William John Krause

William John Krause
University of Missouri | Mizzou · Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences

PhD

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240
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Publications

Publications (240)
Article
With 8 figures The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shap...
Article
With 13 figures The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins....
Article
With 7 figures Koala mandibular (submandibular) glands are compound tubuloacinar glands, the secretory units of which consist only of serous cells. Intercellular canaliculi occur between the serous cells, which are continuous with a minute lumen that courses through the centre of each secretory unit. Intercalated ducts are abundant and join striate...
Article
The echidna and platypus have a crural/femoral gland that is linked by a large duct to a canalized, keratinous spur located on the medial side of the ankle. The echidna crural gland, like the femoral gland of the platypus, exhibits cyclic activity, being prominent in both monotremes when they are sexually active. In the present study, we compared t...
Article
Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) is a highly efficient redox protein that neutralizes hydrogen peroxide, resulting in protection of cells from oxidative damage and in regulation of peroxide-mediated signal transduction events. The oxidized form of PRDX2 is reverted back to the reduced form by the thioredoxin system. In the present study, we investigated the...
Article
Full-text available
The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpos...
Article
Prostaglandins can protect the in vivo gastric mucosa against necrosis produced by a variety noxious agents. Cimetidine has also been shown to have protective properties in humans and in some models of experimental injury. Whether prostaglandins or cimetidine may protect gastric mucosal cells directly in the absence of systemic factors remains cont...
Article
The present study has demonstrated the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE) in the uterus of the North American opossum. Although the presence of GRP, nNOS and NSE has been reported recently in the uterus of eutherian species this is the first d...
Article
Mucins of the gastroduodenal junction are secreted by the mucous surface and mucus-producing glandular cells in the stomach, and by goblet cells and Brunner's glands in the duodenum. Developmental studies have demonstrated that Brunner's glands can arise from undifferentiated gastric epithelium and/or intestinal epithelium in the proximal duodenum....
Article
Redox control of cell physiology is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms in all living organisms. The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, has emerged as a key player in cellular redox-mediated reactions. For many years, only one thioredoxin system had been described in higher organisms, ubiquitously exp...
Article
Experiments were designed to detect and determine differences between nitrite/nitrate concentration ([NOx]) in plasma across 15 species selected from seven classes of vertebrates. Blood collected in syringes was placed immediately into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing tubes and was centrifuged. Plasma [NOx] was determined by measur...
Article
The guanylin family of cGMP-regulating peptides has three subclasses of peptides containing either three intramolecular disulfides found in bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins (ST), or two disulfides observed in guanylin and uroguanylin, or a single disulfide exemplified by lymphoguanylin. These small, heat-stable peptides bind to and activate cell-...
Article
Brunner's glands are unique to mammalian species and in eutherians are confined primarilyto the submucosa of the proximal duodenum. In the majority of species examined, they begin at the gastrointestinal junction and extend for variable distances distally in the wall of the proximal small intestine. Ducts of individual glands empty either directly...
Article
Guanylin, uroguanylin, and lymphoguanylin are small peptides that activate cell-surface guanylate cyclase receptors and influence cellular function via intracellular cGMP. Guanylins activate two receptors, GC-C and OK-GC, which are expressed in intestine and/or kidney. Elevation of cGMP in the intestine elicits an increase in electrolyte and water...
Article
Endometrial periglandular fibrosis (EPF) has been proposed as a possible aetiology for equine embryonic and fetal loss. However, the pathophysiology of EPF is not well understood. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is found in macrophages, endothelium (during angiogenesis) and myofibroblasts at sites of fibrosis in the heart, kidneys, liver and sk...
Article
Full-text available
Guanylate cyclases (GC) serve in two different signaling pathways involving cytosolic and membrane enzymes. Membrane GCs are receptors for guanylin and atriopeptin peptides, two families of cGMP-regulating peptides. Three subclasses of guanylin peptides contain one intramolecular disulfide (lymphoguanylin), two disulfides (guanylin and uroguanylin)...
