William Kunin

William Kunin
University of Leeds · Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology

About

189
Publications
69,643
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
15,165
Citations

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary analyses of insect population trends are based, for the most part, on a large body of heterogeneous and short‐term datasets of diurnal species that are representative of limited spatial domains. This makes monitoring changes in insect biomass and biodiversity difficult. What is needed is a method for monitoring that provides a consiste...
Article
Research into pollinators in managed landscapes has recently combined approaches of pollination ecology and landscape ecology, because key stressors are likely to interact across wide areas. While laboratory and field experiments are valuable for furthering understanding, studies are required to investigate the interacting drivers of pollinator hea...
Article
Agri-environment schemes are programmes where landholders enter into voluntary agreements (typically with governments) to manage agricultural land for environmental protection and nature conservation objectives. Previous work at local scale has shown that these features can provide additional floral and nesting resources to support wild pollinators...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity conservation faces a methodological conundrum: Biodiversity measurement often relies on species, most of which are rare at various scales, especially prone to extinction under global change, but also the most challenging to sample and model. Predicting the distribution change of rare species using conventional species distribution mode...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims – Agricultural intensification and loss of farmland heterogeneity have contributed to population declines of wild bees and other pollinators, which may have caused subsequent declines in insect-pollinated wild plants. Material and methods – Using data from 37 studies on 22 pollinator-dependent wild plant species across Europe, w...
Data
This is a two page infographic summary of the main paper aimed at policymakers and staff who simply don't have the time to readv the full paper. Please feel free to pass it around.
Article
Full-text available
1. Pollinators experience large spatio‐temporal fluctuations in resource availability when mass‐flowering crops are rotated with resource‐poor cereal crops. Yet, few studies have considered the effect this has on pollinator population stability, nor how this might be mitigated to maintain consistent crop pollination services. 2. We assess the poten...
Article
Full-text available
In a warming climate, species are expected to shift their geographical ranges to higher elevations and latitudes, and if interacting species shift at different rates, networks may be disrupted. To quantify the effects of ongoing climate change, repeating historical biodiversity surveys is necessary. In this study, we compare the distribution of a p...
Data
This annex contains the information from stakeholder consultation we used to arrive at our final scheme designs in the main paper.
Data
This annex is simply a list of the experts that we surveyed for the costs saved portion of the paper. They have all been sent a copy of the published paper.
Data
This is a two page infographic version of the paper itself, designed for non-acedemic readers. Please feel free to distribute widely
Data
This annex covers the responses to the exert questionnaire (Annex 5) - note that we did not use all the information we provided in this study because not all of it was readilly quantifiable.
Data
This annex covers the methodology used in the power analysis to determine the size of the network we used in the main paper itself.
Data
This annex covers the overlaps between the respones that the experts (annex 4) gave to the questionnaire (annex 5 and 6) and the site networks we proposed.
Data
This annex is the survey sent to experts (annex 4) for the "costs saved" portion of the paper. Reminder that experts only saw 3 of the 8 reserach questions each to avoid overloading them. The survey was done in word or excel depending on respondent preferences but if you want to replicate it, it can be made in Bristol Online Survey, Survey Monkey o...
Data
This annex covers the value of pollination services at a 100% loss of pollinators as opposed to the 30% loss that we use in the main paper.
Data
This annex covers a few additional assumptions that were made duirng the economic valuation of polination services. These were not practical to overcome at the time but we hope can be relaxed in the future should better data become available
Data
This annex covers the full costs of monitoring across all sites and years, buidling on the cost data from Annex 3 and the ower analysis in Annex 2 as well as the information in the main methods of the paper.
Data
This is a complete review of all the literature concerning pollinator dependence in UK crops. If you are looking to do any sort of study on these crops, please feel free to use this as a starting point/reference list. New work is badly needed on runner beans and linseed in particular. There is also information on the price data transformations and...
Data
This annex breaks down all the cost data we used in estimating the costs of the scheme (and the costs saved from having such a scheme). They are based on our typical suppliers in the UK so if you are based elsewhere, bear in mind that the UK is likely to be more expensive than many other countries so please either flag this up if you convert the fi...
Data
This annex covers the full mathematical proof of the consumer surplus model we used in the paper. Please note that it is different from the one used in Gallai et al., 2009.
Data
This annex covers the full cst benefit ratios of each monitoring scheme relative to the value of pollination services and the costs of reserach saved from having the scheme.
Data
This is a two page infographic version of the paper itself, designed for non-acedemic readers. Please feel free to distribute widely
Article
Full-text available
1. Resilient pollination services depend on sufficient abundance of pollinating insects over time. Currently, however, most knowledge about the status and trends of pollinators is based on changes in pollinator species richness and distribution only. 2. Systematic, long-term monitoring of pollinators is urgently needed to provide baseline informati...
