluminous gas flow rate (∼15 L min⁻¹) of commercial plasmas limit their potential deployment in remote terrestrial and planetary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chondrites, the building blocks of the terrestrial planets, have mass and atomic proportions of oxygen, iron, magnesium, and silicon totaling ≥90% and variable Mg/Si (∼25%), Fe/Si (factor of ≥2), and Fe/O (factor of ≥3). The Earth and terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars) are differentiated into three layers: a metallic core, a silicate sh...
Preprint
Full-text available
Terrestrial planets provide Solar System insights into the evolution of accretion, core-mantle and crust-mantle differentiation, and surface processes. The Earth and Mars have equal enrichment in refractory elements (1.9 × CI), although the Earth is more volatile-depleted and less oxidized than Mars. Their chemical compositions were established by...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of the lower continental crust is well studied but poorly understood because of the difficulty of sampling large portions of it. Petrological and geochemical analyses of this deepest portion of the continental crust are limited to the study of high‐grade metamorphic lithologies, such as granulite. In situ lower crustal studies requi...
Article
Full-text available
Debate continues on the amount and distribution of radioactive heat producing elements (i.e., U, Th, and K) in the Earth, with estimates for mantle heat production varying by an order of magnitude. Constraints on the bulk‐silicate Earth's (BSE) radiogenic power also places constraints on overall BSE composition. Geoneutrino detection is a direct me...
Article
Full-text available
Comparing compositional models of the terrestrial planets provides insights into physicochemical processes that produced planet-scale similarities and differences. The widely accepted compositional model for Mars assumes Mn and more refractory elements are in CI chondrite proportions in the planet, including Fe, Mg, and Si, which along with O make...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparing compositional models of the terrestrial planets provides insights into physicochemical processes that produced planet-scale similarities and differences. The widely accepted compositional model for Mars assumes Mn and more refractory elements are in CI chondrite proportions in the planet, including Fe, Mg, and Si, which along with O make...
Article
Full-text available
SNOLAB is one of the deepest underground laboratory in the world with an overburden of 2092 m. The SNO+ detector is designed to achieve several fundamental physics goals as a low-background experiment, particularly measuring the Earth’s geoneutrino flux. Here we evaluate the effect of the 2 km overburden on the predicted crustal geoneutrino signal...
Chapter
The Earth, a hybrid engine, is powered by two main sources of energy: residual primordial energy, evolved from accretion and core separation, and heat from radioactive decay. Radiogenic heat production in the Earth comes principally from ⁴⁰K, ²³²Th, ²³⁸U, and ²³⁵U (i.e., 99.5% in total) and a lesser amount from ⁸⁷Rb and ¹⁴⁷Sm (i.e., 0.5%). The Eart...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report the Earth's rate of radiogenic heat production and (anti)neutrino luminosity from geologically relevant short-lived radionuclides (SLR) and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) using decay constants from the geological community, updated nuclear physics parameters, and calculations of the beta spectra. We carefully account for all branches in K...
Preprint
Full-text available
Debate continues on the amount and distribution of radioactive heat producing elements (i.e., U, Th, and K) in the Earth, with estimates for mantle heat production varying by an order of magnitude. Constraints on the bulk-silicate Earth's (BSE) radiogenic power also places constraints on overall BSE composition. Geoneutrino detection is a direct me...
Article
The link between the Milton pallasite and the South Byron Trio irons is examined through metallography and metallogaphic cooling rates; major, minor, and trace element compositions of metal; inclusion mineralogy and mineral compositions; and oxygen isotopic compositions. The metallic hosts of these Ni-rich meteorites (18.2–20.3 wt% Ni) are dominate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chondrites are undifferentiated sediments of material left over from the earliest solar system and are widely considered as representatives of the unprocessed building blocks of the terrestrial planets. The chondrites, along with processed igneous meteorites, have been divided into two broad categories based upon their isotopic signatures; these ha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Models that envisage successful subduction channel transport of upper crustal materials below 300 km depth, past a critical phase transition in buoyant crustal lithologies, are capable of accumulating and assembling these materials into so-called "second continents" that are gravitationally stabilized at the base of the Transition Zone, at some 600...
Article
Full-text available
This report highlights two different types of cross-talk in the photodetectors of the miniTimeCube neutrino experiment. The miniTimeCube detector has 24 8 × 8-anode Photonis MCP-PMT Planacon XP85012, totalling 1536 individual pixels viewing the 2-liter cube of plastic scintillator.
Preprint
Full-text available
SNOLAB is one of the deepest underground laboratories in the world with an overburden of 2092 m. The SNO+ detector is designed to achieve several fundamental physics goals as a low-background experiment, particularly measuring the Earth's geoneutrino flux. Here we evaluate the effect of the 2 km overburden on the predicted crustal geoneutrino signa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Refractory lithophile element ratios of enstatite chondrite components are variable, suggesting chemical fractionations in a reduced nebula condition.
Article
Full-text available
Radioactive decay of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) power the Earth's engine, with variations in 232Th/238U recording planetary differentiation, atmospheric oxidation, and biologically mediated processes. We report several thousand $^{232}$Th/$^{238}$U ($\kappa$) and time-integrated Pb isotopic ($\kappa$$_{Pb}$) values and assess thei...
