William W. Hay

William W. Hay
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Department of Geological Sciences

PhD

About

562
Publications
94,438
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Introduction
William W. Hay is retired from the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder and works at home. He continues to do research in Geology, Climatology and Oceanography. His current project is 'Climate Change' discussed in depth in his book 'Experimenting on a Small Planet.'
Additional affiliations
June 1988 - July 2002
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1983 - June 1998
University of Colorado Boulder
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Currently Professor Emeritus
September 1968 - June 1982
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Scences
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Also served as Dean 1976-1980.
Education
September 1953 - June 1954
Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich (Junior year In Munich -Wayne State University)
Field of study
  • Geology
September 1951 - June 1955
Southern Methodist University
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (562)
Book
Full-text available
A pictorial history of or planet, where it came from and where it is headed. This is a low-resolution copy. For the high resolution version and hard book versions go to https://impacts.to
Article
As an important terrestrial carbon reservoir, peatland has the potential to influence the global carbon cycle and global climate. In recent decades, the frequency and extent of peatland wildfires in boreal and tropical regions are increasing owing to climate change and human activity. However, the processes that govern changes in peatland wildfire...
Presentation
Full-text available
This revision corrects several spelling errors an add a new slide to the version uploaded on March 6.
Presentation
Provides a more thorough background on ocean structure and circulation, and the role of the ocean in defining global warming and in storing heat as Earth's climate warms.
Presentation
Shows changes in the oceans over the past 50 or so years, and explains how the oceans store heat providing a base for global warming that is very difficult to reverse.
Data
General biographical information
Article
Full-text available
The nature of the warm climates of the Cretaceous has been enigmatic since the first numerical climate models were run in the late 1970’s. Quantitative simulations of the paleoclimate have consistently failed to agree with information from plant and animal fossils and climate sensitive sediments. The ‘cold continental interior paradox’ (first descr...
Presentation
Full-text available
Discussion of the general aspects of modern and Cretaceous atmospheric and ocean circulation with special attention to apparently stable eddies in the Cretaceous ocean and the role of vapor in modifying warm Earth climtes.
Presentation
Full-text available
This brings the information in the book up to date and addresses some important misunderstandings. It also presents a comparison of earlier and 20th-21st century rates of change.
Presentation
Discussion of the role of tectonics i affecting climate.
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Meeresgeologie/Marine Geowissenschaften in Kiel entwickelten sich als ein neuer Forschungszweig etwa 15 Jahre nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Sie entstanden in einer kritischen Zeit, nämlich vor der Entdeckung des »Sea floor Spreading« und der Plattentektonik, als die marine Geophysik noch in ihren Kinderschuhen steckte, sowie...
Presentation
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These sides should be added in ESP PPT 32 after slide 109 (or anywhere else you might deem appropriate).
Presentation
Full-text available
Discussion of controversy over Cretaceous climates versus fossil proxies, climate change, paleotopography, and climate models that incude water on land.,
Presentation
Full-text available
Discussion of the presently developing extreme sea-ice conditions in the northern and southern polar regions and their implications for studies of paleoclimate change.
Presentation
Full-text available
Discusses the nature of chalk, the cold continental interior paradox, the Grebenka flora problem, revision of Cretaceous paleotopography, aquatic dinosaurs, water on land, and climate simulations as an initial solution to the problems.
Presentation
Full-text available
Resolving the problem of the Cold Continental Interior Paradox and Water on Land. Attempts to understand the Earth’s warm climate states of the Mesozoic have never been wholly satisfactory. However, new data and ideas are changing our view of environmental conditions that prevailed then. We now recognize that the Mesozoic was the interval of geolog...
Article
Full-text available
New data and ideas are changing our view of conditions during the Cretaceous. Paleotopography of the continents was lower than originally thought, eliminating the ‘cold continental interior paradox’ of fossils of plants that could not tolerate freezing occurring in regions indicated by climate models to be well below freezing in winter. The controv...