Article
Full-text available
Uroguanylin, guanylin, and lymphoguanylin are small peptides that activate renal and intestinal receptor guanylate cyclases (GC). They are structurally similar to bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins (ST) that cause secretory diarrhea. Uroguanylin, guanylin, and ST elicit natriuresis, kaliuresis, and diuresis by direct actions on kidney GC receptors....
Article
Full-text available
Guanylin and uroguanylin are small peptides containing two disulfide bonds that activate membrane guanylate cyclase-receptors in the intestine, kidney and other epithelia. Hybridization assays with a uroguanylin complementary DNA (cDNA) detected uroguanylin-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the opossum spleen and testis, but these transcripts are larg...
Article
To develop an objective, quantifiable assay for endometrial periglandular fibrosis (EPF) and correlate assay results with histologic and ultrastructural changes in equine endometrial biopsy specimens. Endometrial biopsy specimens from 70 mares from 3 to 27 years old in estrus. In a double-blinded study design, endometrial biopsy specimens were grad...
Chapter
An epithelial lined vesicle results from Rathke’s pouch by the tenth day of gestation in Didelphis and lies in close association with the presumptive infundibulum of the diencephalon. At this stage of development, the newly formed multichambered pituitary vesicle is of uniform thickness. The epithelial wall of the pituitary vesicle consists of spin...
Chapter
The adult structure of the male opossum reproductive system has been described in detail (Cowper 1704; Leydig 1850; Disselhorst 1904; van den Brock 1910; de Burlet 1921; Chase 1939; Ladman 1967; Martan et al. 1967; Martan 1983). Although generally similar to most eutherian mammals, the reproductive system of Didelphis differs in several respects, a...
Chapter
The reproductive system of Didelphis (Fig. 16) consists of two ovaries, oviducts, uteri, cervices, a median vaginal apparatus (fused vaginal culs-de-sac), two lateral vaginal canals, a urogenital sinus and urogenital strand tissue (Tyson 1698; Blainville 1818; Meigs 1847; Pappenheim 1847; Nelson and Maxwell 1942; Morgan 1946a,b,c; Hartman 1952; Lie...
Chapter
During the last 3 days of prenatal life, development of the respiratory system proceeds at an astonishing rate. In this short period of time the head and face of Didelphis are established (Krause and Cutts 1986). Early in the tenth prenatal day maxillary and mandibular swellings are apparent in Didelphis, as are the olfactory placodes. With continu...
Chapter
Development of the pharyngeal pouches occurs during the middle of the 9th prenatal day in Didelphis and slightly proceeds the establishment of the pharyngeal floor (McCrady 1938). Development is extremely rapid but typically mammalian in nature and by the middle of the tenth prenatal day, the head is characterized by a frontal eminence, by maxillar...
Chapter
The pronephros of Didelphis initially appears early during the ninth prenatal day and reaches the peak of its development at about the middle of the tenth day of embryonic life. It lies between the seventh and tenth somites and consists of five to six solid epithelial tubules that are continuous, both with the coelomic epithelium and the mesonephri...
Book
1 Introduction.- 2 Gametes and Fertilization.- 2.1 Spermatozoa.- 2.2 Oocytes.- 2.3 Fertilization.- 3 Blastocyst Formation and Early Organogenesis.- 4 Fetal Membranes and Placentation.- 5 Parturition and Migration to the Pouch.- 6 General Postnatal Growth and Development.- 7 Integument.- 8 Musculoskeletal System.- 9 Cardiovascular System.- 9.1 Heart...
Article
Uroguanylin and guanylin are related peptides that activate common guanylate cyclase signaling molecules in the intestine and kidney. Uroguanylin was isolated from urine and duodenum but was not detected in extracts from the colon of rats. Guanylin was identified in extracts from small and large intestine but was not detected in urine. Uroguanylin...
Article
Guanylin and uroguanylin are peptides that stimulate membrane guanylate cyclases (GC) and regulate intestinal and renal function via cGMP. Complementary DNAs were isolated encoding opossum preproguanylin and a 279-amino acid portion of a receptor-guanylate cyclase expressed in opossum kidney (OK) cells (GC-OK). The tissue expression of messenger RN...