Article
Full-text available
Regional characterization of the continental crust has classically been performed through either geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or geophysical surveys. Rarely are these techniques fully integrated, due to limits of data coverage, quality, and/or incompatible datasets. We combine geologic observations, geochemical sampling, and geophysical...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new approach for evaluating existing crustal models using ambient noise datasets and its associated uncertainties. We use a transdimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion (THBI) approach to invert ambient noise surface wave phase dispersion maps for Love and Rayleigh waves using measurements obtained from Ekstrom (2014). Spatiospectr...
Article
Full-text available
The China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), which has the lowest cosmic-ray muon flux and the lowest reactor neutrino flux of any laboratory, is ideal to carry out low-energy neutrino experiments. With two detectors and a total fiducial mass of 2000 tons for solar neutrino physics (equivalently, 3000 tons for geo-neutrino and supernova neutrin...
Article
Full-text available
Lower crustal recycling depletes the continental crust of Eu and Sr and returns Eu and Sr enriched materials into the man- tle (e.g., Tang et al., 2015, Geology). To test the hypothesis that the MORB source mantle balances the Eu and Sr deficits in the continental crust, we carried out high precision Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* measurement for 72 MORB glasse...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Rare earth elements such as neodymium and samarium are ideal for probing the neutron environment that spent nuclear fuels are exposed to in nuclear reactors. The large number of stable isotopes can provide distinct isotopic signatures for differentiating the source material for nuclear forensic investigations. The rare-earth elements were isolated...
Article
Full-text available
The Earth's engine is driven by unknown proportions of primordial energy and heat produced in radioactive decay. Unfortunately, competing models of Earth's composition reveal an order of magnitude uncertainty in the amount of radiogenic power driving mantle dynamics. Recent measurements of the Earth's flux of geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos fr...
Chapter
Panamá Viejo, founded in 1519 by the Spanish explorer Pedrarias Dávila, was the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific Ocean, and became a city, by royal decree, in 1521. Shortly after its creation, the city became an important base for trade with Spain. In 1671, the English pirate Henry Morgan waged an attack on Panamá Viejo, which res...
Article
Full-text available
In the heart of the Creighton Mine near Sudbury (Canada), the SNO+ detector is foreseen to observe almost in equal proportion electron antineutrinos produced by U and Th in the Earth and by nuclear reactors. SNO+ will be the first long baseline experiment to measure a reactor signal dominated by CANDU cores (~55% of the total reactor signal), which...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic tomography models reveal two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that identify large-scale variations in temperature and composition in the deep mantle. Other characteristics include elevated density, elevated bulk sound speed, and sharp boundaries. We show that properties of LLSVPs can be explained by the presence of small quantiti...
Article
Lithium isotope and abundance data are reported for Apollo 15 and 17 mare basalts and the LaPaz low-Ti mare basalt meteorites, along with lithium isotope data for carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites, and chondrules from the Allende CV3 meteorite. Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have lower Li contents and lower δ7Li (3.8 ± 1.2‰; all uncer...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines the composition of the core and of the mantle and its domains, upper and lower, its physical and chemical attributes, and its evolution. It starts with fundamental definitions, particularly of what is the lower and upper mantle. Although a compositional model for the lower mantle that matches that of the upper mantle for major...
Article
The composition of the fine-grained matrix of glacial diamictites from the Mesoarchean, Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic, and Paleozoic, collected from four modern continents, reflect the secular evolution of the average composition of the upper continental crust (UCC). The effects of localized provenance are present in some cases, but distinctive...
Article
Full-text available
Jinping Neutrino Experiment (Jinping) is proposed to significantly improve measurements on solar neutrinos and geoneutrinos in China Jinping Laboratory - a lab with a number of unparalleled features, thickest overburden, lowest reactor neutrino background, etc., which identify it as the world-best low-energy neutrino laboratory. The proposed experi...
Article
Full-text available
We present the development of the miniTimeCube (mTC), a novel compact neutrinodetector. The mTC is a multipurpose detector, aiming to detect not only neutrinos but also fast/thermal neutrons. Potential applications include the counterproliferation of nuclear materials and the investigation of antineutrino short-baseline effects. The mTC is a plasti...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
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Constraints on the Earth’s composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrin...
Article
Full-text available
The flux of geoneutrinos at any point on the Earth is a function of the abundance and distribution of radioactive elements within our planet. This flux has been successfully detected by the 1-kt KamLAND and 0.3-kt Borexino detectors with these measurements being limited by their low statistics. The planned 20-kt JUNO detector will provide an exciti...
Article
Ion imaging of the condensate blanket around a laser ablation site provides a window to study elemental fractionation during condensation of a plasma plume. Here we used a Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) to conduct depth profiling of the condensate blanket produced by excimer 193 nm laser ablation of NIST 610 glass. Compos...
Article
Full-text available
Every second greater than 1025 antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics....
Article
Accurate understanding of the subsurface production of radionuclide $^{39}$Ar rate is necessary for argon dating techniques and noble gas geochemistry of the shallow and the deep Earth, and is also of interest to the WIMP dark matter experimental particle physics community. Our new calculations of subsurface production of neutrons, $^{21}$Ne, and $...