Article
Full-text available
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of polli-nator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which pr...
Article
Full-text available
Remote sensing of vegetation provides important information for ecological applications and environmental assessments. The association between vegetation composition and structure with its spectral signal can most fully be assessed with hyperspectral data. Particularly field spectroscopy data can improve such understanding as the spectral data can...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and other sources of environmental eutrophication have increased substantially over the past century worldwide, notwithstanding the recent declining trends in Europe. Despite the recognized susceptibility of plants to eutrophication, few studies evaluated how impacts propagate to consumers, such as pollinators. Here...
Article
1.The status of pollinating insects is of international concern, but knowledge of the magnitude and extent of declines is limited by a lack of systematic monitoring. Standardised protocols are urgently needed, alongside a better understanding of how different methods and recorders (data collectors) influence estimates of pollinator abundance and di...
Article
Full-text available
Urban areas are often perceived to have lower biodiversity than the wider countryside, but a few small-scale studies suggest that some urban land uses can support substantial pollinator populations. We present a large-scale, well-replicated study of floral resources and pollinators in 360 sites incorporating all major land uses in four British citi...
Article
Urban expansion is threatening ecosystem service delivery, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where urbanisation rates are among the fastest globally. Greenspaces offer opportunities to prioritise ecosystem services for city residents. However, the success of greenspace conservation is more often driven by their acceptability to a range of stakeholde...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting plant growth and productivity. Many plants exhibit cold acclimation to prepare for the likelihood of freezing as temperatures decrease towards 0 °C. The physiological mechanisms associated with enabling increased tolerance to sub-zero temperatures vary between species an...
Article
Full-text available
The geographical area occupied by a species is a valuable measure for assessing its conservation status. Coarse-grained occupancy maps are available for many taxa, e.g., as atlases, but often at spatial resolutions too coarse for conservation use. However, mapping occupancy at fine spatial resolution across the entire extent of the species’ distrib...
Article
Full-text available
1.The area of occupancy (AOO) is a widely used index in conservation assessments, notably in criteria B2 of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red‐list. However, IUCN guidelines require assessing AOO at finer resolution than is generally available. For this reason extrapolation techniques have been proposed to predict finer A...
Article
Full-text available
The challenge of biodiversity upscaling, estimating the species richness of a large area from scattered local surveys within it, has attracted increasing interest in recent years, producing a wide range of competing approaches. Such methods, if successful, could have important applications to multi-scale biodiversity estimation and monitoring. Here...
Article
1) Ecological processes operating on large spatio-temporal scales are difficult to disentangle with traditional empirical approaches. Alternatively, researchers can take advantage of “natural” experiments, where experimental control is exercised by careful site selection. Recent advances in developing protocols for designing these “pseudo-experimen...
Article
Full-text available
The competitive exclusion principle is one of the most influential concepts in ecology. The classical formulation suggests a correlation between competitor species similarity and competition severity, leading to rapid competitive exclusion where species are very similar; yet neutral models show that identical species can persist in competition for...
Article
Land-use change is one of the primary drivers of species loss, yet little is known about its effect on other components of biodiversity that may be at risk. Here, we ask whether, and to what extent, landscape simplification, measured as the percentage of arable land in the landscape, disrupts the functional and phylogenetic association between prim...
Research
LWEC's policy and practice notes draw out conclusions and recommendations from research funded by LWEC members. They present key findings in non-technical language for public, private and third-sector audiences.This particular PPN is based on research done on the project "Linking Agriculture and Land-use change to insect pollinator communities" whi...
Article
Full-text available
1.This review assesses current knowledge about the interplay between landscape and pollinator communities. Our primary aim is to provide an evidence base, identify key gaps in knowledge and highlight initiatives that will help develop and improve strategies for pollinator conservation. 2.Human-dominated landscapes (such as arable land and urban en...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental stochasticity is known to be a destabilizing factor, increasing abundance fluctuations and extinction rates of populations. However, the stability of a community may benefit from the differential response of species to environmental variations due to the storage effect. This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive discussion of...
Article
Up-scaling species richness from local to continental scales is an unsolved problem of macroecology. Macroecologists hope that proper up-scaling can uncover the hidden rules that underlie spatial patterns in species richness, but a machinery to up-scale species richness also has a purely practical side at the scales and for the habitats where direc...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Pollen beetles (Nitidulidae, Meligethinae) are among the most abundant flower-visiting insects in Europe. While some species damage millions of hectares of crops annually, the biology of many species is little known. We assessed the utility of a 797 base pair fragment of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene to resolve Molecular Operational Taxon...
