William C Gruber

William C Gruber
Pfizer · Vaccines Research Unit

About

189
Publications
35,008
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22,365
Citations
Citations since 2017
72 Research Items
18692 Citations
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Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Background: The emergence of immune-escape variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 warrants the use of sequence-adapted vaccines to provide protection against coronavirus disease 2019. Methods: In an ongoing phase 3 trial, adults older than 55 years who had previously received three 30-μg doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were ra...
Article
What is this summary about? This is a summary of an article about part of a clinical study for the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, also called the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. The article was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 2021. This summary describes how the vaccine worked in participants 12- to 15-years old. The part of the study...
Article
What is this summary about? This is a summary of an article about part of a clinical study for the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, also called the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. The article was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in September 2021. The part of the study described in the article began in July 2020 and is ongoing. This means that t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The BNT162b2 bivalent BA.4/5 COVID-19 vaccine has been authorized to mitigate COVID-19 due to current Omicron and potentially future variants. New sublineages of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron continue to emerge and have acquired additional mutations, particularly in the spike protein, that may lead to improved viral fitness and immune evasion. The present stu...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this post hoc analysis was to describe the immunogenicity of the 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV20) in adults with chronic medical conditions or smoking that place them at increased risk of developing pneumococcal disease. Data from 2 phase 3, randomized, active-controlled, double-blind studies in pneumococcal vaccine-naive...
Article
Background: Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of illness and death in older adults, no RSV vaccine has been licensed. Methods: In a phase 2a study, we randomly assigned healthy adults (18 to 50 years of age), in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a single intramuscular injection of either bivalent prefusion F (RSVpreF)...
Article
Full-text available
Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of disease in older adults. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a stabilized RSV prefusion F subunit (RSVpreF) vaccine candidate with/without adjuvant in adults 65 − 85 years. Methods Primary Cohort participants were equally randomized to 1 of 7 RSVpreF formulations: 60 µ...
Article
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of illness and death in infants worldwide, could be prevented by vaccination during pregnancy. The efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in pregnant women and their infants are uncertain. Methods: In a phase 2b trial, we rand...
Article
Background: Active immunization with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) has been a critical mitigation tool against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In light of reports of waning protection occurring 6 months after the primary two-dose vaccine series...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly reduced pneumococcal disease, but disease from non-PCV serotypes remains. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a 20-valent PCV (PCV20) were evaluated. Methods: This pivotal phase 3, randomized, double-blind study enrolled adults into 3 age groups (≥60, 50-59, 18-49 year...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in older adults and adults with comorbidities. An effective vaccine is needed. An investigational bivalent prefusion F vaccine (RSVpreF) was assessed in healthy adults. Methods: This phase 1/2 study randomized adults 18-85 years old to receive placebo or 60,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Protection against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains an unmet need potentially addressable by maternal immunization. This phase 1/2 study evaluated a bivalent prefusion F vaccine (RSVpreF) with antigens from RSV subgroups A and B. Methods: Adults 18-49 years old (N=618) were randomized to receive placebo or 60, 120, or...
Article
Full-text available
We report interim safety and immunogenicity findings from an ongoing phase 1/2 study of BNT162b2 in healthy Japanese adults. Participants were randomized 3:1 to receive 2 intramuscular injections of 30 μg BNT162b2 or placebo 21 days apart. Overall, 160 individuals were randomized: 119 received BNT162b2, and 41 received placebo. Participants were st...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Individuals with an underlying malignancy have high risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes. In clinical trials, COVID-19 vaccines were safe and efficacious against infection, hospitalization, and death, but most trials excluded participants with cancer. We report results from participants with a history of past or active neoplasm (malignant or...
Article
Background Safe, effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in children younger than 12 years of age. Methods A phase 1, dose-finding study and an ongoing phase 2–3 randomized trial are being conducted to investigate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine administered 2...
