William Ickes

William Ickes
University of Texas at Arlington | UTA · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

250
Publications
246,172
Reads
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10,932
Citations
Citations since 2016
34 Research Items
3746 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction
William Ickes is a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas at Arlington. He is a coeditor of the three-volume series New Directions in Attribution Research and the author of Everyday Mind Reading (2003) and Strangers in a Strange Lab (2009). His research on empathic accuracy has been recognized by three international research awards. His book Strangers in a Strange Lab received the 2012 Book Award from the International Association for Relationship Research.
Additional affiliations
June 1992 - December 1992
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Visiting Professor of Psychology
August 1981 - February 2016
University of Texas at Arlington
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1979 - May 1981
University of Missouri - St. Louis
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (250)
Data
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Despite societal pressure for change in traditional gender roles, the coevolution of genes and culture may still lead us to be attracted to potential mates whose appearance and behavior is stereotypically masculine or feminine. This attraction is ironic in light of a growing body of research evidence indicating that the relationships of men and wom...
Article
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In an online survey study (n = 275), several demographic and personality variables were used to predict scores on the Rudeness Scale, a new measure of the propensity to verbally abuse strangers. The results of multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant main effects. These effects revealed that the people in the authors’ sample wh...
Article
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Clinicians have identified the need for a measure of the strength of sense of self (e.g., Gunderson, 198431. Gunderson , J. G. 1984. Borderline personality disorder, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. View all references). This article reports on the development and initial validation of such a measure—the Sense of Self Scale (SOSS). Thre...
Article
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The authors used the unstructured dyadic interaction paradigm to examine the effects of gender and the Big Five personality traits on dyad members' behaviors and perceptions in 87 initial, unstructured interactions. Most of the significant Big Five effects (84%) were associated with the traits of Extraversion and Agreeableness. There were several s...
Article
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Unlabelled: The aim of this study was to broadly investigate the role of relationship-, self-, and partner-serving motivation in empathic accuracy in couples' conflict interactions. To this end, a laboratory study was set up in which couples (n = 172) participated in a conflict interaction task, followed immediately by a video-review task during w...
Article
In two studies, we tested the associations between self-concept clarity and romantic-partner-focused emotional intelligence, using self-report measures of both constructs. In Study 1, in the data from two online samples (ns = 205 and 217), we found evidence of a curvilinear relationship between self-concept clarity and romantic-partner-focused emot...
Article
The current research examined how intimate partners’ affect is related, on a moment-to-moment basis, to their level of empathic accuracy during conflict interactions. To this end, we analyzed data from two laboratory-based studies (n = 155 and n = 172 couples) in which couples participated in a conflict interaction task, followed immediately by a v...
Article
Most of the existing evidence regarding the adverse effect of poor parenting on the development of Dark Triad traits comes from Western industrialized samples. In the present study, we replicate and extend these findings using a Muslim (i.e., non-WEIRD) sample. Our findings mirrored those of previous studies by revealing that Dark Triad traits were...
Article
Researchers have examined overt social-behavioral manifestations of Dark Triad traits, while mostly ignoring the similarities in the covert self-concept of these individuals. Across two independent samples, we investigated aspects of an unstable self-concept in relation to the Dark Triad traits. In Study 1 (N = 298), we found that higher levels of...
Chapter
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Perspective-taking, understanding, empathy, knowing the other, and mentalizing are core processes within human communication. Decades of clinical and social psychological research point to the cardinal role of having some accurate awareness of the inner feelings, thoughts, ideas, and intentions of the other people in our lives. The current chapter...
Article
This meta-analysis examined the relationship between two power-of-influence concepts: Machiavellianism and locus of control. A comprehensive literature search identified 41 relevant research articles (51 effect sizes). These 41 studies were published between 1969 and 2018, comprising 8338 participants. The combined effect sizes from these studies r...
Article
The effects of framing on risky decision-making have been studied extensively in research using Kahneman and Tversky's (1981) hypothetical scenario about a contagious Asian disease. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique opportunity to test how message framing affects risky decision-making when millions of real lives are at stake worldwide. In a sam...