Article
Receptors for guanylin and uroguanylin were identified on the mucosal surface of enterocytes lining the intestine of the bobtail skink (Tiliqua rugosa), king's skink (Egernia kingii), and knight anole (Anolis equestris) by receptor autoradiography using 125I-ST (Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin) as the radioligand. Specific, high-affinity b...
Article
Guanylin and uroguanylin are peptides that activate receptor guanylate cyclases (GCs) and elicit increased intestinal secretion. Bacteria that cause traveler's diarrhea produce heat-stable toxins (STs) that mimic this action. Investigation of the distribution and identity of receptor GCs in the gastrointestinal tract of rats revealed that receptors...
Article
The 24-h pattern of body temperature of the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula, the northern brown bandicoot Isoodon macrourus, the South American opossum Didelphis marsupialis and the Virginian opossum Didelphis virginiana was determined with temperature transmitters (Titley Electronics, Ballina, NSW).Although all four species exhibited a circ...
Article
Uroguanylin and guanylin are intestinal peptides that activate a receptor-guanylate cyclase, which is also a receptor for Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa). These peptides may have a role in the body's regulation of fluid and electrolytes. STa, bioactive guanylin, and bioactive uroguanylin were evaluated for effects in: 1) the suckling...
Article
Guanylin and uroguanylin are newly discovered, related peptides that activate common guanylyl cyclase signaling molecules and via 3', 5'-guanosine cyclic monophosphate regulate the activity of a variety of tissues and organs. Additionally, the message for both peptides is expressed in a variety of tissues and organs, including the intestinal tract...
Article
Guanylin and uroguanylin are newly discovered, related peptides that activate common guanylyl cyclase signaling molecules and via 3’,5’-guanosine cyclic monophosphate regulate the activity of a variety of tissues and organs. Additionally, the message for both peptides is expressed in a variety of tissues and organs, including the intestinal tract a...
Article
Guanylin and uroguanylin are gut peptides that regulate intestinal and renal salt and water transport by activation of receptors that are membrane guanylate cyclases (GC). We previously identified guanylin-like peptides and receptor-GC activities in the intestine of mammals, birds and reptiles. To determine if this guanylin-GC signaling pathway app...
Article
Guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) are peptides that activate receptor-guanylate cyclases (GC), which influence salt and water transport in the intestine and kidney. We investigated the structure and activity of proGN and compared the tissue expression of GN with UGN mRNA in opossums. RT-PCR and RACE-PCR methods were used to clone a 688 bp cDNA en...
Article
Uroguanylin and guanylin are structurally related peptides that activate an intestinal form of membrane guanylate cyclase (GC-C). Guanylin was isolated from the intestine, but uroguanylin was isolated from urine, thus a tissue source for uroguanylin was sought. In these experiments, uroguanylin and guanylin were separated and purified independently...
Article
The composition of milk samples collected from captive opossums (Didelphis virginiana) was determined at various intervals during lactation. The milk solids increased from 9% at week one to a maximum of 34% at 11 weeks post-partum. There were changes in the relative proportions of protein, lipid and carbohydrate at different stages of lactation. Li...
Article
An intestinal factor responsible for the natriuresis elicited by oral salt has long been sought. A candidate pepn'de named uroguanylin was previously isolated from opossum urine and intestinal mucosa. We report here the molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding preprouroguanylin from an opossum colon cDNA library. Sequence analysis of the cDNA clone pred...
Article
Uroguanylin is a small peptide isolated from opossum urine that activates membrane guanylate cyclases. We report the isolation by molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding the 109 amino acid preprouroguanylin containing the active uroguanylin peptide at its C-terminus. Preprouroguanylin mRNAs of 1.2 kb were detected throughout the small and large intesti...