Article
Introduction A 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV20, was developed to expand protection against vaccine-preventable pneumococcal disease. PCV20 contains the components of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13, and includes capsular polysaccharide conjugates for 7 additional serotypes. Thus, PCV20 may cover those additional...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in infants is an unmet vaccine need, and maternal immunization is a potential strategy to address this need. This study evaluated concomitant administration of RSV stabilized prefusion F subunit vaccine (RSVpreF) and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertuss...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The development and widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) substantially reduced the global burden of pneumococcal disease. Expanding the serotypes covered by PCVs may further reduce disease burden. A 20-valent PCV (PCV20) has been developed to add coverage for 7 additional serotypes (8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F and 33...
Article
At present, the dramatic rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among important human bacterial pathogens is reaching a state of global crisis threatening a return to the pre-antibiotic era. AMR, already a significant burden on public health and economies, is anticipated to grow even more severe in the coming decades. Several licensed vaccines, tar...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine encoding a prefusion-stabilized, membrane-anchored severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) full-length spike protein. BNT162b2 is highly efficacious against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and is currently approved, conditionally approve...
Article
Background Two phase 1/phase 2 studies assessed 2 formulations of investigational bivalent Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile vaccine (QS-21 adjuvanted toxoid and toxoid-alone) in healthy adults 50–85 years of age. Methods The QS-21 adjuvanted toxoid vaccine study randomized subjects 3:1 to 100 μg QS-21–containing C difficile vaccine or placeb...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine encoding a prefusion-stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. BNT162b2 is highly efficacious against COVID-19 and is currently authorized for emergency use or conditional approval worldwide. At the time of authorization, data beyond 2...
Article
Introduction Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), including the 13-valent PCV (PCV13), has considerably reduced pneumococcal disease burden. However, additional serotypes not in PCV13 continue to present a substantial disease burden. The 20-valent PCV (PCV20) was developed to expand protection against pneumococcal disease beyond...
Article
Background Until very recently, vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had not been authorized for emergency use in persons younger than 16 years of age. Safe, effective vaccines are needed to protect this population, facilitate in-person learning and socialization, and contribute to herd immunity. Methods In...
Article
Full-text available
Pneumococcal disease can be serious and debilitating in older adults. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), such as the 13-valent PCV (PCV13), reduce pneumococcal disease rates caused by vaccine serotypes. Development of PCVs offering additional coverage against serotypes not contained in PCV13 can reduce disease burden further. The complementary...
Article
Full-text available
Expanding serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to target prevailing disease-causing serotypes could further reduce disease burden. To address this need, 2 different PCVs have been investigated: a 20-valent PCV (PCV20; includes the 13 serotypes in the 13-valent PCV [PCV13] plus 7 additional serotypes [8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03098-3.
Chapter
The introduction of new classes of antibiotics, and the high use of antimicrobials in healthcare, agriculture, and the food industry, have all contributed to accelerate the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial species and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains worldwide. At present, the dramatic rise in AMR am...
Article
Full-text available
Background A 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV20) is being developed to extend protection against pneumococcal disease beyond that of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13). This is the first safety and immunogenicity study of PCV20 in healthy infants. Methods This randomized, double-blind study enrolled and randomized (1:1) health...
Article
Full-text available
Background While widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has reduced disease burden, expanding serotype coverage remains an unmet need in disease prevention. The 20-valent PCV (PCV20) contains capsular polysaccharide conjugates from serotypes included in the 13-valent PCV (PCV13; Prevnar 13®) as well as 7 additional serotypes. In a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Two formulations of investigational bivalent Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile vaccine (QS-21 adjuvanted toxoid and toxoid-alone) were assessed for safety and immunogenicity in randomized studies in healthy adults 50–85 years of age. Methods The Phase 1 study of QS-21 adjuvanted toxoid vaccine randomized subjects 3:1 to 100 μg QS-2...
Article
Full-text available
Background Because of the number and variability of serotypes causing pneumococcal disease among different geographic regions, age groups, and environmental backgrounds, expanding serotype coverage with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is a continued unmet need. Methods This phase 1, randomized, double-blind study included healthy Japanese a...
Article
Full-text available
Background PCV20 contains the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) components, and 7 additional conjugates (for serotypes 8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F, and 33F), extending pneumococcal serotype coverage. Key data from the pivotal Phase 3 evaluation of PCV20 in adults are presented. Methods Adults naïve to pneumococcal vaccination were en...