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Many couple therapies focus on enhancing the disclosure of thoughts and feelings, and on an accurate understanding of these. But does the expression of thoughts and feelings lead to better empathic accuracy, as is generally assumed? In this study, we explicitly tested a dynamic expression-leading-to-accuracy account of empathic accuracy in intimate...
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Egocentrism, which has traditionally been studied within a developmental cognitive perspective, has been somewhat overlooked in the personality literature. Accordingly, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop a scale to assess individual levels of egocentrism as a personality trait that continues to influence behavior into the adult...
Article
In this study, we replicated and expanded on previous work on the associations between the Dark Triad and ideal romantic partner preferences using an underrepresented sample from Iran (N = 195). First, we explored the role of the Dark Triad traits in how individuals evaluate the moral values of their ideal romantic partner, as measured by a modifie...
Article
Language style matching (LSM) refers to similarity in function word use between two people during a conversation. Previous research has shown that LSM predicts romantic relationship stability, but it remains unknown why LSM is associated with stability. Across five studies from five different labs, we aimed to identify links between LSM and two rel...
Article
Several studies have examined the role of self-esteem in self-disclosure while overlooking a potentially important confounding variable: self-concept clarity. Across three studies, we found an association between self-concept clarity and self-disclosure to one’s romantic partner. This incremental effect held even when the variance attributable to s...
Article
Empathic accuracy research indicates that partners achieve only moderate success at reading each other's thoughts. The current study identifies specific patterns of online thought that contribute to empathic inaccuracy during conflict interactions. Married/cohabiting partners completed a conflict interaction and reported their own thoughts during v...
Article
The development of latent semantic similarity (LSS; the extent to which interaction partners use words in the same way) was investigated in the initial computer-mediated interactions of 120 same-sex dyads in Study 1 and 111 same-sex dyads in Study 2. The significant effects in Study 2 replicated those obtained in Study 1. In both studies, the femal...
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This study tested implications of the context switching perspective proposed by Hamby, Ickes, and Babcock (2016 Hamby, T., Ickes, W., & Babcock, M. (2016). Evidence for context switching in the effects of average item length and item-length variability on internal consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 491–502. doi:10.1080/00223891.201...
Article
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Research suggests that the development of close, opposite-sex friendships is frequently impeded by men’s often one-sided sexual attraction to women. But what if this element were removed? The current research tested the hypothesis that women engage in more comfortable and intimate interactions with a gay (but not a straight) man immediately after d...
Article
Although research has begun to elucidate why women form close friendships with homosexual males, little research has investigated individual differences in women's tendency to befriend gay men. Because (1) gay men do not have the motive to mate with women or to compete with them for straight male partners and (2) attractive women are more likely to...
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Despite the widespread use of high-heeled footwear in both developing and modernized societies, we lack an understanding of this behavioral phenomenon at both proximate and distal levels of explanation. The current manuscript advances and tests a novel, evolutionarily anchored hypothesis for why women wear high heels, and provides convergent suppor...
Chapter
The unstructured dyadic interaction paradigm (UDIP) measures empathic accuracy as the extent to which a perceiver accurately infers a target person's thoughts or feelings from a video recording of their spontaneous interaction together. To measure empathic accuracy using this paradigm, an experimenter escorts two participants into an observation ro...
Chapter
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The standard stimulus paradigm measures empathic accuracy as the extent to which different perceivers accurately infer the thoughts and feelings of the same target person(s) from a “standard stimulus” video of the target person(s)’ interaction with another person. The video recording used as the standard stimulus is made by compiling excerpts of in...
Article
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Empathic accuracy (EA; Ickes & Hodges, 2013) is the extent to which people accurately perceive their peers' thoughts, feelings, and other inner mental states. EA has particularly interested researchers in the context of romantic couples. Reviews of the literature suggest a possible link between romantic partners' EA and their relationship satisfact...