Article
Uroguanylin and guanylin are peptides isolated from urine and intestinal mucosa, which regulate cyclic GMP production in enterocytes by activating an apical membrane, receptor-guanylate cyclase. This study extended our previous findings, which showed that colonic mucosa of opossums contained uroguanylin and guanylin peptides, by purifying prourogua...
Article
Uroguanylin was isolated initially from opossum urine as 13 to 15 amino acid peptides that activate the transmembrane receptor-guanylate cyclases expressed in cultured T84 intestinal and opossum kidney (OK) cells. Cloning of an intestinal cDNA encoding the 109 residue preprouroguanylin provided the means to detect the expression of uroguanylin mRNA...
Article
Brunner's glands are located in the submucosa of the proximal duodenum and are unique to mammalian species. The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is generally regarded as a prototype marsupial that closely resembles fossil didelphids which can be placed at the beginning of mammalian evolution. The current investigation provided an oppor...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogenic strains of enteric bacteria secrete small heat-stable toxins (STs) that activate membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors found in the intestine. The intestinal peptide agonists, guanylin and uroguanylin, are structurally related to STs. Receptors for 125I-ST were found throughout the entire length of the intestinal tract of all the birds exa...
Article
Full-text available
General brain growth and differentiation of the neocortex have been studied in the marsupial, Didelphis virginiana from the 10.5 day embryo through adulthood. Didelphis is born after a short gestation period of about 12.5 days, at a time when the telencephalic wall consists only of two layers and is considered to be at an embryonic stage of develop...
Article
The human intestinal tract, as well as that of several eutherian and metatherian mammals, was examined for the distribution of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)/guanylin receptors. These receptors were confined to the intestinal epithelium lining the lumen and forming the intestinal glands throughout the length of both the small intestine and colon of a...
Article
Full-text available
The intestinal hormone guanylin and bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) are members of a peptide family that activates intestinal membrane guanylate cyclase. Two different peptides that activate the human intestinal T84 cell guanylate cyclase have been purified from urine and intestinal mucosa of opossums (Didelphis virginiana). The highly aci...
Article
Marsupials are unique models for developmental biology-oriented research because of the immature state of their development at birth. The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has several advantages over other marsupials, including large litter size, short prenatal period (12.5 d), an extended postnatal period while accessible in the pouch,...
Article
Light-microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of the ocular tissues of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) revealed that the arterial and venous segments of retinal vessels, including capillaries of the smallest calibre, occur in pairs. They do not form anastomotic networks, the common pattern in mammals with vascularised retinae, bu...
Article
Heat-stable enterotoxins activate guanylate cyclase, whereas heat-labile enterotoxins stimulate adenylate cyclase. Both classes of toxins cause secretory diarrhea at least in part by stimulating Cl- secretion in the intestine. The mechanism for regulation of Cl- secretion by guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) was investigated using culture...
Article
Relaxin-immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the cytoplasm in the luteal cells from pregnant and lactating opossums. Immunoreactivity for relaxin was not demonstrated elsewhere in the ovary, in the reproductive tract or in the placenta. The corpus luteum is thought to be the primary source of relaxin in Didelphis and in this regard is similar to se...
Article
The Harderian gland of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is large and well developed, despite the absence of a nictitating membrane in the adult of this species. The elongate glands are surrounded by a delicate connective tissue capsule from which thin septae extend, subdividing the gland into numerous lobules. The secretory units o...
Article
We studied the effect of either placebo, 16,16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (16,16-dimethyl-PGE2), or cimetidine on spontaneous degeneration of isolated rat gastric glands maintained in vitro in a basic oxygenated medium for 24 h. We assessed the viability of gland cells with fast green exclusion, measured release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into t...
Article
The nasal cavities of opossums prior to and shortly after birth were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Numerous morphologically mature olfactory receptor neurons are observed in the dorso-rostral-most extent of the olfactory epithelium positioned adjacent to the opening of the nares in all prenatal stages and newborn animals examined. The r...