Article
Full-text available
Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many 'pollinator-friendly' seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided b...
Data
Effects of sampling effort, in terms of numbers of 1m2 quadrats sampled, on estimates of the mean and variance of meadow nectar sugar mass per day. Coloured plots show nine runs of sampling data from 40 randomised quadrats, sampled without replacement. (A) Inch Park A2 annual meadow, Edinburgh, on 29/08/2012 (n = 99 quadrats sampled, overall mean o...
Data
Seasonal patterns in nectar sugar mass/m2/day for each site in (a) Bristol, (b) Leeds, and (c) Reading. Point values shown are means, with 95% confidence intervals shaded. Low values for Victoria Park (perennial, Bristol) Tames Promenade (A1, Reading) and Portman Road west (A1 Reading) were associated with management problems, and these sites were...
Data
Seasonal patterns in pollen volume per m2/day for each site in (a) Bristol, (b) Leeds, and (c) Reading. Point values shown are means, with 95% confidence intervals shaded. Low values for Victoria Park (perennial, Bristol) Tames Promenade (A1, Reading) and Portman Road west (A1 Reading) were associated with management problems, and these sites were...
Data
Pollen and floral unit longevity quantification methods. (DOCX)
Data
Widely available pollinator seed mixes and their constituent plant species. A cross in the row for a plant species indicates presence in a given seed mix. The Count column at right shows the total number of mixes in which a given species is represented. The most commonly shared species include Centaurea cyanus, Leucanthemum vulgare (5 mixes), and C...
Data
The relationship between laboratory measures of pollen volume /floral unit and model-fitted values. The table below shows the coefficients for the best-fit model, in which the missing anther size category (large) corresponds to the intercept value. The plot shows the relationship between lab measured and modelled values for the test data (red) and...
Data
Comparison of species nectar sugar mass values per floral unit for different populations of the same species, generated using the same assay protocols by Edinburgh and by Baude et al. (2016) [57]. (a) Plot showing Edinburgh (x axis) and Baude et al (2016) (y axis) values for per-species nectar sugar mass, relative to a line with equation x = y. Err...
Data
Floral resources by species. Common names, resource levels/day, and floral longevities for the species in the annual and perennial seed mixes used in the study, and associated weeds. Total pollen volumes per flower (rather than volumes/day) and their errors are given in S3 Table. Species for which we did not estimate resources (given prioritisation...
Data
Effects of sampling effort, in terms of numbers of 1m2 quadrats sampled, on estimates of the mean and variance of meadow pollen volume per day. Coloured plots show nine runs of sampling data from 40 randomised quadrats, sampled without replacement. (A) Inch Park A2 annual meadow, Edinburgh, on 29/08/2012 (n = 99 quadrats sampled, overall mean 45.25...
Data
Statistical modelling of the relationship between time (number of days after planting) and mean floral unit density per quadrat for Edinburgh A1 meadows. (PDF)
Data
Nectar quantification methods. (DOCX)
Data
Univariate analysis outputs of mvabund, showing species contributing most significantly to variation in meadow composition (incorporating both presence absence and relative abundance of floral units across surveys). The species listed in each table comprise those with an individual p ≤ 0.05 or the set of species contributing cumulatively to 50% of...
Data
Meadow seeding and maintenance protocols. (DOCX)
Data
Sample site location information. Study site information for each of the four cities (Bristol, Edinburgh, Leeds and Reading). Site location information includes the location name (most often a park or school), street name location, and UK vice county (VC) name and number. The column ‘Block’ refers to the location of each site within 5 geographicall...
Data
Data used to model the relationship between floral morphology (anther size class, mean stamen number per floret or flower) and measured mean pollen volume per flower or floret. Data are provided on standard errors of mean measured values, and model fitted values (for model, see S3 Fig). We provide two measures of the mismatch between measured and m...
Article
There is considerable concern over declines in insect pollinator communities and potential impacts on the pollination of crops and wildflowers. Among the multiple pressures facing pollinators, decreasing floral resources due to habitat loss and degradation has been suggested as a key contributing factor. However, a lack of quantitative data has ham...
Research
Full-text available
Living With Environmental Change (LWEC). Policy and Practice Note No.20 – Insect Pollinators Initiative
Data
Appendix S1. β‐diversity metrics. Appendix S2. Evaluation of metrics. Appendix S3. Supplementary results.
Article
Full-text available
Change in land cover is thought to be one of the key drivers of pollinator declines, and yet there is a dearth of studies exploring the relationships between historical changes in land cover and shifts in pollinator communities. Here, we explore, for the first time, land cover changes in England over more than 80 years, and relate them to concurren...