Presentation
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Presented at Geological Society of America Annual Meeting 2016 Denver Sept.24, 2016
Presentation
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Flyer on how to use the book and powerpoints for teaching.
Presentation
Full-text available
DESCRIPTION: This PPT combines the two previously available PPTs: PowerPoint for Experimenting on a Small Planet II - 32-1 - Global and Regional Climate Change - Part 1 and PowerPoint for Experimenting on a Small Planet II - 32-2 - Global and Regional Climate Change - Part 2 into a single large file. These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Presentation
Full-text available
These PPTs are tied to the second edition of my book Experimenting on a Small Planet: A history of scientific discoveries, a future of climate change and global warming published by Springer in 2016. They are intended for College/University lectures, to be shown at an average rate of 2-3 per minute. Each chapter and section is noted, making it easi...
Chapter
Full-text available
More than half a century ago, Roger Revelle and Hans Suess, both scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, published what has become the classic paper on the possible future effects of human activities resulting in increasing the content of carbon dioxide (CO 2), a " greenhouse " gas, in the atmosphere. Their 19...
Chapter
1 Introduction 1.1 Leningrad—1982 1.2 ‘Global Warming’ or ‘Global Weirding’ 1.3 My Background 1.4 What Is Science? 1.5 The Observational Sciences 1.6 The Complexity of Nature 1.7 Summary Virtually all of our knowledge of the Earth’s past history comes from observations, and interpretation of those observations changes as we develop better understan...
Book
Full-text available
This book is a thorough introduction to climate science and global change. The author is a geologist who has spent much of his life investigating the climate of Earth from a time when it was warm and dinosaurs roamed the land, to today's changing climate. Bill Hay takes you on a journey to understand how the climate system works. He explores how hu...
Chapter
2 The Language of Science 2.1 Numbers and Symbols 2.2 Arithmetic, Algebra, and Calculus 2.3 Orders of Magnitude and Exponents 2.4 Logarithms 2.5 Logarithms and Scales with Bases Other than 10 2.6 Earthquake Scales 2.7 The Beaufort Wind Force Scale 2.8 Extending the Beaufort Scale to Cyclonic Storms 2.9 Calendars and Time 2.10 Summary Mathematics is...
Chapter
3 Applying Mathematics to Problems 3.1 Measures and Weights 3.2 The Nautical Mile 3.3 The Metric System 3.4 Temperature 3.5 Precisely Defining Some Words You Already Know 3.6 Locating Things 3.7 Latitude and Longitude 3.8 Map Projections 3.9 Trigonometry 3.10 Circles and Angular Velocity 3.11 Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces 3.12 Exponential Grow...
Chapter
4 Geologic Time 4.1 Age of the Earth—4004 BCE, or Older? 4.2 The Discovery of the Depths of Time—Eternity 4.3 Geologic Time Punctuated by Revolutions 4.4 Catastrophism Replaced by Imperceptibly Slow Gradual Change 4.5 The Development of the Geological Time Scale 4.6 The Discovery of the Ice Age 4.7 The Discovery of Past Warm Polar Regions 4.8 Throw...
Chapter
5 Putting Numbers on Geologic Ages 5.1 1788—An Abyss of Time of Unknown Dimensions 5.2 1863—Physics Comes to the Rescue—Earth Is not More Than 100 Million Years Old 5.3 What We Now Know About Heat from Earth’s Interior 5.4 Some Helpful Background In Understanding 19th Century Chemistry 5.5 Atomic Weight, Atomic Mass, Isotopes, Relative Atomic Mass,...
Chapter
6 Documenting Past Climate Change 6.1 What Is ‘Climate’? 6.2 A Brief Overview of Earth’s Climate History 6.3 The Cenozoic Climate ‘Deterioration’ 6.4 From Ages to Process Rates 6.5 Radiometric Age Dating in the Mid-20th Century 6.6 Potassium—Argon Dating 6.7 Reversals of Earth’s Magnetic Field 6.8 Fission Track Dating 6.9 Astronomical Dating 6.10 T...