Article
Full-text available
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccines are needed urgently. Methods Download a PDF of the Research Summary. In an ongoing multinational, placebo-controlled,...
Article
Full-text available
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)¹. With rapidly accumulating cases and deaths reported globally², a vaccine is urgently needed. We report the available safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity data from a...
Article
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), have spread to millions of persons worldwide. Multiple vaccine candidates are under development, but no vaccine is currently available. Interim safety and immunogenicity data about the vaccine candidate...
Article
Background: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of invasive disease in young infants. Infants born to women with sufficient pre-existing anti-GBS capsular IgG antibodies are at reduced risk of GBS disease, making maternal immunisation a potential strategy for prevention. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a novel hexavale...
Preprint
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS−CoV−2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID−19), have spread to millions of people globally. Multiple vaccine candidates are under development, but no vaccine is currently available. Methods: Healthy adults 18−55 and 65−85 years of age were randomized...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly decreased pneumococcal disease worldwide; however, expanding serotype coverage may further reduce disease burden. A 20-valent PCV (PCV20) containing capsular polysaccharide conjugates of serotypes present in the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) and 7 new serotypes (8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 2...
Preprint
In March 2020, the WHO declared a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With >8.8 million cases and >450,000 deaths reported globally, a vaccine is urgently needed. We report the available safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity data from an ongoing placebo-controlled,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced 7-valent PCV (PCV7) for protection against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). This study used laboratory surveillance data to examine the effect of PCV13 on IPD before and after PCV13 introduction among children aged 6 weeks to <6 years and those aged ≥6 weeks. M...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) elicit lower immune response against serotypes carried before or at the time of vaccination (hyporesponsiveness) in infants. The limited studies conducted to date did not permit comprehensive insights regarding this phenomenon. This study, the largest ever conducted with both carriage and serologi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clostridium difficile causes toxin-mediated nosocomial diarrhea and community-acquired infections; no preventive vaccine is licensed. In this phase 2 study, we explored safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity in older US adults of an investigational bivalent C. difficile vaccine that contains equal dosages of genetically and chemicall...
Article
Full-text available
Background Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes serious healthcare- and community-associated disease, requiring improved preventive measures such as vaccines. The investigational S. aureus 4-antigen vaccine (SA4Ag), comprising capsular polysaccharide serotypes 5 and 8 (CP5 and CP8) conjugated to CRM197, recombinant mutant clumping factor A (rmC...
Article
Background: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed in China based on immunologic noninferiority to 7-valent PCV (PCV7). As part of the noninferiority study, immunogenicity and safety of PCV13 administered as a 3- or 2-dose infant series followed by a toddler dose were examined in healthy Chinese infants. Methods: Infants (...
Article
Full-text available
Background In the United States, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory-related hospitalization in infants. The well-studied efficacy of the prophylactic monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, at preventing RSV disease in the highest risk infants provides proof of mechanism that serum neutralizing antibody protects against...
Article
Full-text available
Background The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion glycoprotein (F) is a molecule that fuses the viral and host cell membranes during virus entry as it rearranges from a meta-stable prefusion to a stable postfusion conformation. Using structure-guided design, Pfizer engineered a prefusion RSV F subunit vaccine antigen with stable and well-char...
Article
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Objectives: Assess Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization in healthy Australian adults receiving an investigational S. aureus 3-antigen vaccine (SA3Ag). Methods: In this phase 1, double-blind, sponsor-unblinded study, participants were randomized to receive a single dose (1 of 3 dose levels) of SA3Ag or placebo and a booster dose or plac...
Article
Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacteremia, bacterial pneumonia, and meningitis, and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in those under 2 years of age and those over 65 years of age. While significant progress against S. pneumoniae-related disease has been made as a result of the introduc...
Article
Full-text available
Background Serotype-specific vaccine efficacy (VE) against adult community acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains poorly defined, yet such data are important for assessing the utility of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs. Methods We evaluated the Community Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults to assess serotype-specific VE f...