Article
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Previous findings indicate that heterosexual women experience a greater sense of comfort and trust in their friendships with gay men than in their friendships with heterosexual individuals. In the present studies, we tested a hypothesis that not only explains why women exhibit increased trust in gay men but also yields novel predictions about when...
Book
This is the Japanese language edition of The Social Neuroscience of Empathy (Jean Decety and William Ickes, editors).
Article
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We investigated how same-sex strangers develop latent semantic similarity (LSS)—that is, how they come to use words in the same way—in their initial interactions. In a previous study, Babcock, Ta, and Ickes found evidence suggesting that dyad members’ talking, looking, and acknowledging are important behaviors for the development of dyad-level LSS....
Article
This investigation examined the effects of 3 item characteristics-the average number of words per item, within-scale variability in item length, and item "direction"-on internal consistency reliability and interitem correlation. In Study 1, we examined the effects of these variables on overall scale-level reliability using 444 subscales from 9 pers...
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The present study examined how support providers’ empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interac...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to behaviorally validate the Rudeness Scale (RS), a self-report measure of the propensity to verbally abuse strangers, using both a retrospective design (Study 1) and a prospective design (Study 2). Design/methodology/approach – In Study 1, participants (n=280) completed an online survey that contained the RS...
Article
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The study reported in this research note sought to extend the research on motivated empathic accuracy by exploring whether intimate partners who are highly motivated to induce change in their partner during conflicts will be more empathically accurate than partners who are less motivated. In a laboratory experiment, the partners’ within 26 cohabiti...
Chapter
Full-text available
real people in their everyday lives deliberately choose to enter some situations and to avoid others / review a rapidly growing body of data which suggests that these choices are determined, at least in part, by the degree to which people perceive certain situations as either "fitting" or failing to "fit" such aspects of their own personalities as...
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After providing a brief overview of the current version of the dyadic interaction paradigm, we continue with a detailed description of its methodological features. We then consider how the recent addition of the thought-feeling assessment procedures has extended the paradigm's capabilities beyond the study of naturalistic social behavior to the stu...
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establishing the social interaction lab / measuring static and dynamic behaviors / coding the static and dynamic behaviors / using the laboratory software (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using meta-analytic data, we investigated three attributes of personality scales – their readability, the average number of words per item, and whether adjectives or statements were used – to determine the effects that these qualities have on scale reliability (Cronbach’s a). From a large pool of studies examined in three prior meta-analyses, we ex...
Chapter
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Key issues in the study of empathic accuracy (accuracy in inferring the specific content of other people’s thoughts and feelings) are explored through the answers to 10 questions. These questions concern (1) how empathic accuracy is measured and studied; (2) how accurate perceivers are, relative to chance and across different types of relationships...
Data
NOTE: SCROLL DOWN TO SEE THIS DOWNLOAD. This chapter examines the implications of the author's 1981 theory of sex-role influences in dyadic interaction for heterosexual relationships, with a particular emphasis on longer-term relationships such as marriage and cohabitation. This examination leads the author to expand the scope of the theory and mod...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this research is to (1) to identify personality variables that reliably predict verbal rudeness ( i.e by replicating previous findings) and (2) to investigate what personality variables predict more general ugly confrontational behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – In Study 1, the authors used an online survey to collec...
Data
The social orientations of men and women have long been regarded as characteristically different. Men, according to the common stereotype, have a relatively instrumental view of social interaction. They engage in interaction in order to pursue ideas, exchange information, realize their projects, or influence others. Women, on the other hand, are as...
Article
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For over four decades, clinical psychologists have claimed that individuals with a weak sense of self have highly malleable self-images, even temporarily taking on aspects of the personalities of interaction partners who have a stronger sense of self. The present Study 1 provided the first empirical test of this claim. In same-sex stranger dyads th...
Article
Full-text available
For over four decades, clinical psychologists have claimed that individuals with a weak sense of self have highly malleable self-images, even temporarily taking on aspects of the personalities of interaction partners who have a stronger sense of self. The present Study 1 provided the first empirical test of this claim. In same-sex stranger dyads th...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we examined two indices of semantic similarity (i.e., latent semantic similarity [LSS], language style matching [LSM]) to determine their respective roles in initial, unstructured dyadic interactions. Transcripts of the dyad members’ conversations were used to compute the LSS and LSM indices, which were then correlated with va...