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7 The Nature of Energy Received from the Sun—The Analogies with Water Waves and Sound 7.1 Water Waves 7.2 Special Water Waves—Tides and Tsunamis 7.3 Wave Energy, Refraction and Reflection 7.4 Sound Waves 7.5 Sound Waves and Music 7.6 Measuring the Speed of Sound in Air 7.7 Measuring the Speed of Sound in Water 7.8 The Practical Use of Sound in Wate...
Chapter
8 The Nature of Energy Received from the Sun—Figuring Out What Light Really Is 8.1 Early Ideas About Light 8.2 Refraction of Light 8.3 Measuring the Speed of Light 8.4 The Discovery of Double Refraction or ‘Birefringence’ 8.5 Investigating the Dispersion of Light 8.6 Figuring Out the Wavelengths of Different Colors of Light 8.7 Diffraction 8.8 Pola...
Chapter
10 The Origins of Climate Science—The Idea of Energy Balance 10.1 What Is Heat? 10.2 Thermodynamics 10.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics 10.4 The Discovery of Greenhouse Gases 10.5 Kirchhoff’s ‘Black Body’ 10.6 Stefan’s Fourth Power Law 10.7 Black Body Radiation 10.8 Summary The nature of heat was a puzzle. Antoine Lavoisier, the father of modern chemis...
Chapter
9 Exploring the Electromagnetic Spectrum 9.1 Spectra and Spectral Lines 9.2 The Discovery of Helium—First in the Sun, then on Earth 9.3 The Discovery That Spectral Lines Are Mathematically Related 9.4 Heinrich Hertz’s Confirmation of Maxwell’s Ideas 9.5 Marconi Makes the Electromagnetic Spectrum a Tool for Civilization 9.6 Human Use of the Electrom...
Chapter
11 The Climate System 11.1 An Introduction to the Climate System 11.2 Insolation—The Incoming Energy from the Sun 11.3 Albedo—The Reflection of Incoming Energy Back into Space 11.4 Reradiation—How the Earth Radiates Energy Back into Space 11.5 The Chaotic Nature of the Weather 11.6 The Earthly Components of the Climate System: Air, Earth, Ice, and...
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12 What’s at the Bottom of Alice’s Rabbit Hole 12.1 Max Planck and the Solution to the Black Body Problem 12.2 The Photoelectric Effect 12.3 The Bohr Atom 12.4 Implications of the Bohr Model for the Periodic Table of the Elements 12.5 The Zeeman Effect 12.6 Trying to Make Sense of the Periodic Table 12.7 The Second Quantum Revolution 12.8 The Disco...
Chapter
13 Energy From the Sun—Long-term Variations 13.1 The Faint Young Sun Paradox 13.2 The Energy Flux from the Sun 13.3 The Orbital Cycles 13.4 The Rise and Fall of the Orbital Theory of Climate Change 13.5 The Resurrection of the Orbital Theory 13.6 Correcting the Age Scale; Filling in the Details to Prove the Theory 13.7 The Discovery that Milankovit...
Chapter
14 Solar Variability and Cosmic Rays 14.1 Solar Variability 14.2 The Solar Wind 14.3 Solar Storms and Space Weather 14.4 The Solar Neutrino Problem 14.5 The Ultraviolet Radiation 14.6 Cosmic Rays 14.7 A Digression into the World of Particle Physics 14.8 How Cosmic Rays Interact with Earth’s Atmosphere 14.9 Carbon-14 14.10 Beryllium-10 14.11 Cosmic...
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15 Albedo 15.1 Albedo of Planet Earth 15.2 Clouds 15.3 Could Cloudiness Be a Global Thermostat? 15.4 Volcanic Ash and Climate Change 15.5 Aerosols 15.6 Albedo During the Last Glacial Maximum 15.7 Changing the Planetary Albedo to Counteract Greenhouse Warming 15.8 Summary Albedo is the reflectivity of the planet. The Earth’s present albedo is about...