Article
Corpora lutea from opossums late in pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry for the presence of oxytocin. Oxytocin-immunoreactivity was observed in all corpora lutea examined but not elsewhere in ovarian tissue. The immunoreactive staining observed was confined primarily to the perinuclear cytoplasm of reactive luteal cells. Not all luteal...
Chapter
The initial formation of the stomach occurs during the early part of the 10th prenatal day, when it appears as a distal expansion of the esophagus (McCrady 1938). The stomach rudiment continues to expand and, by the 12th prenatal day, is lined by a simple columnar epithelium surrounded by a delicate mesenchymal tissue without apparent subdivision....
Chapter
The endoderm of the 9-day opossum forms the innermost layer of the embryo and also lines the interior of the chorion (Krause and Cutts 1985b). At this stage, the embryo appears as a flattened disk and consists of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, Cell boundaries between individual endodermal cells are distinct, and microvilli on the apical surfaces...
Chapter
Various factors influence the differentiation, growth, and function of the glands associated with the gastrointestinal mucosa and also play an important role in regulating and maintaining the balance between epithelial cell proliferation and loss of cells from the gastrointestinal mucosa. Although the nature of the activities of such substances in...
Chapter
The first pharyngeal pouches appear during the middle of the 9th day of gestation, slightly preceding development of the pharyngeal floor (McCrady 1938). The pouches form a series of evaginations along the laternal walls of the pharyngeal portion of the developing foregut. Development of the pharyngeal pouches and their derivatives is extremely rap...
Chapter
During the middle of the 10th fetal day, the hepatic diverticulum arises from the foregut in the midventral line, at the level where omphalomesenteric veins empty into the sinus venosus. Early in the 11th day, that portion of the diverticulum that runs most craniad becomes the hepatic duct. Several solid cords of cells expand from this area, extend...
Chapter
The dorsal anlage of the pancreas evaginates from the presumptive duodenal region of the foregut late in the 10th day of gestation, slightly dorsal and caudal to the hepatic diverticulum. The connection between the dorsal anlage and the foregut disappears late in the 11th day, and an accessory pancreatic duct does not develop. Simultaneously, the v...
Chapter
The endoderm consists of a single layer of cuboidal cells that lines the flattened interior surface of the developing opossum embryo until about the middle of the 9th day of gestation (Krause and Cutts 1985b). Just after the formation of the branchial pouches and pharyngeal membranes at the end of the 9th day of gestation, the first trace of the fo...
Book
1 Introduction.- 1.1 Endoderm Formation.- 1.2 State of Visceral and Other Structures at Birth.- 1.3 The Scope of This Review.- 2 Oral Cavity.- 2.1 Prenatal Development.- 2.2 Postnatal Development.- 2.2.1 Tongue.- 2.2.2 Salivary Glands.- 2.2.3 Development of Dentition.- 2.3 Adult Teeth.- 2.4 Adult Tongue.- 2.5 Jaws and Associated Musculature.- 2.6 A...
Chapter
The opossum is an ideal animal model in which to study the formation and establishment of endoderm and its subsequent differentiation into fore-, mid- and hindgut structures. The marsupial model is not complicated by the formation of a morula or an inner cell mass as in eutherian species. Only a unilaminar sphere is formed, followed by development...
Article
It has long been assumed that the mucosa in areas of grossly 'healed' gastric or duodenal ulcers returns to normal, either spontaneously or after treatment. This assumption is based almost entirely upon visual, superficial examination by endoscopy. Few, if any, histological and ultrastructural studies examined the deeper mucosa in the areas of gros...
Article
The vestibular apparatus of the opossum was examined shortly before and immediately after birth. A band of about 20 sensory cells was observed within the forming utricle by 24 h prior to birth. Stereocilia projecting from the apices of the sensory cells appeared intimately associated with a well-defined population of overlying otoliths. These morph...
Article
Assessment of gastric ulcer healing is usually based on a visual examination (by endoscopy in patients, or the evaluation of ulcer size in experimental studies), and not on histologic and ultrastructural assessment of subepithelial mucosal healing. This approach has led to the assumption that the mucosa of grossly "healed" gastric and/or duodenal u...