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This is a song parody I wrote several years ago to satirize some of the worst abuses that are perpetrated by anonymous reviewers.
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Using a sample of 363 participants, we tested whether differences in the use of linguistic categories in written self-introductions at the start of the semester predicted final course performance at the end of the semester. The results supported this possibility: Course performance could indeed be predicted by relative word usage in particular ling...
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This is a draft copy of Chapter 7 from the author's book, Strangers in a Strange Lab (Oxford University Press, 2009). It provides a reader-friendly overview of the author's theory of gender role influences (i.e., sex role influences) on initial, dyadic interactions and summarizes the findings of the studies that are relevant to the theory.
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This is a draft copy of Chapter 3 from the author's book Strangers in a Strange Lab (Oxford University Press, 2009). It examines how the dyad's gender composition influences behavior and perceptions in initial, unstructured dyadic interactions. Contrary to earlier writers who tended to put a negative spin on men's behavior in these interactions, th...
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In his response to our article, Baumeister argued that in real data, the confound between interitem variance and trait extremity is small (typically m the range of .00 and -.20), and that the danger of artifact associated with the application of median splits to interitem variance is not as serious as our first simulation study would lead one to be...
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Personality moderating variables act to qualify the relationship between a personality trait measure and a relevant behavioral criterion. Two data analytic techniques that can be used to test for significant moderating effects are the "median split" (MS) approach and the "moderated multiple regression" (MMR) approach. The goals of the present resea...
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This is a draft version of Chapter 7 from the author's book Strangers in a Strange Lab (Prometheus Books, 2003). It provides a user-friendly summary of his theory of sex-role influences on dyadic interactions and reviews much of the research relevant to this theory.
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This is a draft copy of Chapter 4 of the author's book Everyday Mind Reading (Prometheus Books, 2003). It provides both a personal and a scientific account of how the author and his colleagues came to develop a research method for measuring empathic accuracy. It also reviews the specific steps involved in this method and sets the stage for the find...
Data
This is a draft copy of Chapter 8 from my book Strangers in a Strange Lab. In a series of "flash forwards," it provides a brief history of the development of the Big Five model of personality and then reports the findings from the extensive laboratory-observational study that Ronen Cuperman and I conducted to examine the effects of the Big Five dim...
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This review examines the phenomenon of hate crimes in the United States. Findings derived from the FBI data for the period 1996–2008 revealed that the incidence of anti-racial hate crimes varied among different racial groups, that antireligious hate crimes were committed toward Jews and Muslims more than toward others, and that antisexual orientati...
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This study used scores on the Sense of Self Scale (SOSS) to test Marcia's (1966) claim that the achieved identity status is associated with a stronger sense of self than are the three “less mature” identity statuses (diffused, foreclosed, and moratorium). The respondents were 290 undergraduates (74 males, 214 females) who participated in an online...
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Previous studies of the influence of family support on college students’ academic performance have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the link between family support and students’ university-level academic performance in a more detailed way. First, we sought to clarify how two distinct aspects of perceived f...
Article
The current studies tested how attachment orientations are related to empathic accuracy (i.e., the accuracy with which one infers a partner's private thoughts and feelings) during attachment-relevant discussions. In Study 1, married couples were videotaped discussing a severe or a less severe relationship issue that involved intimacy or jealousy. I...
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The present study addressed the question of why people find it easy to distinguish their thoughts from their feelings. In three datasets, we compared the linguistic content of self-reported thoughts and feelings by using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software. Theoretical ideas proposed by Klinger led us to predict—and find—that thoughts, w...
Book
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Findings from the past two decades of interpersonal sensitivity research presented a big surprise to the researchers who were working in this area. These findings, at first suggestive and then unmistakably clear, showed that scores on various interpersonal sensitivity measures were not as stable as scores on other measures of cognitive ability (for...