Chapter
16 Air 16.1 The Nature of Air 16.2 The Velocity of Air Molecules 16.3 Other Molecular Motions 16.4 The Other Major Component of Air—Photons 16.5 Ionization 16.6 The Scattering of Light 16.7 Absorption of the Infrared Wavelengths 16.8 Other Components of Air: Subatomic Particles 16.9 Summary
Chapter
17 HOH—The Keystone of Earth’s Climate 17.1 Some History 17.2 Why Is HOH so Strange? 17.3 The Hydrologic Cycle 17.4 Vapor 17.5 Pure Water 17.6 Natural Water 17.7 Water—Density and Specific Volume 17.8 Water—Surface Tension 17.9 Ice 17.10 Earth’s Ice 17.11 How Ice Forms from Fresh Water and from Seawater 17.12 Snow and Ice on Land 17.13 Ice Cores 17...
Chapter
18 The Atmosphere 18.1 Atmospheric Pressure 18.2 The Structure of the Atmosphere 18.3 The Troposphere 18.4 The Stratosphere 18.5 The Mesosphere 18.6 The Thermosphere 18.7 The Exosphere 18.8 The Magnetosphere 18.9 The Ionosphere 18.10 The Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect 18.11 The Distribution of Gases in the Atmosphere 18.12 The Overall Effect of the...
Chapter
19 Oxygen and Ozone—Products and Protectors of Life 19.1 Diatomic Oxygen—O2—‘Oxygen’ 19.2 Triatomic Oxygen—O3—Ozone 19.3 The Oxygen-Ozone-Ultraviolet Connection 19.4 The Oxygen-Ozone-Ultraviolet Conundrum 19.5 The Human Interference with Ozone 19.6 Ozone—The Greenhouse Gas 19.7 Summary Diatonic oxygen (O2) and triatomic oxygen (O3, ozone) are very...
Chapter
20 Water Vapor—The Major Greenhouse Gas 20.1 The Behavior of Dry Air 20.2 The Behavior of Wet Air 20.3 What Controls Atmospheric Water Vapor? 20.4 Anthropogenic Effects 20.5 The Changing Area of Exposed Water Surface 20.6 Summary Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas. Its content in the atmosphere depends on water availability and temperature.
Chapter
21 Carbon Dioxide 21.1 Carbon Dioxide as a Greenhouse Gas 21.2 The Carbon Cycle 21.3 The Very Long-Term Carbon Cycle 21.4 Carbon Dioxide During the Phanerozoic 21.5 Rethinking the Role of CO2 in Climate Change 21.6 The Ice Core Record of the Last Half Million Years 21.7 The Industrial Era Increase in Atmospheric CO2 21.8 The Short Term Sinks for At...
Chapter
22 Other Greenhouse gases 22.1 Methane—CH4 22.2 The History of Methane in Earth’s Atmosphere 22.3 Methane Clathrates 22.4 Methane Trapped in Permafrost 22.5 Nitrous Oxide—N2O 22.6 Other Greenhouse gases 22.7 Summary One greenhouse gas, ozone, is important and beneficial in both protecting the surface of the planet from ultraviolet radiation and in...
Chapter
23 The Coriolis Effect 23.1 The Sun Does not Orbit the Earth, but Earth Rotates 1543–1651 23.2 Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton 1674–1686 23.3 Explaining the Trade Winds–Halley and Hadley’s Ideas 1686–1735 23.4 Back to Proving that Earth Rotates 1791–1831 23.5 The Ideas of Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis 1829–1835 23.6 The Foucault Pendulum 1851 23.7 The...