Article
Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major global cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Despite potentially severe or fatal complications and frequent recurrence, no preventive vaccine is currently available. This randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 study in older Japanese adults evaluated safe...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed ≥ 1 year by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for immunocompetent adults ≥ 65 years of age in the United States. This study assessed antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) geometric mean titers (GMTs) to PCV13 in PPSV23-n...
Article
Full-text available
Immune responses to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) in older adults may vary with coadministration and previous pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination. This study assessed safety and noninferiority of immune responses to coadministered PCV13 and QIV compared with each vaccine gi...
Article
Full-text available
A novel Staphylococcus aureus 4-antigen vaccine (SA4Ag) is under development, comprising capsular polysaccharide serotypes 5 and 8 (CP5 and CP8) conjugated to CRM197, recombinant protein clumping factor A (rmClfA), and recombinant manganese transporter protein C (MntC). We evaluated SA4Ag safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity in Japanese adults...
Chapter
We review the clinical journey of glyconjugate vaccines from their inception in the 1980s to contemporary vaccines and their positive public health impact. We focus on novel and ground breaking clinical trials, particularly those leading to marketing approvals for new categories of vaccines. Glyconjugate vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides h...
Article
Background: With wide use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) for protection against acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes included in the vaccine, efficacy testing for the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) was not feasible. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of PCV13 in preventing acute otitis media cause...
Article
Full-text available
Injection site reactions (ISRs; redness, swelling and pain) commonly occur within 1–2 days after vaccination. After administration of toxoid vaccines including diphtheria toxoid, a later onset of ISRs has also been observed. As the serotype capsular polysaccharides in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are conjugated to cross-reac...
Article
Full-text available
Routine prophylactic vaccination and mass vaccination strategies have been used to control both endemic and epidemic disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis globally. This review discusses real-world examples of these vaccination strategies, their implementation, and outcomes of these efforts, with the overall goal of providing insights on how to...
Article
Background: Individuals with certain chronic medical conditions are at higher risk of developing pneumonia and pneumococcal disease than those without. Using data from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), this post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adult...
Article
Background: The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage with pneumococci and other bacteria in adults is unknown. The direct effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in community dwelling older adults was investigated as part of the randomized controlled Community Acquired Pn...
Article
Background: The magnitude of an individual's serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been associated with the vaccine's protective efficacy against carriage of pneumococci of that serotype, though the relationship with other serotypes needs to be understood. Methods: Using immunogenicity da...
Article
Background: In the randomized controlled Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against first episodes of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia in adults aged ≥65 years was 46%. The long-term immunogenicity of PCV13 in pneumococcal vaccine-naive o...
Article
In an open-label study in India, 200 healthy participants aged 6-17 years received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). PCV13 elicited robust functional antibody immune responses. No adverse events were reported by caregivers at the 1-month follow-up visit. The immunogenicity results together with the known favorable risk-benefit profi...
Article
Objective: Prophylactic antipyretic use during pediatric vaccination is common. This study assessed whether paracetamol or ibuprofen prophylaxis interfere with immune responses to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) given concomitantly with the combined DTaP/HBV/IPV/Hib vaccine. Methods: Subjects received prophylactic paracetamo...
Article
Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development...
Article
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections. No preventive vaccine is currently licensed. SA4Ag is an investigational 4-antigen S. aureus vaccine, composed of capsular polysaccharide conjugates of serotypes 5 and 8 (CP5 and CP8), recombinant surface protein clumping factor A (rmClfA), and recombinant ma...
Article
Background: In addition to reducing vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage rates, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may decrease carriage density in vaccinated individuals still carrying vaccine serotypes. However, reduction of carriage density has not been systematically studied. This study compared the effect of PCV13 versus PCV7 on carriage...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Community Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) was conducted to evaluate 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for the prevention of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia (VT-CAP) and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) in adults aged ⩾65 years. Plotting the cumulative number of epi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A prophylactic Staphylococcus aureus four-antigen vaccine (SA4Ag) is under development for prevention of invasive S. aureus disease. A preliminary S. aureus three-antigen vaccine (SA3Ag) was reformulated to include a novel manganese transporter protein (MntC or rP305A). This study describes the first-in-human dose-finding, safety, and...