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Tornadoes are one of the most frequently occurring natural hazards in the United States, yet historically they have been understudied in the engineering and social science literature. This first presents the findings from a quick response damage investigation following an EF4 tornado in northeastern Kansas. The nearly 52-km long tornado path damage...
Wood is one of our most sustainable materials. It requires less energy to harvest, mill, and deliver to the project location than steel, concrete, masonry, or other materials. Timber products sequester a significant amount of carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon released during harvest, manufacture, and transport. Timber structures have gen...
Seismic design of wood-frame single-family dwellings' (WFSFD) lateral force-resisting systems requires determination of the stiffness of horizontal diaphragms and shearwalls. During design, sizes and locations of shearwall openings are often changed, altering shearwall stiffness and loads and requiring a significant redesign effort. Rigid and tribu...
A four story, 22,200 m2 (239,000 ft2) wood light-framed assisted-living residential structure was examined for the causes of multiple alleged construction and design defects. The structure was framed using certain "advanced framing" techniques. Observed defects included uneven floors, window and door operation problems, misaligned I-joists and deta...
Ten full-size (3.7×4.9 m) plywood roof diaphragms were constructed using metal-plate-connected (MPC) common and hip wood trusses or joists, typical of single-family dwelling (SFD) construction. The specimens included three gable roof slopes of 33, 67, and 100%, a hip roof of 33% slope, and a flat roof, with a horizontal bottom chord. These roofs we...
There are about 80 million single-family dwellings (SFDs) in the United States, predominantly of wood-frame construction. Of these, 68% are owner-occupied. A home is typically the largest single investment of a family, and is often not covered by earthquake insurance, even where it is available. Of all the houses in America, 50% were built before 1...
The American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) LRFD Specification and Commentary (AISC) provisions for shear lag and tension member strength were established in 1993. This article examines the state of knowledge in this area and discusses sections of the 1993 AISC LRFD Specification and Commentary to aid in refining them and to recommend areas...
Many people are looking at the wind or seismic performance of wood structures, but most buildings are torn down without seismic and wind damage. We are looking at other factors that can influence the performance of these buildings. Examples include fabrication methods, specifications of materials and tolerances in fabrication. What can we do to improve buildings day to day?