Chapter
24 The Circulation of Earth’s Atmosphere 24.1 Why the Earth’s Atmosphere and Oceans Circulate 24.2 The Geographically Uneven Radiation Balance 24.3 The ‘Modern’ Atmospheric Circulation 24.4 The Indian and Southeast Asian Monsoons 24.5 Cyclonic Storms 24.6 Tornados 24.7 Summary The circulation of the atmosphere and ocean try to adjust the regional a...
Chapter
25 The Circulation of Earth’s Oceans 25.1 The Modern Ocean’s General Circulation 25.2 The Global Ocean’s Great Conveyor 25.3 Upwelling of Waters from the Ocean’s Interior to the Surface 25.4 El Niño—La Niña, the Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation 25.5 Kelvin Waves 25.6 A New Hypothesis: Very Different Atmospheric and Ocean Circ...
Chapter
26 The Biological Interactions 26.1 Life on Land 26.2 C3 and C4 Plants 26.3 Response of Land Plants to Higher Levels of CO2 26.4 Response of Land-Based Life to Climate Change 26.5 Response of Land Life to Future Climate Change 26.6 Life in the Ocean and Seas 26.7 Life in the Open Ocean 26.8 Life Along Coasts and in Shallow Seas 26.9 Marine Life and...
Chapter
27 Sea Level 27.1 What Is Sea Level? 27.2 Why Does Sea-Level Change Differently in Different Places? 27.3 Changing the Volume of Water in the Ocean 27.4 Changing the Mass of H2O in the Ocean 27.5 Changes in Groundwater Reservoirs 27.6 Conversion of Ice to Ocean Water 27.7 Storage in Lakes 27.8 Effect of Changing the Salinity of the Ocean 27.9 Effec...
Chapter
28 Global Climate Change—The Geologically Immediate Past 28.1 The Climate Changes During the Last Deglaciation 28.2 The Sudden Changes Recorded in Ice Cores: Dansgaard-Oeschger Events 28.3 The Record of Massive Iceberg Discharges in North Atlantic Deep-Sea and Greenland Ice Cores: The Heinrich Events 28.4 What Did the Deglaciation Look like Outside...
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29 Is There an Analog for the Future Climate? 29.1 The Eemian, the Last Interglacial 29.2 Sea Level During Older Interglacials 29.3 Arctic Sea-Ice During Interglacials 29.4 The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum 29.5 Summary This summary can be quite short. The older interglacials do not tell us much about what the future may be like.
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30 The Instrumental Temperature Record 30.1 The Development of the Thermometer 30.2 Keeping Records 30.3 The 20th Century Pattern of Temperature Change 30.4 Some Examples of Local Temperature Records 30.5 Regional Temperature Compilations for the United States 30.6 Larger Regional and Global Compilations 30.7 Summary Crude devices to measure temper...
Chapter
31 The Future 31.1 Predictions of the Future—Models 31.2 What Is Expected in the 21st Century—Human Population 31.3 Environmental Variability and Tipping Points\ 31.4 The Anthropogenic Factors Causing the Earth’s Climate and Environment to Change 31.5 The Reports of the Club of Rome 31.6 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—The ‘Official’...
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32 Global and Regional Aspects of Climate Change 32.1 The Long Term View 32.2 Milankovitch Insolation 32.3 The Decline in Arctic Summer Sea Ice 32.4 Feedbacks in the Arctic 32.5 Arctic Permafrost 32.6 The Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest 32.7 The Polar Ice Sheets 32.8 The Greenland Ice Sheet 32.9 The Antarctic Ice Sheets 32.10 Temperature 32.11 Sea...
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Book
This book is a thorough introduction to climate science and global change. The author is a geologist who has spent much of his life investigating the climate of Earth from a time when it was warm and dinosaurs roamed the land, to today's changing climate. Bill Hay takes you on a journey to understand how the climate system works. He explores how hu...
Presentation
Full-text available
Discussion of Mesozoic plate tectonics as guiding the evolution of life and climate.
Presentation
Full-text available
Discussion of the state of Cretaceous paleoclimatology, taking into account new ideas and information.

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